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H I S T E Y 

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Containing a brief History of the State of Ohio, from its earliest settlement to the present time, embrac- 
ing its topography, geological, piiysical and cUmatic features ; its agricultural, stock-growing, 
railroad interests, etc. ; a History of Delaware Cmnty, giving an account of its 
aboriginal inhabitamts , early settlement by the whites , pioneer incidents , 
its growth, its improvements, organization of the county, its 
judicial and politicdl history, its business and indus- 
tries, churche^fschools, etc,; Biographical 

Sketches ; Portraits of some of ^ 

the Early Settlers and i 
Prominent Men, 
etc.. etc. 



iS6 Dearborn Street. 
* i88o. 


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Entered, according to Act ol Congress, in tlie year 1880, by 

O. L. BASKIN & CO., 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 




118 AND 120 Monroe Steegt. 


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lURING- the past six months we have been engaged in compiling the History of 
Delaware County, and on theSe pages our historians, W. H. Perrin and J. H. Battle, 
have traced the tedious journey of the pioneer from homes of comfoii; and refinement 
to the untouched wilds of the West ; we have noted the rising cabins, the clearing of the for- 
ests, the prilrations of the early settlements, the heroic fortitude with which the pioneer sur- 
mounted these obstacles, and thejpatient toil that has " made the wilderness to blossom like 
the rose ; " we have marked thei coming of the schoolmaster,' and that greater teacher, the 
preacher ; the rise of the schoolhouse and church, and their influence in molding societj". 
This work we have undertaken in the belief that there is a proper demand that the events 
which relate to the early times should find a permanent record, and with what fidelity to facts, 
and with what patience of research, we have accomplished the task, we shall leave to the judgment 
of our patrons, in whose keeping the traditions of that day remain, and for whom the work 
was undertaken. The scope and necessity of this enterprise have, in some respects, entailed 
less satisfactory duties upon the historians than fall to the lot of writers of more pretentious 
works, and yet the work has been one of pleasure. We have availed ourselves of such histor- 
ical manuscripts as were found, but our chief resource for information has been the traditions 
which have been handed down from one generation to another. These we have generally been 
able to verify from other sources, but, in some not essential particulars, we have been obliged 
to depend upon tradition alone, and may thus have sanctioned some errors. These, we trusty 
will be found of trifling importance, and we ground our hope of the favorable judgment oP 
the public upon the essential correctness and completeness of this volume as a history of Del- 
aware County. 

Before laying down the pen we desire to thank the citizens everywhere in the county who 
have so cordially aided us in gathering the materials for this volume, and to acknowledge our 
indebtedness to the gentlemen who have been associated with us in the various parts of the 
work ; to Prof W. G. Williams, of the Ohio Wesleyan University, Judge T. W. Powell, Hon. 
J. R. HuBBELLj Rev. B. W. Chidlaw, George W. Campbell, Esq., Dr. S. W. Powlee, Mr. 
H. L. S. Vaile, and others whose names appear in the body of the work. 

June, 1880.' PUBLISHERS. 

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CHAPTEB I. — Introductory, Topography, Geology, Primitive 
Races, Antiquities, Indian Tribes 11 

CHAPTER II.— ExplorationB in the West 19 

C HAPTER III.— EBeliBh Explorations, Traders, French and 

Indian War in the West, English Possession « 37 

CHAPTER IT.— Ponliac's Conspiracy, Its Failure, Bouquet's 
Expedition, Occupation by the English 48 

CHAPTER V. — American Exploration, Dunmore's War, Gajn- 
paign of George Rogers Clarke, Land Troubles, Spain in 
the Revolution, Murder of the Moravian Indians 52 

CHAPTER TI.^American Occupation, Indian Claims, Early 
Land Companies, Compact of 1787, Crganization of the 
Territory, Early American Settlements in the Ohio Valley, 
First Territorial Officers, Organization of Counties 60 

CHAPTER TIL- Indian War of 1795, Harmar's Campaign, 
, St. Clair*s Campaign^ Wayne's Campaign, Close of tihe 

War '... 73 

CHAPTER VIII,— Jay's Treaty, The Question of State Rights 
and National Supremacy, Extension of Ohio Settlements, 
Land Claims, Spanish Boundary Question 79 

CHAPTER IX.— First Territorial Representatives in Congress, 
Division of the Territory, Formation of States, Marietta 
Settlement, Other Settlements, Settlements in the Western 
Reserve, Settlement of the Central Valleys, Further Set- 
tlements In the Reserve and elsewhere 85 

CHAPTER X.— Formation of the State Government, Ohio a 
State, The State Capitals, Legislation, The "Sweeping" 
Resolntions... 121 

CHAPTER XL— The War of 1812, Growth of the State, Canal, 
Railroads and Other Improvements, Development of 
of State Resources 12^" 

CHAPTER XII.— Mexican War, Continued Growth of the ' 

State, War of the Rebellion, Ohio's Part in the Conflict..... 132 
C HAPTER XIII.— Ohio in the Centennial, Address of Edward 
D. Mansfield, LL. D., Philadelphia, August 9, 1876 138 

CHAPTER XIV.— Education, Early School Laws, Notes, Insti- 
tutions and Educational Journals, School System, School 
Funds, Colleges and Universities. 148 

CHAPTER XV.— Agriculture, Area of the State, Early Agri- 
culture in the West, Markets, Live Stock, Nurseries, Fruits, 
Etc.; Cereals, Root and Cucurbitaceous Crops, Agricultural 
Implements, Agricultural Societies, Pomological and Hor- 
ticultural Societies 151 

CHAPTER XVI.— Climatology, Outline, Variation in Ohio, 
Estimate in Degrees, Amount of Variability 163 




CHAPTER I.— Introduction, Physical Geography of the County, 
Railroad Elevation, Soil and Timber, Cuyahoga Shale and 
Sandstone, The Drift, Berea Grit, Huron Shale, Calcareous 
Concretions, etc 165 

CHAPTER II.— Eariieet History, Prehistoric Races, Their An- 
tiquity, Relics, Fortifications; The Delawares, Indian 
Treaties, Withdrawal of the Indians, Pioneer Settlements, 
The Carpenter, Byxbe and Pugh Colonies, Other Settle- 
ments 180 

CHAPTER III.— Life in the Wilderness, Pioneer Incidents, 
Early Improvements, Modern* Innovations, Building of 
Towns and Villages, Old Settlers' Association 197 

CHAPTER IV.— Organization of the County, The Courts, For- 
mation of Townships, Political Parties and Their Effect, 
Vote of the County from 1861 to 1879, Care of the Poor 206 

CHAPTER v.— The Professions, Pioneer Lawyers and the 
Courts, The Bar of the Present, Medical, Some of the 
Early Systems, Old Practitioners, Modern Doctors, The 
Medical Society 219 

CHAPTER VI.— Eariy Church History, Pioneer, Preachers, 

First Schools, Statistics, Academies and Seminaries, The j^. 

University, Reform School, Watering Places, The News-yf' ' "r 
papers , 239 

CHAPTER VII.— Railroad History, The First Railroads in jj|g 
the World, Railroads in the United States, IntemaMm- ^^ 
provements in Ohio, Her First Railroad, The Railroads of 
the County, Projected Railroads." 252 

CHAPTER VIII.— Agriculture, Societies, Advancements in 
Geoponicp, Care of Animals, Tiling, Fruit and Forest Cult- 
ure, Meteorological 259 

CHAPTER 3X.— War History, The Revolution, Pioneers of, 
1812, Mexican Struggle, Tha County's Part in the Late 
War, Great Men 277 

CHAPTER X.— Delaware Township, Introduction, Stratford, 
Settlement, Founding of the City, The War Period, Growth 
• of Business, Society, The Byxbe Family 310 

■ CHAPTER XL— Delaware City, Extensions, Population, Fi- 
nance, Internal Improvements, Cily Organisation, Fire 
Department, Newspapers, Cemeteries 331 

CHAPTER XII.— Delaware City, Educational, High SchocSs 
and Seminaiies, The Wesleyan, Biographical, Female Col- 
lege, Commercial Schools 362 

CHAPTER XIIT.— Delaware City, The Churches, Advance of 
Religion, The Presbyterian, Other Churches, Freemasonry," 
Other Secret Societies 389 


A, (S 



CHAPTER XIV. — Liberty Township, Proliistoric Races, Their 
Belies ; Early Settlement, Indians, Pioneer Improvements, 

Mills, Bridges, etc.; Civilization, Tillages 412 

CHAPTER XV. — Berkshire Township, Its Physical Features, 
Settlement of the Whites, Pioneer Industries, Progress of 

Civilization, Educational, The Villages 428 

CHAPTER XVI.— Berlin Township, Descriptive, Early Settle- 
ment, The Indians, Pioneer Journeys, Incidents of DraJce^s 

Defeat, Life in the Woods, Churches, etc 451 

CHAPTER XVII.— Orange Township, The Morton Colony, 
Other Settlements, Early Militia, The War of 1812, Frontier 

Privations, Roads, Educational and Religious 468 

CHAPTER XVIII.— Scioto Township, Descriptive, The Pio- 
neers, Early Christianity, Modem Religion, Schools, War 

Record, The Villages 482 

CHAPTER XIX.— Concord Township, Physical Features, Set- 
tlement, Early Industries, Religion and Education, Sul- 
phur Springs, The Haunted House, Villages 491 

CHAPTER XX.— Radnor Township, The Welsh Pioneers, Their 
Language, Indians, Educational, " The Seven Churches " 
of Radnor, Sunday-School History, Delhi and , Other 

Towns 502 

CHAPTER XXI.— Marlborough Township, Its Early Settle- 
ment, Pioneer Days, Facts and Incidents, Progress of 
Civilization, Educational, Christianity, Old Forts, The 

Towns 612 

CHAPTER XXII.— Troy Township, Description and Topog- 
raphy, Early Times, The First Settlers, The Mains, Early 

Industries, Churches, etc.; Political 523 

CHAPTER XXIII. — Oxford Township, Topographical and De- 
scriptive, Early Settlements, Frontier Privations, Educa- 

iion and Religion, Villages 537 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Thompson Township, Description, T(ie 
Pioneers, Their Settlement, Improvements, Christianity 

and Education, Political, Hamlets, Etc 643 

OHAPTBE XXV.— Brown Township, Introduction, The Salt 
■III Reservation, Indians, Coming of the Palefaces, Privations, 

Marriages, Deaths, etc.; County Charities, Towns 551 

CHAPTER XXVI.— Kingston Township, Description, Settle- 
ment, Virginia School District, Religious and Sunday- 
school History, Education, Politics 560 

CHAPTER XXVII. — Porter Township, Introductory, Pioneer 
Settlements, Frontier Sufferings, Industries, Schools, 

Churches, etc 575 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— Trenton Township, A Change of Name, 
Description, Early Settlement, Improvements, Progress of 
Civilization, The Railroad 587 


CHAPTER XXIX.— Hariem Township, Topography, Military 
Lands, Colonization, Jonathan Thompson, An Incident, 
Mills, Roads, etc.; Towns ?®' 

CHAPTER XXX.— Genoa Township, Physical Features, Inci- 
dents, Settlement, Pioneer Industries, Church Annals, 
Schools, Maxwell Comers 

. 601 



Berkshire Township v ^"^^ 

Berlin Township 697 

Brown Township *■ .^ 808 

Concord Township T41 

Delaware Township 613 

Genoa Tow,nship .^ 847 

Harlem Township ._. 837 

Kingston Township ■ .- 817 

Liberty Township *• 653 

Marlborough Township 786 

Orange Township V06 

Oxford Township 785 

Pcrier Township 819 

Radhor Township 750 

Scie^o Township 720 

Trenton Township 827 

Thompson Township .*. 800 

Troy Township 770 



Bartholomew, Major 423 

Carpenter, James 171 

Hayes, President R. B „ 135 

Hills, R 225 

Leonard, George 269 

Money, Nicholas 477 

Money, James W 513 

Potter, Israel 549 

Powell, T. W 315 


Delaware County Court House 207 

Delaware County Jail , 243 

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THE present State of Ohio, comprising an 
extent of country 2 10 miles north and south, 
220 miles east and west, in length and breadth — 
25,576,969 acres— is a part of the Old Northwest 
Territory. This Territory embraced all of the 
present States of Ohio, Indiana,- Illinois, Michigan, 
Wisconsin and so much of Minnesota, as lies east 
of the Mississippi River. It became a corporate 
existence soon after the formation of the Virginia 
Colony, and when that colony took on the dignity 
of State government it became a county thereof, 
whose exact outline was unknown. The county 
embraced in its* limits more territory than is com- 
prised in all the New England and Middle Sffetes, 
and was the largest county ever known in the 
United States. It is watered by the finest system 
of rivers on the gjobe ; while its inland seas are 
without a parallel. Its entire southern boundary 
is traversed by the beautiful Ohio, its western by 
the majestic Mississippi, and its northern and a 
part of its eastern are bounded by the ft-esh-water 
lakes, whose clear waters preserve an even temper- 
ature c^er its entire surfadfe. Into these reservoirs 
of commerce flow innumerable streams of limpid 
water, which come from glen and dale, from 
mountain and valley, from forest and prairie — all 
avenues of health, commerce and prosperity. 
Ohio is in the best part of this territory — south 
of its river are tropical heats ; north of Lake Erie 
are polar snows and a polar cKmate. 

The territory comprised in Ohio has always re- 
mained the same. Ohio's history differs somewhat 
from other States, in that it was nevei* under Ter- 
ritorial government. When it was created, it was 
made a State, and did not pass through the stage 
incident to the most of other States, i. e., exist as 
a Territory before being advanced to the powers of 


a State, Such was not the case with the otherv^ 
States of the West ; all were Territories, with Terri- 
torial forms of government, ere they became States. 

Ohio's boundaries are, on the north. Lakes Erie 
and Michigan; on the west, Indiana ; on the south, 
the Ohio River, separating it from Kentucky; 
and, on the east, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. 
It is situated between 38° 25' and 42° north 
latitude ; and 80° 30' and 84° 50' west longitude 
from Greenwich, or 3° 30' and 7° 50' west from 
Washington. Its greatest length, from north 
to south, is 210 miles; the extreme width, from 
east to west, 220 miles. Were this an exact out- 
line, the area of the State would be 46,200 square 
miles, or 29,568,000 acres ; as the outlines of the 
State are, however, rather irregular, the area is 
estimated at 39,964 square miles, or 26,576,960 
acres. In the last census — 1870 — the total num- 
ber of acres in Ohio is given as 21,712,420, of 
which 14,469,132 acres are improved, and 6,883,- 
575 acres are woodland. By the last statistical 
report of the State Auditor, 20,965,371 f acres are 
reported as taxable lands. This omits many acres 
untaxable for various reasons, which would make the 
estimate, 25,576,960, nearly<borrect. 

The face of the country, in Ohio, taken as a 
whole, presents the appearance of an extensive 
monotonous plain. It is moderately undulating 
but not mountafnous, and is excavated in places by 
the streams coursing over its surface, whose waters 
have forced a way for themself es through cliffs of 
sandstone rock, leaving abutments of this material 
in bold outline. There are no mountain ranges, 
geological uplifts or peaks. A low ridge enters the 
State, near the northeast corner, and crosses it in a 
southwesterly direction, &nerging near the inter- 
section of the 40th degree of north latitude with 





the western boundaiy of the State. This " divide '' 
separates the lake and Ohio River waters, and main- 
tains an elevation of a little more than thirteen 
hundred feet above the level of the ocean. The 
highest part is in Richland County, at the south- 
east corner, where the elevation is 1,390 feet. 

North of this ridge the surface is generally level, 
with a gentle inclination toward the lake, the ine- 
qualities of the surface being caused by the streams 
which empty into the lake. The central part of 
Ohio is almost) in general, a level plain, about one 
thousand feet above the level of the sea, slightly 
inclining southward. The Southern part of the 
State is rather hilly, the valleys growing deeper as 
they incline toward the great valley of the Ohio, 
which is several hundred feet below the general 
level of the State. In the southern counties, the 
surface is generally diversified by the inequalities 
produced by the excavating power of the Ohio 
River and its tributaries, exercised through long 
periods of time. There are a few prairies, or plains, 
in the central and northwestern parts of the State, 
but over its greater portion originally existed im- 
mense growths of timber. 

The " divide," or water-shed, referred to, between 
the waters of Lake Erie and the Ohio River, is 
less elevated in Ohio than in New York and Penn- 
sylvania, though the diiference is small. To a per- 
son passing over the State in a balloon, its surface 
presents an unvarying plain, whUe, to one sailing 
down the Ohio River, it appears mountainous. 
On this river are bluffs ranging from two hundred 
and fifty to six hundred feet in height. As one 
ascends the tributaries of the river, these bluffs 
diminish in height until the/ become gentle undu- 
lations, while toward the sources of the streams, 
in the central part of the State, the banks often 
become low and marshy. 

The principal rivers are the Ohio, Muskingum, 
Scioto and Miami, on the southern slope, emptying 
into the Ohio ; on «the northern, the Maumee, 
Sandusky, Huron and Cuyahoga, emptying into 
Lake Erie, and, all but the first named, entirely in 

The Ohio, the chief river of the State, and from 
which it derives its name, with its tributaries, drains 
a country whose area is over two hundred thousand 
square miles in extent, and extending' from the 
water-shed to Alabama. The river was first dis- 
covered by La Salle in 1669, and was by him nav- 
igated as far as the Falls, at Louisville, Ky. It is 
formed by the junction of the Alleghany and 
Monongah^la rivers, in Pennsylvania, whose waters 

unite at Pittsburgh. The entire length of the 
river, from its source to its mouth, is 950 miles, 
though by a straight line from Pittsburgh to Cairo, 
it is only 615 miles. Its current is very gentle, 
hardly three miles per hour, the descent being only 
five inches per mile. At high stages, the rate of 
the current incrieases, and at low stages decreases. 
Sometimes it is barely two miles per hour. The 
average range between high and low water mark is 
fifty feet, although several times the river has risen 
more than sixty feet above low water mark. At 
the lowest-stage of the river, it is fordable many 
places between Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. The 
river abounds in islands, some of which are exceed- 
ingly fertile, and noted in the history of the West. 
Others, known as " tow-heads," are simply deposits 
of sand. 

The Scioto is one of the largest inland streams 
in the State, and is one of the most beautiful riv- 
ers. , It rises in Hardin County, flows southeast- 
erly to Columbus, where it receives its largest 
affluent, the Olentangy er Whetstone; after which 
its direction is southerly until it enters the Ohio at 
Portsmouth.. It flows through one of the rich- 
est valleys in the State, and has for its compan- 
ion the Ohio and Erie Canal, for a distance of 
ninety miles. Its tributaries are, besides the Whet- 
stone, the Darby, Walnut and'Paint Creeks. 

The Muskingum River is formed by the junc- , 
tion of the Tuscarawas and Waldhoning Rivers, 
which rise in the northern part of the' State and 
unite at Coshocton. Prom the junction, the river 
flows in a southeastern course about one hundred 
miles, through a rich and populous valley, to the 
Ohio, at Marietta, the oldest settlement in the 
State. At its outlet, the. Muskingum is over two 
hundred yards wide. By improvements, it has 
been made navigable ninety-five miles above Mari- 
etta, as far as Dresden, where aiiside cut, three 
miles long, unites its waters with those of mfe Ohio 
Canal. All along this stream exist, in abundant 
proftision, the remains of an ancient civiliza- 
tion, whose history is lost in the twilight of antiq- . 
uity. Extensive mounds, earthworks and various 
fortifications, are everywhere to be found, inclosing 
a mute history as silent as the race that dwelt here 
and left these traces of "their evistence. The same 
may be said of all' the other valleys in Ohio. 

The Miami River-r-the sceines of many exploits 
in pioneer days — rises in HamUn County, near the 
headwaters of the Scibto, and runs southwesterly, 
to the Ohio, passing Troy, Daylftn and Hamilton. 
It is a beautiiul and rapid stream, flowing through 





a highly productive and populous valley, in which 
limestone and hard timber are abundant. Its total 
length is about one hundred and fifty miles. 

The Maumee is the largest river in the northern 
part of Ohio. It rises in Indiana and flows north- 
easterly, into Lake Erie. About eighty miles of 
its course are in Ohio. It is navigable as far as 
Perrysburg, eighteen miles from its mouth. The 
■ other rivers north of the divide are all small, 
rapid-running streams, aflfording a large amount of 
good water-jiower, much utilized by mills and man- 

A remarkable feature of the topography of 
Ohio is its almost total absence of natural lakes or 
ponds. A few very small ones are found near the 
water-shed, but all too small to be of any practical 
value save as watering-places for stock. 

Lake Erie, which forms nearly all the northern 
boundary of the State, is next to the last or lowest 
of America's " inland seas." It is 290 miles long, 
and 57 miles wide at its greatest part. There are 
no islands, except in the shallow water at the west 
end, and very few bays. The greatest depth of 
the lake is off Long Point, where the water is 312 
feet deep. The shores are principally drift-clay or 
hard-pan, upon which the waves are continually 
encroaching. At Cleveland, from the first sur- 
vey, in 1796, to 1842, the encroachment was 218 
feet along the entire city front. ' The entire coast 
is low, seldom rising above fifty feet at the water's 

Lake Erie, like the others, has a variable sur- 
face, rising and falling with the seasons, like great 
rivers, called the " annual fluctuation," and a gen- 
eral one, embracing a series of years, due to mete- 
orological causes, known as the " secular fluctua- 
tion." Its lowest known level was in February, 
1819, rising more or less each year, until June, 
1838i^in the^xtreme, to six feet eight inches. 

Laffe Ericas several excellent harbors in Ohio, 
among which are Clevelandi Toledo, Sandusky, 
Port Clinton and Ashtabula. Valuable improve- 
ments have been made in some of these, at the 
expense of the General Government. In 1818, 
the first steamboat was launched on the lake. 
Owing to the Palls of Niagara, it could go no 
farther east than the outlet of Niagara River. 
, Since then, however, the opening of the Welland 
Canal, in Canada, allows vessels drawing not more 
than ten feet of water to pass from one lake to 
the other, greatly facihtatipg navigation. 

As early as 1836, Dr. S. P. Hildreth, Dr. John 
Locke, Prof. J. H. Eiddle and Mr. I. A. Lapham, 

were appointed a committee by the Legislature of 
Ohio to report the " best method of obtaining a 
complete geological survey of fthe State, and an 
estimate of the probable cost of the same'." In the 
preparation of tj'eir report. Dr. Hildreth examined 
the coal-measures in the southeastern part of the 
State, Prof Eiddle and Mr. Lapham made exam- 
inations in the western and northern counties, 
while Dr. Locke devoted his attention to cheuvioal 
analyses. These investigations resulted in the 
presentation of much valuable information con- 
cerning the mineral resources of the State and in 
a plan for a geological survey. In accordance 
with the recommendation of this Committee, the 
Legislature, in 1837, passed a bill appropriating 
$12,000 for the prosecution of the work during 
the , next year. The Geological Corps appointed 
consisted of W. W.. Mather, State Geologist, with 
Dr. Hildreth, Dr. Locke, Prof J. P. Kirtland, J. 
W. Foster, Charles Whittlesey and Charles Briggs, 
Jr., Assistants. The results of the first year's 
work appeared in 1838, in an octavo volume of 134 
pages, with contributions . from Mather, Hildreth, 
Briggs, Kirtland and Whittlesey. In 1838, the 
Legislature ordered the continuance of the work, 
and, at the close of the year, a second report, of 
286 pages, octavo, was issued, containing contribu- 
tions from all the members of the survey. 

Succeeding Legislatures failed to provide for a 
continuance of the work, and, save that done by 
private means, nothing was accompHshed till 
1869, when the Legislature again took up the 
work, in the interini, individual enterprise had 
done much. In 1841, Prof James Hall passed 
through the State, and, by his indentification of 
several of the formations with those of New York, 
for the first time fixed their geological age. The 
next year, he issued the first map of the geology 
of the State, in common with the geological maps 
of all the region between the AUeghanies and the 
Mississippi. Similar maps were published by Sir 
Charles Lyell, in 1845 ; Prof. Edward Hitchcock, 
in 1853, and by J. Mareon, in 1856. The first 
individual map of the geology of Ohio was a very 
small one, published by Col. Whittlesey, in 1848, 
in Howe's History. In 1856, he published a 
larger map, and, in 1865, another was issued by 
Prof Nelson Sayler. In 1867, Dr. J. S. Newberry 
published a geological map and sketch of Ohio in 
the Atlas of the State issued by H. S. Stebbins. 
Up to this time, the geological knowledge was very 
^general in its character, and, consequently, errone- 
ous in many of its details. Other State? had been 




accurately surveyed, yet Ohio remained a kind of 
terra incognita, of which the geology was less 
known than any part of the surrounding area. 

In 1869, the Legislature appropriated, for a new 
survey, $13,900 for its support during one year, ' 
and appointed Dr. Newberry Chief Geologist ; E. 
B. Andrews, Edward Orton and J. H. Klipplart 
were appointed Assistants, and T. Gr. Wormley, 
Chemist. The result of the, first year's work 
was a volume of 164 pages, octavo, published in 

This report, accompanied by maps and charts, 
for the first time Accurately defined the geological 
formations as to age and area. Evidence was given 
which set at rest questions of pearly thirty years' 
standing, and established the fact that Ohio in- 
cludes nearly double the number of formations be- 
fore supposed to exist. Since that date, the sur- 
veys have been regularly made. Each county is 
being surveyed by itself, and its formatioj ac- 
curately determined. Elsewhere in these pages, 
these results are given, and to them the reader is 
referred for the specific geology of the county. 
Only general results can be noted here. 

On the general geological map of the State, are 
two sections of the State, taken at each northern 
and southern extremity. These show, with the 
map, the general outline of the geological features 
of Ohio, and are all that can be given here. Both 
sections show the general arrangements of the 
formation, and prove that they lie in sheets resting 
one upon another, but not horizontally, as a great 
arch traverses the State from Cincinnati to the 
lake shore, between Toledo and Sandusky. Along 
this line, which extends southward to Nashville, 
Tenn., all the rocks are raised in a ridge or fold, 
once a low mountain chain. In the lapse of 
ages, it has, however, been extensively worn 
away, and now, along a large part of its course, 
the strata which once arched over it are re- 
moved from its summit, and are found resting in 
regular order on either side, dipping away from its 
axis. Where the ridge was highest, the erosion 
'has been greatest, that being the reason why the 
oldest rocks are exposed in the region ab(^ut Cin- 
cinnati. By following the line of this great arch 
from Cincinnati northward, it will be seen that the 
Helderberg limestone (No. 4), midway of the State, 
is still unbroken, and stretches from side to side ; 
while the Oriskany, the Comiferous, the Hamilton 
and the Huron formations, though generally re- 
moved from the crown of the arch, still remain 
over a limited area near Bellefontaine, where they 

form an island, which proves the former continuity 
of the strata which compose it. 

On the east side of the great anticlinal axis, the 
rocks dip down into a basin, which, for several 
hundred miles north and south, occupies the inter- 
val between the Nashville and Cincinnati ridge and 
the first fold of the Alleghany Mountains. In 
this basin, all the strata form trough-Uke layers, 
their edges outcropping eastward on the flanks 
of the Alleghanies, and westward along the anti- 
clinal axis. As they dip from this margin east- 
ward toward the center of the trough, near its 
middle, on the eastern border of the State, the 
older rocks are deeply buried, and the surface is 
here underlaid by the highest and most recent of 
our rock formations, the coal measures. In the 
northwestern corner of the State, the strata dip 
northwest from the anticlinal and pass under the 
Michigan coal basin, precisely as the same forma- 
tions east of the anticlinal dip beneath the Alle- 
ghany coal-field, of which Ohio's coal area forms a 

The rocks underlying the State all belpng to 
three of the great groups which geologists have 
termed " systems," namely, the Silurian, Devonian 
and Carboniferous. Each of these are again sub- 
divided, for convenience, and numbered. Thus 
the Silurian system includes the Cincinnati group, 
the Medina and Clinton groups, the Niagara 
group, and the Salina and Water-Line groups. 
The Devonian system includes the Oriskany sand- 
stone, the Carboniferous limestone, the Hamilton 
group, the Huron shale and the Erie shales. The 
Carboniferous system includes the Waverly group, 
the Carboniferous Conglomerate, the Coal Meas- 
ures and the Drift. This last includes the surface, 
and has been divided into six parts, numbering 
from the lowest, viz.: A glacialed surface, the Gla- 
cial Drift, the Erie Clays, the Pores^gBed, the Ice- 
berg Drift and the Terraces or Beaches,*which 
mark intervals of stability in the gradual recession 
of the water surface to its present level. 

" The history we may learn from these forma- 
tions," says the geologist, " is something as fol- 
lows ; * 

" First. Subsequent to the Tertiary was a period 
of continual elevation, during which the topog- 
raphy of the country was much the same as now, 
the draining streams following the lines they now 
do, but cutting down their beds until .they flowed 
sometimes two hundred feet lower than they do at 
present. In the latter part of this period of ele- 
vation, glaciers, descending from the Canadian 





islands, excavated and occupied the valleys of the 
great lakes, and covered the lowlands down nearly 
to the Ohio. 

"Second. By a depression of the land and ele- 
vation of temperature, the glaciers retreated north- 
ward, leaving, in the interior of the continent, a 
great basin of fresh water, in which the Erie clays 
were deposited. 

" Third. This water was drained away until a 
broad land surface was exposed within the drift 
area. Upon this surface grew forests, largely of 
red and white cedar, inhabited by the elephant, 
mastodon, giant beaver and other large, now ex- 
tinct, animals. 

"Fourth. The submergence of this ancient land 
and the spreading' over it, by iceberg agency, of 
gravel, sand and bowlders, distributed just as ice- 
bergs now spread their loads broadcast over the 
sea bottom on the banks of Newfoundland. • 

"Fifth. The gradual draining-off of the waters^ 
leaving the land now as we find it, smoothly cov- 
ered with all the layers of the drift, and well pre- 
pared for human occupation." 

" In six days, the Lord made the heavens and 
the earth, and rested the seventh day," records the 
Scriptures, and, when all was done. He looked 
upon the work of His own hands and pronounced 
it "good." Surely none but a divine, omnipotent 
hand could have done all this, and none can study 
the "work of His hands" and not marvel at its 

The ancient dwellers of the Mississippi Valley 
will always be a subject of great interest to the 
antiquarian. Who they were, and whence they 
came, are still unanswered questions, and may 
remain so for ages. All over this valley, and, 
in fact, in all parte of the New World, evidences 
of an ancient civilization exist;, whose remains are 
now a wonder to all. The aboriginal races could 
throw no light on these questions. They had 
always seen the remains, and knew not whence 
they came. Explorations aid but little in the solu- 
tion of the problem, and only conjecture Can be 
entertained. The remains found in Ohio equal 
any in the Valley. Indeed, some of them are vast 
in extent, and consist of forts, fortifications, moats, 
ditches, elevations and mounds, embracing many 
acres in extent. 

"It is not yet determined," says Col. Charley 
Whittlesey, " whether we have discovered the first 
or the original people who occupied the soil of 
Ohio. Modern investigations are bringing to light 
evidences of earlier races. Since the presence of 

man has been established in Europe as a cotempor- 
ary of the fossil elephant, mastodon, rhinoceros 
and the horse, of the later drift or glacial period, 
we may reasonably anticipate the presence of man 
in America in that era. Such proofs are already 
known, but they are nfit of that conclusive charac- 
ter which amounts to a demonstration. > It is, how- 
ever, known that an ancient people inhabited Ohio 
in advance of the red men who were found here, 
three centuries since, by the Spanish and French 

" Five and six hundred years before the arrival 
of Columbus," says Col. Charles Whittlesey, "the 
Northmen sailed from Norway, Iceland and Green- 
land along the Atlantic coast as far as Long Island. 
They found Indian tribes, in what is now New En- 
gland, closely resembling those who lived upon the 
coast and the St. , Lawrence wb.en the French and 
English came to possess these regions. 

" These red Indians had no traditions of a prior 
people ; but over a large part of the lake countiy 
and the valley of the Mississippi, earth-worki, 
mounds, pyramids, ditches and forts were discov- 
ered — the work of a more ancient race, and a peo- 
ple far in advance of the Indian. If they were 
not civilized, they were not barbarians. They 
were not mere hunters; but had fixed habitations, 
cultivated the soil and were possessed of consider- 
able mechanical skill. We know them as the 
Mound Builders, because they erected over the 
mortal remains of their principal men and women 
memorial mounds of earth or unhewn stone — of 
which hundreds remain to our own day, so large 
and high that they give rise to an impression of 
the numbers and energy of their builders, such as 
we receive from the pyramids of Egypt." 

Might they not have been of the same race and , 
the same civilization ? Many competent authori- 
ties conjecture they are the work of the lost tribes 
of Israel ; but the best they or any one can do is 
only conjecture. 

"In the burial-mounds," continues Col. Whit- 
tlesey, " there are always portions of one or more 
human skeletons, generally partly consumed by 
fire, with ornaments of stone, bone, shells, mica 
and copper. The largest mound in Ohio is near 
.Miamisburg, Montgomery County. It is the 
second largest in the West, being nearly seventy 
feet high, originally, and about eight hundred feet 
in circumference. This would give a superficial 
area' of nearly four acres. In 1864, the citizens 
of Miartiisburg sunk a shaft from the summit to 
the natural surface, without finding the bones 




or ashes of the great" man for whom it was 
intended. The exploration has considerably 
lowered the mound, it being now about sixty feet 
in height. 

" Fort Ancient, on the Little Miami, is a good 
specimen of the military defenses of the Mound- 
Builders. It is well located on a long, high, nar- 
row, precipitous ridge. The parapets are now 
from ten to eighteen feet high, and its perimeter 
is sufficient to hold twenty thousand fighting men. 
Another prominent example of their works exists 
near Newark, Licking County. This collection 
presents a great variety of figures, circles, rectan- 
gles, octagons and parallel banks, or highways, 
covering, more than a thousand acres. The county 
fair-ground is permanently located within an 
ancient circle, a quarter of a mile in diameter, 
with an einbankment and interior ditch. Its high- 
est place w'as over twenty feet from the top of the 
moat to the bottom of the ditch." 

One of the most curious-shaped works in this 
county is known as the "Alligator," from its sup- 
posed resemblance to that creature. When meas- 
ured, several years ago, while in a good state of 
preservation, its dimensions were two hundred 
and ten feet in length, average width over sixty 
feet, and height, at the highest point, seven feet. 
It appears to be mainly composed of clay, and is 
overgrown with grass. 

Speaking of the writing of these people. Col. 
-Whittlesey says : " There is no evidence that they 
had alphabetical characters, picture-writing or 
hieroglyphics, though they must have had some 
mode of recording events. Neither is there any proof 
that they used domestic animals for tilling the soil, 
or for the purpose of erecting the imposing earth- 
works they have left. A very coarse cloth of 
hemp, flax or nettles has been found on their 
burial-hearths and around skeletons not consumed 
by fire. 

" The most extensive earthworks occupy many 
of the sites of modern tofrns, and are always in 
the vicinity of excellent land. Those about the 
lakes are generally irregular earth forts, while 
those abotit the rivers in the southern part of the 
State are generally altars, pyramids, circles, cones 
and rectangles of earth, among which fortresses or 
strongholds are exceptions. 

" Those on the north may not have been cotem- 
porary or have been built by the same people. 
They are far less prominent or extensive, which 
indicates a people less in numbers as well as indus- 
try, and whose principal occupation was war among 

themselves or against their neighbors. This style 
of works extends eastward along the south shore 
of Lake Ontario, through New York. In Ohio, 
there is a space along the water-shed, between the 
lake and the Ohio, where there are few, if any, 
ancient earthworks. It appears to have been a 
vacant or neutral ground between different nations. 

" The Indians of the North, dressed in skins, 
cultivated the soil very sparingly, and manufactured 
no woven cloth. On .Lake Superior, there are 
ancient copper mines wrought by the Mound- 
Builders over fifteen hundred years ago." Cppper 
tools are occasionally found tempered sufiiciently 
hard to cut the hardest rocks. No knowledge of 
such tempering exists now. The Indians can give 
no more knowledge of the ancient mines than they 
can of the mounds on the river bottoms. 

" The Indians did not occupy the ancient earth- 
works,- nor jiid they construct such. They were 
found as they are now — a hunter race, wholly 
averse to labor. Their abodes were in rock shel- 
ters, in caves, or in temporary sheds of bark and 
boughs, or skins, easily moved from place to place. 
Like most savage races, their habits are unchange- 
able ; at least, the example of white men, and 
their efibrts during three centuries, have made 
little, if any, impression." 

When white men came to the territory now em- 
braced in the State of Ohio, they found dwelling 
here the Iroquois, DelaWares, Shawanees, Miamis, 
Wyandots and Ottawas. Each nation was com- 
posed of several tribes or clans, and each was 
often at war with the others. The first mentioned 
of -these occupied that part of the State whose 
northern boundary was Lake Erie, as far west as 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, where the city 
of Cleveland now is ; thence the boundary turned 
southward in an irregular line, until it touched the 
Ohio River, up which stream it continued to the 
Pennsylvania State line, and thence northward to 
the lake. This nation were the implacable foes of 
the French, owing to the fact that Champlain, in 
1609, made war against them. They occupied a 
large part of New York and Pennsylvania, and 
were the most insatiate conquerors among the 
aborigines. When the French first came to the 
lakes, these monsters of the wilderness were engaged 
in a war against their neighbors, a war that ended 
in their conquering them, p issessing their terri- 
tory, and absorbing the remnants of the tribes into 
their own nation. At the date of Champlain's 
visit, the southern shore of Lake Erie was occupied 
by the Eries, or, as the orthography of the word is 





soinetimes given, Erigos, or Errienous.* About 
forty years afterward, the Iroquois (Five Nations) 
fell upon them with such fury aiid in such force 
that the nation was annihilated. Those who 
escaped the slaughter were absorbed among their 
conquerors, but allowed to live on their own lands, 
paying a sort of tribute to the Iroquois. This was 
the policy ,of that nation in all its conquests. A 
few years after the conquest of the Eries, the 
Iroquois again took to the war-path, and swept 
through Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, even attacking 
the Mississippi tribes. But for the intervention 
and aid of the French, these tribes would have 
shared the fate of the Hurons and Eries. Until 
the year 1700, the Iroquois held the south shore 
of Lake Erie so fii-mly that the French dared not 
trade or travel along that side of the lake. Their 
missionaries and 'traders penetrated this part of 
Ohio as early as 1650, but generaUy suffered 
death for their zeal. 

JHaving completed the conquest of the Hurons 
or Wyandots, about Lake Huron, and murdered 
the Jesuit missionaries by modes of torture which 
only they could devise, they permitted the residue 
of the Hurons to settle around the west" end of 
Lake Erie. Here, with the Ottawas, they resided 
when the whites came to the State. Their country 
was bounded on the south by a line running 
through the central part of Wayne, Ashland, 
Richland, Crawford and Wyandot Counties. At 
the western boundary of this eountyf the line di- 
verged northwesterly, leaving the State near the 
northwest corner of Fulton County. Their north- 
ern boundary was the lake -; the eastern, the Iro- 

The Delawares, or " Lenni Lenapes,'' whom the 
Iroquois had subjugated on the Susquehanna, were 
assigned by their conquerors hunting-grounds on 
the Muskingum. Their eastern boundary was the 
country of the Iroquois (before defined), and their 
northern, that of the Hurons. On the west, they 

* Father Louis Hennepin, in his work published in 1684, thus 
alludes to the Erius: ''These good fathers,*' referring to the 
priests, " were great friends of the Hurons, who told them that the 
Iroquois went to war beyond Virginia, or New Sweden, near a lake 
which they called ^Erige,' or *Erie,* which signifies 'the cat,* or 
' nation of the cat,* and because these s&vages brought captives from 
this nation in returning to their cantons along this lake, the 
Hurons named it, in their language, ' Brige,' or ' Erike,' ' the lake of 
the cat* and which our Canadians, in softening the word, have 
called ' Lake Erie.' " 

Charlevoix, writing in 1721, says: "The name it br-ars is that 
of an Indian nation of the Huron (Wyandot) language, which was 
formerly seated on its banks, and who have been entirely destroyed 
by the Iroquois. iWe, in that language, signifies 'cot,' and, in 
some acounts, this nation is called the ' cat nation* This name, 
probably, comes from the large numbers of that animal found in 
this region." 

extended as far as a line drawn from the central 
part of Richland County, in a semi-circular direc- 
tion, south to the mouth of Leading Creek. Their 
southern boundary was the Ohio River. 

West of the Delawares, dwelt the Shawanees, a 
troublesome people as neighbors, whether to whites 
or Indians. Their country was bounded on the 
north by the Hurons, on the east, by the Dela- 
wares ; on the south, by the Ohio River. On the 
west, their boundary was determined by a line 
drawn southwesterly, and again southeasterly — 
semi-circular — from a point on the southern 
boundary of the Hurons, near the southwest corner 
of Wyandot County, till it intersected the Ohio 

All the remainder of the State — all its western 
part from the Ohio River to the Michigan line — 
was occupied by the Miamis, Mineamis, Twigtwees, 
or Tawixtawes, a powerful nation, whom the Iro- 
quois were never fully able to subdue. 

These nations occupied the State, partly by per- 
mit of the Five Nations, and partly by inheritance, 
and, though composed of many tribes, were about 
all the savages to be 'found in this part of the 

No sooner had the Americans obtained control 
of this country, than they began, by treaty and 
purchase, to acquire the' lands of the natives. 
They could not stem the tide of emigration ; peo- 
ple, then as now, would go West, and hence the 
necessity of peaceftilly and rightftiUy acquiring the 
land. " The true basis of title to Indian territory 
is the right of civilized men to the soil for pur- 
poses of cultivation." The same maxim may be 
applied to all uncivilized nations. When acquired 
by such a right, either by treaty, purchase or con- 
quest, the right to hold the same rests with the 
power and development of the nation thus possess- 
ing the land. 

^The English derived title to the territory 
between the AUeghanies and the Mississippi pjirtly 
by the claim that, in discovering the Atlantic coast, 
they had possession of the land from " ocean to 
ocean," and partly by the treaty of Paris, in Feb- 
ruary, 1763. Long before this treaty took place, 
however, she had granted, to individuals and colo- 
nies, extensive tracts of land in that part of Amer- 
ica, based on the right of discovery. The French 
had done better, and had acquired title to the land 
by disco\rering the land itself and by consent of 
the Indians dwelling thereon. The right to pos- 
sess this country led to the French and Indian 
war, ending in the supremacy of the English. 

~e) ^ ' 




The Five Nations claimed the territory in ques- 
tion by right of conquest, and, though professing 
friendship to the English, watched them with jeal- 
ous eyes. In 1684, and again in 1726, that con- 
federacy made cessions of lands to the English, 
and these treaties and cessions of lands were re- 
garded as sufficient title by the English, and were 
insisted on in all subsequent treaties with the 
Western Nations. The following statements were 
collected by Col. Charles Whittlesey, which 
show the principal treaties made with the red men 
^wherein land in Ohio was ceded by them to the 
whites : 

In September, 1726, the Iroquois, or Six Na- 
tions, at Albany, ceded all their claims west of 
Lake Erie and sixty miles in width along the 
south shore of Lakes Erie and Ontario, from the 
Cuyahoga to the Oswego River. 

In 1744, this same nation made a treaty at 
Lancaster, Penn., and ceded to the English all 
their lands "that may be within the colony of 

In 1752, this nation and other Western tribes 
made 'a tifeaty at Logstowii, Penn., wherein they 
confirmed the Lancaster treaty and consented to 
the settlements south of the Ohio River. 

February 13, 1763, a treaty was made at Paris, 
France, between the French and English, when 
Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi 
Valley were ceded to the English. 

In 1783, all the territory south of the Lakes, 
and east of the Mississippi, was ceded by England 
to America — ^the latter country then obtaining its 
independence — ^by which means the country was 
gained by America. 

October 24, 1784, the Six Nations made a 
treaty, at Fort Stanwix, N. Y., with the Ameri- 
cans, and ceded to them all the country claimed 
by the tribe, west of Pennsylvania. 

In 1785, the Chippewas, Delawares, Ottawas, 
arid Wyandots ceded to the United States, at 
Fort Mcintosh, at the mouth of the Big Beaver, 
all their claims east and south of the "Cayahaga," 
the Portage Path, and the Tuscarawas, to Fort 
Laurens (Bolivar), thence to Loramie's Fort (in 
Shelby County) ; thence along the Portage Path to 
the St. Mary's River and down it to the "Omee," 
or Maumee, and along the lake shore to the 

January 3, 178&, the Shawanees, at Fort Fin- 
ney, near the mouth of the Great Miami (not 
owning the land on the Scioto occupied by them), 
were allotted a tract at the heads of the two 

Miamis and the Wabash, west of the Chippewas, 
Delawares and Wyandots. 

February 9, 1789, the Iroquois made a treaty 
at Fort Harmar, wherein they confirmed the Fort 
Stanwix treaty. At the same time, the Chippewas, 
Ottawas, Delawares, and Wyandots — to which the 
Sauks and Pottawatomies assented— confirmed the 
treaty made at Fort Mcintosh. 

Period of war now existed till 1795. 

August 3, 1795, Gen. Anthony Wayne, on - 
behalf of the United States, made a treaty with 
twelve tribes, confirming the boundaries estab- 
lished by the Fort Harmar and Fort Mcintosh 
treaties, and extended the boundary to Fort Re- 
covery and the mouth of the Kentucky River. 

In June, 1796, the Senecas, represented by 
Brant, ceded to the Connecticut Land Company 
their rights east of the Cuyahoga-. 

In 1805, at Fort Industry, on the Maumee, the 
Wyandots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, Shawa- 
nees, Menses, and Pottawatomies relinquished all 
their lands west of the Cuyahoga, as far west as 
the western line of the Reserve, and south of the 
line from Port Laurens to Loramie's Fort. 

July 4, 1807, the Ottawas, Chippewas, Wyan-' 
dots, and Pottawatomies, at Detroit, ceded .all that 
part of Ohio north of the Maumee River, with 
part of Michigan. 

November 25, 1808, the same tribes with the 
Shawanees, at Brownstone, Mich., granted the 
Government^a tract of land two miles wide, from 
the west line of the Reserve to the rapids of the 
Maumee, for the purpose of a road through the 
Black Swamp. 

September 18, 1815, at Springwells, near De- 
troit, the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, Wy- 
andots, Delawares, Senecas and Miamis, having 
been engage(i in the war of 1812 on the British 
side, were confined in the grants made at Fort < 
Mcintosh and Greenville in 1785 and 1795. 

September 29, 1817, at the rapids of the 
Maumee, the Wyandots ceded their lands west of 
the line of 1805, as far as Loramie's and the St. 
Mary's River and north of the Maumee. The 
Pottawatomies, Chippewas, and Ottawas ceded the 
territory west of the Detroit line of 1807, and 
north of the Maumee. 

October 6, 1818, the Miamis, at St. Mary's, 
made a treaty in which they surrendered the re- 
maining Indian territory in Ohio, north of the 
Greenville treaty line and west of St. Mary's River. 

The numerous treaties of peace with the West- 
ern Indians for the delivery of prisoners were — ' 




one by Gen. Forbes, at Fort Du Quesne (Pitts- 
burgh), in 1758; one by Col. Bradstreet, at Erie, 
in August, 1764; one by Col. Boquet, at the 
mouth of the WaJdhoning, in November, 1764 ; 
in May, 1765, at Johnson's, on the Mohawk, and 
at Philadelphia, the same year ; in 1774, by Lord 
Dunmore, at Camp Charlotte, Pickaway County. 
By the treaty at the Maumee Rapids, in 1817, 
reservations were conveyed by the United States 
to all the tribes, with a view to induce them to 
cultivate the soil and cease to be hunters. These 
were, from time to time, as the impracticability of 
the plan became manifest, purchased by the Gov- 
ernment, the last of these being the Wyandot 
Reserve, of twelve miles square, around Upper 
Sandusky, in 1842, closing out all claims and com- 
posing all the Indian difficulties in Ohio. The 
open war had ceased in 1815, with the treaty of 

" It is estimated that, from the French war of 
1754 to the battle of the Maumee Rapids, in 
1794, a period of forty years, there had been at 
least 5,000' people killed or captured west of the 

Alleghany Mountains. Eleven organized military 
expeditions had been carried on against the West- 
ern Indians prior to the vijar of 1812, seven regu- 
lar engagements fought and about twelve hundred 
men killed. More whites were slain in battle than 
there were Indian braves killed in military expedi- 
tions, and by private raids and murders ; yet, in 
1811, all the Ohio tribes combined could not mus- 
ter 2,000 warriors." 

Attempts to determine the number of persons 
comprising the Indian tribes in Ohio, and their' 
location, have resulted in nothing better than 
estimates. It is supposed that, at the commence- 
ment of the Revolution, there were about six 
thousand Indians in the present confines of the 
State, but their villages were little more than 
movable camps. Savag6 men, like savage beasts, 
are engaged in continual migrations. Now, none 
are left. The white man occupies the home of 
the red man. Now 

" The verdant hills 
Are covered o'er with growing grain, 
And white men till the soil, 
Where once the red man used to reign." 



W'HEN war, when ambition, when avarice 
fail, religion pushes onward and succeeds. 
In the discovery of the New World, wherever 
man's aggrandizement was the paramount aim, 
failure was sure to follow. When this gave way, 
the followers of the Cross, whether Catholic or 
Protestant, came on the field, and the result before 
attempted soon appeared, though in a diiferent way 
and through diiferent means than those supposed. 
The first permanent efforts of the white race to 
penetrate the Western wilds of the New World 
preceded any permanent English settlement north 
of the Potomac. Years before the Pilgrims 
anchored their bark on the cheerless shores of Cape 
Cod, "the Roman Catholic Church had been plant- 
ed by missionaries from France in the Eastern 
moiety of Maine; and LeCaron, an ambitious 
Franciscan, the companion of Champlain, had passed 
into the hunting-grounds of the Wyandots, and, 
bound by the vows of his life, had, on foot or pad- 
dhng a bark canoe, gone onward, taking alms of the 
until he reached the rivers of Lake 

Huron." This was in 1615 or 1616, and only 
eight years after Champlain had sailed up the wa- 
ters of the St. Lawrence, and on the foot of a bold 
cliff laid the foundation of the present City of 
Quebec. Prom this place, founded to hold the 
country, and to perpetuate the religion of his King, 
went forth those emissaries of the Cross, whose zeal 
has been the admiration of the world. The French 
Colony in Canada was suppressed soon after its es- 
tablishment, and for five yekrs, until 1622, its im- 
munities were enjoyed by the colonists. A grant 
of New France, as the country was then known, was 
made by Louis XIII to Richelieu, , Champlain, 
Razilly and others, who, immediately after the res- 
toration of Quebec by its English conquerors, entered 
upon the control and government of their province. 
Its limits embraced the whole basin of the St. 
Lawrence and of such other rivers in New France 
as flowed directly into the sea. While away to 
the south on the Gulf coast, was also included a 
country rich in foliage and claimed in virtue of 
the unsuccessful efforts of Coligny. 







Religious zeal as much as commercial prosperify 
had influenced France to obtain and retain the de- 
pendency of Canada. The commercial monopoly 
of a privileged company could not foster a 
colony ; the climate was too vigorous for agricult- 
ure, and, at first there was little else except relig- 
ious Enthusiasm to give vitality to the province. 
Champlain had been touched by the simphcity of 
the Order of St. Francis, and had selected its priests 
to aid him in his work. But another order, more 
in favor at the Court, was interested, and succeed- 
ed in excluding the mendicant order from the New 
World, established themselves in the new domain 
and, by thus enlarging the borders of the French 
King, it became entrusted to the Jesuits. 

Tiis "Society of Jesus," founded, by Loyola 
when Calvin's Institutes first saw the light, saw an 
unequaled opportunity in the conversion of the 
heathen in the Western wilds ; and,' as its mem- 
bers, pledged to obtain power only by influence of 
mind over mind, sought the honors ofopening the 
way, there was no lack of men ready for the work. 
Through them, the motive power in opening the 
wilds of the Northwest was religion. " Religious 
enthusiasm," says Bancrofl, "colonized New Eng- 
land, and religious enthusiasm founded Montreal, 
made a conquest of the wilderness about the upper 
lakes, and explored the Mississippi." 

Through these priests — increased in a few'years 
to fifteen — a way was made across the West from 
Quebec, above the regions of the lakes, below 
which they dared not go for the relentless Mohawks. 
To the northwest of Toronto, near the Lake Iro- 
quois, a bay of Lake Huron, in September, 1634, 
they raised the first humble house of the Society of 
Jesus among the Hurons. Through them they 
learned of the great lakes beyond, and resolved 
one day to explore them and carry the Gospel of 
peace to the heathen on their shores. Before this 
could be done, many of them were called upon to 
give up their lives at the martyr's stake and re- 
ceive a martyr's crown. But one by one they 
went on in their good work. If one fell-by hun- 
ger, cold, cruelty, or a terrible death, others stood 
ready, and carrying their lives in their hands, 
established other missions about the eastern shores 
of Lake Huron and its adjacent waters. The 
Five Nations were for many years hostile toward 
the French" and murdered them and their red 
allies whenever opportunity presented. For a 
quarter of century, they retarded the advance of 
the missionaries, and then only after wearied with 
a long struggle, in which they began to see their 

power declining, did they relinquish their warlike 
propensities, and allow the Jesuits entrance to their 
country. While this was going on, the ^traders 
and Jesuits had penetrated farther and farther 
westward, until, when peace was declared, they 
had seen the southwestern shores of Lake Superior 
and the northern shores of Lake Michigan, callefd 
by them Lake Illinois.* In August, 1654, two 
young adventurers penetrated the wilds bordering 
on these western lakes in company with a band of 
Ottawas. Returning, they tell of the wonderful 
country they have seen, of its vast forests, its 
abundance of game, its mines of copper, and ex- 
cite in their comrades a desire to see and explore 
such a country. They tell of a vast expanse of 
land before them, of the powerfiil Indian tribes 
dwelling there, and of their anxiety to become an- 
nexed to the Frenchman, of whom they have 
heard. The request is at once granted. Two 
missionaries, Gabriel Dreuillettes and Leonard 
Gareau, were selected as envoys, but on their way 
the fleet, propelled by tawny rowers, is met by a 
wandering band of Mohawks and by them is dis- 
persed. ' Not daunted, others stood ready to go. 
The lot fell to Ren6 Mesnard. He is charged to 
visit the wilderness, select a suitable place for a 
'dwelling, and found a mission. With only a short 
warning he is ready, "trusting," he says, "in the 
Providence which feeds the little birds of the 
desert and clothes the wild flowers of the forest." 
In October, 1660, he reached a bay, which he 
called St. Theresa, on the south shore of Lak ■ 
Superior. After a residence of eight months, he 
yielded to the invitation of the Hurons who had 
taken refuge on the Island of St. Michael, and 
bidding adieu to his neophytes and the French, he 
departed. While on the way to the Bay of Che- 
goi-me-gon, probably at a portage, he became 
separated from his companion and was never after- 
ward heard of Long after, his cassock and his 
breviary were kept as amulets among the Sioux. 
DiflS.cuIties now arose in the management of the 
colony, and for awhile it was on the verge of dis- 
solution. The King sent a regiment under com- 
mand of the aged Tracy, as a safeguard against 
the Iroquois, now proving themselves enemies to 

*Mr. 0. W. Butterfield, author of Crawford's Campaign^ and 
good authority, says : "John Nicholet, a Frenchman, left Quebec 
and Three Rivers iu the summer of 1634, and visited the Hurons on 
Georgian Bay, the Cbippewas at the Sault Ste. Marie, and this Win- 
nebagoes in Wisconsin, returning tolQuebec in the summer of 1635. 
This was the iirst white man to see any part of the Northwest 
Territory. In 1641, two Jesuit priests were at the Sault Ste. Marie 
for a brief time. Then two French traders reached Lake Superior, 
and after them came that tide of emigration on which the French 
based their claim to the country," 




the French. Accompanying him were Courcelles, 
as Grovernor, and M. Talon, who subsequently fig- 
ures in Northwestern history. By 1665, affairs 
were settled and new attempts to found a mission 
among the lake tribes were projected. 

"With better hopes — undismayed by the sad 
fate of their predecessors" in August, Claude 
AUouez embarked on a mission by way of Ottawa 
to the Far West. Early in September he reached 
the rapids through which rush the waters of the 
lakes to Huron. Sailing by lofty sculptured rocks 
and over waters of crystal purity, he reached the 
Chippewa village just as the young warriors were 
bent on organizing a war expedition against the 
Sioux. Cottimanding peace in the name of his 
King, he called a council and oiFered the commerce 
and protection of his nation. He was obeyed, and 
soon a chapel arose on the shore of the bay, to 
which admiring crowds from the south and west 
gathered to listen to the story of the Cross. 

The scattered Hurons and Ottawas north of 
Lake Superior ; the Pottawatomies from Lake Mich- 
igan ; the Sacs and Foxes from the Far West ; the 
Illinois from the prairies, -all came to hear him, and 
all besought him to go with them. To the last 
nation Allouez desired to go. They told him of a 
" great river that flowed to the sea, "and of "their 
vast prairies, where herds of buffalo, deer and 
other animals grazed on the tall grass." "Their 
country," said the missionary, "is the best field 
for the Grospel. Had I had leisure, I would have 
gone to their dwellings to see with my own eyes 
all the good that was told me of them." 

He remained two years, teaching the natives, 
studying their language and habits, and then 
returned to Quebec. Such was the account that 
he gave, that in two days he was joined by 
Louis Nicholas and was on his way back to his 

Peace being now established, more missionaries 
came from France. Among them were Claude 
Dablon and James Marquette, both of whom went 
on to the mission among the Chippewas at the 
Sault. They reached there in 1668 and found 
Allouez busy. The mission was now a reality and 
given the name of St. Mary. It is often written 
" Sault Ste. Marie," after the French method, and 
is the oldest settlement by white men in the bounds 
of the Northwest Territory. It has been founded 
over two hundred years. ■ Here on the inhospitable 
northern shores, hundreds of miles away from 
friends, did this triumvirate employ themselves in 
extending their religion and the influence of their 

King. Traversing the shores of the great lakes 
near them, they pass down the western bank of 
Lake Michigan as far as Green Bay, along the 
southern shore of Lake Superior to its western ex- 
tremity, everywhere preaching the story of Jesus. 
" Though suffering be their lot and martyrdom 
their crown," they went on, only conscious that 
they were laboring for theh' Master and would, in 
the end, win the crown. 

The great river away to the West of which they 
heard so much was yet unknown to them. To ex- 
plore it, to visit the tribes on its banks and preach 
to them the GrOspel and secure their trade, became 
the aim of Marquette, who originated the idea of 
its discovery. While engaged at the mission at the 
Sault, he resolved to attempt it in the autumn of 
1669. Delay, however, intervened — for Allouez 
had exchanged the mission at Che-goi-me-gon for 
one at Green Bay, whither Marquette was sent. 
While here he employed a young Illinois Indian 
to teach him the language of that nation, and there- 
by prepare himself for the enterprise. 

Continued commerce with the Western Indians 
gave protection and confirmed their attachment. 
Talon, the intendant of the colony of New France, 
to further spread its power and to learn more of the 
country and its inhabitants, convened a congress 
of the Indians at the Falls of St. Mary, to which 
he sent St. Lusson on his behalf Nicholas Perrot 
sent invitations in every direction for more than a 
hundred leagues round about, and fourteen nations, 
among them Sacs, Foxes and Miamis, agreed to be 
present by their embassadors. 

The congress met on the fourth day of June, 
1671. St. Lusson, through Allouez, his interpre- 
ter, announced to the assembled natives that they, 
and through them their nations, were placed under 
the protection of the French King, and to him 
were their furs and peltries to be traded. A cross 
of cedar was raised, and amidst the groves of ma- 
ple and of pine, of elm and hemlock that are so 
strangely intermingled- on the banks of the St. 
Mary, the whole company of the French, bowing 
before the emblem of man's redemption, chanted to 
its glory a hymn of the seventh century : 

"The banners of^ heaven's King advance; 
The mysteries of the Cross shines forth."* 

A cedar column was planted by the cross and 
marked with the lilies of the Bourbons. The 
power of France, thus uplifted in the West of 
which Ohio is now a part, was, however, not destined 

* Bancroft. 



to endure, and the ambition of its monarchs was 
to have only a partial fulfillment. 

The same year that the congress was held, Mar- 
quette had founded a mission among the Hurons 
at Point St. Ignace, on the continent north of the 
peninsula of Michigan. Although the climate 
was severe, and vegetation scarce, yet fish abounded, 
and at this establishment, long maintained as a 
key to further explorations, prayer and praise were 
heard daily for many years. Here, also, Marquette 
gained a footing among the founders of Michigan. 
While he was doing this, AUouez and Dablon were 
exploring countries south and west, going as far as 
the Mascoutins and Kickapoos on the Milwaukee, 
and the Miamis at the head of Lake Michigan. 
AUouez continued even as far as the Sacs and Foxes 
I on the river which bears their name. 

The discovery of the Mississippi, heightened by 
these explorations, was now at hand. The entcir- 
prise, projected by Marquette, was received with 
favor by M. Talon, who desired thus to perpetuate 
his rule in New France, now drawing to a close. 
He was joined by Joliet, of Quebec, an emissary 
of his King, commissioned by royal magnate to 
take possession of the country in the name of- the 
French. Of him but little else is known. This 
one excursion, however, gives him immortality, 
and as long as time shall last his name and that of 
Marquette will ©ndure. When Marquette made 
known his intention to the Pottawatomies, they 
were filled with wonder, and endeavored to dis- 
suade him from his purpose. "Those distant na- 
tions," said they, " never spare the strangers; the 
Great River abounds in monsters, ready to swal- 
low both men and canoes ; there are great cataracts 
and rapids, over which you will be dashed to 
pieces; the excessive heats will cause your death." 
" I shall gladly lay down my life for the salvation 
of souls," replied the good man; and the docile 
nation joined him. 

On the 9th day of June, 1673, they reached 
the village on Fox River, where were Kickapoos, 
Mascoutins and Miamis dwelling together on an 
expanse of lovely prairie, dotted here and thereby 
groves of magnificent trees, and where was a 
cross garlanded by wild flowers, and bows and ar- 
rows, and skius and belts, offerings to the Great 
Manitou. AUouez had been here in one of his 
wandering's, and, as was his wont, had left this 
emblem of his faith. 

Assembling the natives, Marquette said, " My 
companion is an envoy of France to discover new 
countries ; and I am an embassador from God to 

enlighten them with the Gospel." Offering pres- 
ents, he begged two guides for the morrow. The 
Indians answered courteously, and gave in 
return a mat to serve as a couch during the long 

Early in th^ morning of the next day, the 10th 
of June, with all nature in her brightest robes, 
these two men, with five Frenchmen and two Al- 
gonquin guides, set out on their journey. Lifting 
two canoes to their shoulders, they quickly cross 
the narrow portage dividing the Fox from the 
Wisconsin River, and prepare to embark on its 
clear waters. " Uttering a special prayer to the 
Immaculate Virgin, they leave the stream, that, 
flowing onward, could have borne their greetings 
to the castle of Quebec. 'The guides returned,' 
says the gentle Marquette, 'leaving us alone in 
this unknown land, in the hand of Providence.' 
France and Christianity stood alone in the valley 
of the Mississippi. Embarking on the broad 
Wisconsin, the discoverers, as they sailed west, 
went solitarily down the stream between alternate 
prairies and hillsides, beholding neither man nor 
the wonted beasts of the forests ; no sound broke 
the silence but the ripple of the canoe and the 
lowing of the buffalo. In seven days, 'they en- 
tered happily the Great River, with a joy that 
could not be expressed ; ' and the two birchbark 
canoes, raising their happy sails uijder new skies 
and to unknown breezes, floated down the calm 
! magnificence of the ocean stream, over the broad, 
clear sand-bars, the resort of innumerable water- 
fowl — gliding past islets that swelled fi-om the 
bosom of the stream, with their tufts of massive 
thickets, and between the wild plains of Illinois 
and Iowa, all garlanded with majestic forests, or 
checkered by island groves and the open vastness 
of the prairie."* 

Continuing on down the mighty stream, they 
saw no signs of human life until the 25th of 
June, when they discovered a small foot-path on the 
west bank of the river, leading away into the 
prairie. Leaving their companions in the canoes, 
Marquette and Joliet foUowed. the path, resolved 
to brave a 'meeting alone with the savages. After 
a walk of six miles they came in sight of a village 
on the banks of a river, while not far away they 
discovered two others. The river was the " Mou- 
in-gou-e-na," or Moingona, now corrupted into 
Des Moines. These two men, the first of , their 
race who ever trod the soil west of the Great 

i 'V 




River, commended themselves to God, and, utterinp; 
a loud cry, advanced to the nearest village. 
The Indians hear, and thinking their visitors 
celestial beings, four old men advance with rever- 
ential mien, and offer the pipe of peace. " We 
are Illinois," said they, and they offered the calu- 
met. They had heard of the Frenchmen, and 
welcomed them to their wigwams, followed by the 
devouring gaze of an astonished crowd. At a 
great council held soon after, Marquette published 
to them the true Grod, their Author. He, also 
spoke of his nation and of his King, who had 
chastised the Five Nations and commanded peace. 
He questioned them concerning the Great River 
and its tributaries, and the tribes dweUing on its 
banks. A magnificent feast was spread before 
them, and the conference continued several days. 
At the close of the sixth day, the chieftains of the 
tribes, with numerous trains of warriors, attended 
the visitors to their canoes, and selecting a peace- 
pipe, gayly comparisoned, they hung the sacred 
calumet, emblem of peace to all and a safeguard 
among the nations, about the good Father's neck, 
and bid the strangers good speed. "I did not 
fear death," writes Marquette; "I should have 
esteemed it the greatest happiness to have died 
for the glory of God." On their journey, they 
passed the perpendicular rocks, whose sculptured 
sides showed them the monsters they should meet. 
Farther down, they pass the turgid flood of the 
Missouri, known to them by its Algonquin name, 
Pekitanoni. Resolving in his heart to one day 
explore its flood, Marquette rejoiced in the new 
world it evidently could open to him. A little 
farther down, they pass the bluffs where now is a 
mighty emporium, then silent as when created. In 
a little less than forty leagues, they pass the clear 
waters of the beautiful Ohio, then, and long after- 
ward, known as the Wabash. Its banks were in- 
habited by numerous villages of the peaceftil 
Shawanees, who then quailed under the incursions 
of the dreadftil Iroquois. As they go on down the 
mighty stream, the canes become thicker, the insects 
more fierce, the heat more intolerable. The prairies 
and their cool breezes vanish, and forests of white- 
wood, admirable for their vastness and height, crowd 
close upon the pebbly shore. It is observed that the 
Chickasaws have guns, and have learned how to 
use them. Near the latitude of 33 degrees, they 
encounter a great village, whose inhabitants pre- 
sent an inhospitable and warlike front. The pipe 
of peace is held aloft, and instantly the savage foe 
drops his arms and extends a friendly greeting. 

Remaining here till the next day, they are escorted 
lor eight or ten leagues to the village of Akansea. 
They are now at the limit of their voyage. The 
Indians speak a dialect unknown to them. The 
natives show furs and axes of steel, the latter prov- 
ing they have traded with Europeans. The two 
travelers now learn that the Father of Wa- 
ters went neither to the Western sea nor to the 
I* lorida coast, but straight south, and conclude not 
to encounter the burning heats of a tropical clime, 
but return and find the outlet again. They 
had done enough now, and must report their dis- 

On the 17th day of July, 1673, one hundred 
and thirty-two years after the disastrous journey 
of De Soto, which led to no permanent results, 
Marquette and Joliet left the village of Akansea 
on their way back. At the 38th degree, they en- 
counter the waters of the Illinois which they had 
before noticed, and which the natives told them 
afforded a much shorter route to the lakes. Pad- 
dling up its limpid waters, they see a country un- 
surpassed in beauty. Broad prairies, beautiful up- 
lands, luxuriant groves, all mingled in excellent 
harmony as they ascend the river. Near the head 
of the river, they pause at a great village of the 
Illinois, and across the river behold a rocky prom- 
ontory standing boldly out against the landscape. 
The Indians entreat the gentle missionary to re- 
main among them, and teach them the way of life. 
He cannot do this, but promises to return when he 
can and instruct them. The town was on a plain 
near the present village of Utica, in La Salle 
County, 111., and the rock was Starved Rock, 
afterward noted in the annals of the Northwest. 
One of the chiefs and some young men conduct 
the party to the Chicago River, where the present 
mighty city is, from where, continuing their jour- 
ney along the western shores of the lake, they 
reach Green Bay early in September. 

The great valley of the West was now open. 
The "Messippi" rolled its mighty flood to a 'south- 
ern sea, and must be sully explored. Marquette's 
health had keenly suffered by the voyage and he 
concluded to remain here and rest. Joliet hasten- 
ed on to Quebec to report his discoveries. During 
the journey, each had preserved a description of 
the route they had passed over, as well as the 
country and its inhabitants. While on the way 
to Quebec, at. the foot of the rapids near Montreal, 
by some means one of Joliet's canoes became cap- 
sized, and by it he lost his box of papers and two 
of his men. A greater calamity could have 





hardly happened him. In a letter to Gov. 
Frontenac, JoEet says : 

" I had escaped every peril from the Indians ; I 
had passed forty-two rapids, and was on the point 
of disembarking, full of joy at the success of so 
long and difficult an enterprise, when my canoe 
capsized after all the danger seemed over. I lost 
my two men and box of papers within sight of the 
French settlements, which I had left almost two 
years before. Nothing remains now to me but 
my life, and the ardent desire to employ it in any 
service you may please to direct." 

When Joliet made known his discoveries, a 
Te Deum was chanted in the Cathedral at Quebec, 
and all Canada was filled with joy. The news 
crossed the ocean, and the French saw in the vista 
of coming years a v^t dependency arise in the val- 
ley, partially explored, which was to extend her 
domain and enrich her treasury. Fearing En- 
gland might profit by the discovery and claim the 
country, she attempted as far as possible to prevent 
the news from becoming general. Joliet was re- 
warded by the gift of the Island of Anticosti, in 
the St. Lawrence, while Marquette, conscious of 
his service to his Master, was content with the 
salvation of souls. 

Marquette, left at Green Bay, suffered long with 
his malady, and was not permitted, until the au- 
tumn of the following year (1674), to return and 
teach the Illinois Indians. With this purpose in 
view, he left Green Bay on the 25th of October 
with two Frenchmen and a number of Illinois and 
Pottawatomie Indians for the villages on the 
Chicago and Illinois Rivers. Entering Lake 
Michigan, they encountered adverse winds and 
waves and were more than a month on the way. 
Going some distance up the Chicago River, they 
found Marquette too weak to proceed farther, his 
malady having assumed a violent form, and land- 
ing, they erected two huts and prepared to pass 
the winter. The good missionary taught the na- 
tives here daily, in spite of his afflictions, while 
his companions supplied him and themselves with 
food by fishing and hunting. Thus the winter 
wore away, and Marquette, renewing his vows, pre- 
pared to go on to the village at the foot of the 
rocky citadel, where he had been two years before. 
On the 13th of March, 1675, they left their huts 
and; rowing on up the Chicago to the portage be- 
tween that and the Desplaines, embarked on their 
way. Amid the incessant rains of spring, they 
were rapidly borne down that stream to the Illi- 
nois, on whose rushing flood they floated to the 

object of their destination. At the great town the 
missionary was received as a heavenly messenger, 
and as he preached to them of heaven and hell, 
of angels and demons, of good and bad deeds, 
they regarded him as divine and besought him to 
remain among them. The town then contained an 
immense concourse of natives, drawn hither by the 
reports they heard, and assembling them before him 
on the plain near their village, where now are pros- 
perous farms, he held before their astonished gaze 
four large pictures of the Holy Virgin, and daily 
harangued them on the duties of Christianity and 
the necessity of conforming their conduct to the 
words they heard. His strength was fast declining 
and warned 'him he could not long remain. Find- 
ing he must go, the Indians furnished him an 
escort as far as the lake, on whose turbulent waters 
he embarked with his two faithfiil attendants. 
They turned their canoes for the Mackinaw Mis- 
sion, which the afflicted missionary hoped to reach 
before death came. As they coasted along the 
eastern shores of the lake, the vernal hue of May 
began to cover the hillsides with robes of green, 
now dimmed to the eye of the departing Father, who 
became too weak to view them. By the 19th of 
the month, he could go no farther, and requested 
his men to land and build him a hut in which he 
might pass away. That done, he gave, with great 
composure, directions concerning his burial, and 
thanked God that he was permitted to die in the 
wilderness in the midst of his work, an unshaken 
believer in the faith he had so earnestly preached. 
As twilight came on, he told his weary attendants 
to rest, promising that when death should come he 
would call them. At an early hour, on the morn- 
ing of the 20th of May, 1675, they heard a feeble 
voice, and hastening to his side found that the gen- 
tle spirit of the good missionary had gone to heav- 
en. His hand grasped the crucifix, and his lips 
bore as their last sound the name of the Virgin. 
They dug a grave near the banks of the stream 
and buried him as he had requested. There in a 
lonely wilderness the peaceful soul of Marquette 
had at last found a rest, and his weary labors closed. 
His companions went on to the mission, where 
the news of his death caused great sorrow, for he 
was one beloved by all. 

Three years after his burial, the Ottawas, hunting 
in the vicinity of his grave, determined to parry 
his bones to the mission at their home, in accor- 
dance with an ancient custom of their tribe. Hav- 
ing opened the grave, at whose head a cross had 
been planted, they careftiUy removed the bones and 






cleaning them, a funeral procession of thirty canoes 
* bore them to the Mackinaw Mission, singing the 
songs he had taught them. At the shores of the 
mission the bones were received by the priests, and, 
with great ceremony, buried under the floor of the 
rude chapel. 

While Marquette and Joliet were exploring the 
head-waters of the "Great River," another man, 
fearless in purpose, pious in heart, and loyal to 
his country, was living in Canada and watching 
the operations of his fellow countrymen with 
keen eyes. When the French first saw the in- 
hospitable shores of the St. Lawrence, in 1535, 
under the lead of Jacques Cartier, and had opened 
a new country to their crown, men were not 
lacking to further extend the discovery. In 1608, 
Champlain came, and at the foot of a cliff on that 
river founded Quebec. Seven years after, he 
brought four Recollet monks ; and through them 
and the Jesuits the discoveries already narrated 
occurred. Champlain died in 1635, one hundred 
years after Cartier's first visit, but not until he 
had explored the northern lakes as far as Lake 
Huron, on whose rocky shores he, as the progenitor 
of a mighty race to follow, set his feet. He, with 
others, held to the idea that somewhere across the 
country, a river highway extended to the Western 
ocean. The reports from the missions whose 
history has been given aided this belief; and not 
until Marquette and Joliet returned was the delu- 
sion in any way dispelled. Before this was done, 
however, the man to whom reference has been 
made, Robert Cavalier, better known as La Salle, 
had endeavored to solve the mystery, and, while 
living on his grant of land eight miles above 
Montreal, had indeed effected important discoveries. 
La Salle, the next actor in the field of explor- 
ation after Champlain, was born in 1643. His 
father's family was among the old and wealthy 
bm-ghers of Rouen, France, and its members 
were frequently entrusted with important govern- 
mental positions. He early exhibited such traits 
of character as to mark him among his associates. 
Coming from a wealthy family, he enjoyed all the 
advantages of his day, and received, for the times, 
an excellent education. He was a Catholic, 
though his subsequent life does not prove him 
to have been a religious enthusiast. From some 
cause, he joined the Order of Loyola, but the cir- 
cumscribed sphere of action set for him in the 
order illy concurred with his independent dis- 
position, and led to his separation from it. This 
was effected, however, in a good spirit, as they 

considered him fit for a different field of action 
than any presented by the order. Having a 
brother in Canada, a member of the order of St. 
Sulpice, he determined to join him. By his 
connection with the Jesuits he had lost his share 
of his father's estate, but, by some means, on his 
death, which occurred about this time, he was ' 
given a small share; and with this, in 1666, 
he arrived in Montreal. All Canada was alive 
with the news of the explorations; and La 
Salle's mind, actively grasping the ideas he 
afterward carried out, began to mature plans for 
their perfection. At Montreal he found a semi- 
nary of priests of the St. Sulpice Order who were 
encouraging settlers by grants of land on easy 
terms, hoping to establish a barrier of settlemente 
between themselves and the Indians, made ene- 
mies to the French by Champlain's actions when 
founding Quebec. The Superior of the seminary, 
learning of LaSalle's arrival, gratuitously offered 
him a grant of land on the St. Lawrence, eight 
miles above Montreal. The grant, though danger- 
ously near the hostile Indians, was accepted, and 
La Salle soon enjoyed an excellent trade in furs. 
While employed in developing his claim, he learned 
of the great unknown route, and burned with a 
desire to solve its existence. He applied himself 
closely to the study of Indian dialects, and in 
three years is said to have made great progress 
in their language. While on his farm his 
thoughts often turned to the unknown land away 
to the west, and, like all men of his day, he 
desired to explore the route to the Western sea, 
and thence obtain an easy trade with China and 
Japan. The " Great River, which flowed to the 
sea," must, thought they, find an outlet in the 
Gulf of California. While musing on these 
things, Marquette and Joliet were preparing to 
descend the Wisconsin; and La Salle himself 
learned from a wandering band of Senecas that a 
river, called the Ohio, arose in their country and 
flowed to the sea, but at such a distance that it 
would require eight months to reach its mouth. 
This must be the Great River, or a part of it: 
for all geographers of the day considered the 
Mississippi and its tributary as one stream. Plac- 
ing great confidence on this hypothesis, La Salle 
repaired to Quebec to obtain the sanction 
of Gov. Courcelles. His plausible statements 
soon won him the Governor and M. Talon, and 
letters patent were issued granting the exploration. 
No pecuniary aid was offered, and La Salle, hav- 
ing expended all his means in improving his 

9 ^r 




estate, was obliged to sell it to procure the 
necessary outfit. . The Superior of the seminary 
being favorably disposed toward him, purchased 
the greater part of his improvement, and realiz- 
ing 2,800 livres, he purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the expedition. The semi- 
nary was, at the same time, preparing for a similar 
exploration. The priests of this order, emulating 
the Jesuits, had established missions on the north- 
ern shore of Lake Ontario. Hearing of populous 
tribes still fiirther west, they resolved to attempt 
their conversion, and deputized two of their number 
for the purpose. On going to Quebec to procure 
the necessary supplies, they were advised of La 
Salle's expedition down the Ohio, and resolved to 
unite themselves with it. La Salle did ilot alto- 
gether favor their attempt, as he believed the 
Jesuits already had the field, and would not care 
to have any aid from a rival order. His dispo- 
sition also would not well brook the part they 
assumed, of asking him to be a co-laborer rather 
than a leader. However, the expeditions, merged 
into one body, left the mission on the St. Law- 
rence on the 6th of July, 1669, in sdven canoes. 
The party numbered twenty-four persons, who 
were accompanied by two canoes filled with 
Indians who had visited La Salle, and who now 
acted as guides. Their guides led them up the 
St. Lawrence, over the expanse of Lake Ontario, 
to their village on the banks of the Genesee, 
where they expected to find guides to lead them 
on to the Ohio. As La Salle only partially under- 
stood their language, he was co.mpelled to confer 
with them by means of a Jesuit stationed at the 
village. The Indians refused to furnish him the 
expected aid, and even burned before his eyes a 
prisoner, the only one who could give him any 
knowledge he desired. He surmised the Jesuits 
were at the bottom of the matter, fearful lest the 
disciples of St. Sulpice should gain a foothold in 
the west. He lingered here a month, with the 
hope of accomplishing his object, when, by chance, 
there came by an Iroquois Indian, who assured 
them that at his colony, near the head of the lake, 
they could find guides ; and ofiered to conduct 
them thither. Coming along the southern shore 
of the lake, they passed, at its western extremity, 
the mouth of the Niagara River, where they heard 
for the first time the thunder of the mighty cata- 
ract between the two lakes. At the village of the 
Iroquois they met a friendly reception, and were 
informed by a Shawanese prisoner that they could 
reach the Ohio in six weeks' time, and that he 

would guide them there. While preparing to 
commence the journey, they heard of the missions 
to the northwest, and the priests resolved to go 
there and convert the natives, and find the river 
by that route. It appears that Louis Joliet met 
them here, on his return from visiting the copper 
mines, of Lake Superior, under command of M. 
Talon. He gave the priests a map of the country, 
and informed them that the Indians of those 
regions were in great need of spiritual advisers. 
This strengthened their intention, though warned 
by La Salle, that the Jesuits were undoubtedly 
there. The authority for Joliet's visit to them 
here is not clearly given, and may not be true, 
but the same letter which gives the account of 
the discovery of the Ohio at this time by La Salle, 
states it as a fact, and it is hence inserted. The 
missionaries and La Salle separated, the former to 
find, as he had predicted, the followers of Loyola 
already in the field, and not wanting their aid. 
Hence they return from a fruitless tour, 

La Salle, now left to himself and just recovering 
from a violent fever, went on his journey. From 
the paper from which these statements are taken, 
it appears he went on to Onondaga, where h^ pro- 
cured guides jfo a; tributary of the Ohio, down 
which he proceeded to the principal stream, on 
whose bosom he continued his way till he came to 
the falls at the present city of Louisville, Ky. It 
has been asserted that he went on down to its 
mouth, but that is not well authenticated and is 
hardly true. The statement that he went as far as 
the falls is, doubtless, correct. He states, in a letter 
to Count Prontenac in 16T7, that he discovered 
the Ohio, and that he descended it to the falls. 
Moreover, Joliet, in a measure his rival, for he was 
now preparing to go to the northern lakes and 
from them search the river, made two maps repre- 
senting the lakes and the Mississippi, on both of 
which he states that La Salle had discovered the 
Ohio. Of its course beyond the falls, La Salle 
does not seem to have learned anything definite, 
hence his discovery did not in any way settle the 
great question, and elicited but little comment. 
Still, it stimulated La Salle to more effort, and 
while musing on his plans, Joliet and Marquette 
push on from Green Bay, and discover the river 
and ascertain the general course of its outlet. On 
Joliet's return in 1673, he seems to drop from 
further notice. Other and more venturesome souls 
were ready M finish the work begun by himself 
and the zealous Marquette, who, left among the 
far-away nations, laid down his life. The spirit of 




La Salle was equal to the enterprise, and as he now 
had returned from one voyage of discovery, he 
stood ready to solve the mystery, and gain the 
country for his King. Before this could be ac- 
complished, however, he saw other things must be 
done, and made preparations on a scale, for the 
time, truly marvelous. 

Count Frontenac, the new Governor, had no 
sooner established himself in power than he gave a 
searching glance over the new realm to see if any 
undeveloped resources lay yet unnoticed, and what 
country yet remained open. He learned from the 
exploits of La Salle on the Ohio, and from Joliet, 
now returned from the West, of that immense 
country, and resolving in his mind on some plan 
whereby it could be formally taken, entered 
heartily into the plans of La Salle, who, anxious to 
solve the mystery concerning the outlet of the 
, Great River, gave him the outline of a plan, saga- 
cious in its conception and grand in its compre- 
hension. La Salle had also informed him of the 
endeavors of the English on the Atlantic coast to 
divert the trade , with the Indians, and partly to 
counteract this, were the plans of La Salle adopted. 
They were, briefly, to build a chain of forts from 
Canada, or New France, along the Ja,kes to the 
MissLssippi, and on dowa that river, thereby hold- 
ing the country by power as well as by discovery. 
A fort was to be built on the Ohio as soon as the 
means could be obtained, and thereby hold that 
country by the same policy. Thus to La Salle 
alone may be ascribed the bold plan of gaining the 
whole West, a plan only thwarted by the force of 
arms. Through the aid of Frontenac, 'he was 
given a, proprietary and the rank of nobility, and 
on his proprietary was erected a fort, which he, in 
honor of his Governor, called Fort Frontenac. It 
stood on the site of the present city of Kingston, 
Canada. Through it he obtained the trade of the 
Five Nations, and his fortune was so far assured. 
He next repaired to France, to perfect his arrange- 
ments, secure his title and obtain means. 

On his return he built the fort alluded to, and 
prepared to go on in the prosecution of his plan. 
A civil discord arose, however, which for three 
years prevailed; and seriously threatened his 
projects. As soon as he could extricate himself, 
he again repaired to France, receiving additional 
encouragement in money, grants, and the exclusive 
privilege of* a trade in buffalo skins, then consid- 
ered a source of great wealth. On his return, he 
was accompanied by Henry Tonti, son of an illus- 
trious Italian nobleman, who had fled from his 

own country during one of its political revolutions. 
Coming to France, he made himself famous as the 
founder of Tontine Life Insurance. Henry Tonti 
possessed an indomitable will, and though he had 
suffered the loss of one of his hands by the ex- 
plosion of a grenade in one of the Sicilian wars, 
his courage was undaunted, and his ardor un- 
dimmed. La Salle also brought recruits, mechanics, 
sailors, cordage and saiis for rigging a ship, and 
merchandise for traffic with the natives. At 
Montreal, he secured the services of M. LaMotte, a 
person of much energy and integrity of character. 
He also secured several missionaries before he 
reached Fort Frontenac. Among them were 
Louis Hennepin, Gabriel Ribourde and Zenabe 
Membre. All these were Flemings, all Recollets. 
Hennepin, of all of them, proved the best assist- 
ant. They arrived at the fort early in the autumn 
of 1678, and preparations were id, once made to 
erect a vessel in which to navigate the lakes, and 
a fort at the mouth of the Niagara River. The 
Senecas were rather adverse to the latter proposals 
when La Motte and Hennepin came, but by 
^he eloquence of the latter, they were pacified 
and rendered friendly. After a number of vexa- 
tious delays, the vessel, the Griffin, the first on the 
lakes, was built, and on the 7th of August, a year 
after La Salle came here, it was launched, passed 
over the waters of the northern lakes, and, after a 
tempestuous voyage, landed at Green Bay. It was 
soon after stored with furs and sent back, while 
La Salle and his men awaited its return. It was 
never afterward heard of. La Salle, becoming 
impatient, erected a fort, pushed on with a 
part of his men, leaving part at the fort, 
and passed over the St. Joseph and Kankakee 
Rivers., and thence to the Illinois, down, whose 
flood they proceeded to Peoria Lake, where 
he was obliged to halt, and return to Canada, 
for more men and supplies. He left Tonti 
and several men to complete a fort, called 
Fort " Crevecceur " — broken-hearted. The Indians 
drove the French, away, the men mutinied, and 
Tonti was obliged to flee. When La Salle returned, 
he found no on^ there, and going down as far as 
the mouth of the Illinois, he retraced his steps, to 
find some trace of his garrison. Tonti was found 
safe among the Pottawatomies at Green Bay, and 
Hennepin and his two followers, sent to explore 
the head-waters' of the Mississippi, were again 
home, after a captivity among the Sioux. 

La Salle renewed his force of men, and the third 
time set out for the outlet of the Great River. 




He left Canada early in December, 1681, and by 
February 6, 1682, reached the majestic flood of 
the mighty stream. On the 24th, they ascended 
the Chickasaw Bluffs, and, while waiting to find 
a sailor who had strayed away, erected Fort Prud- 
homme, They passed several Indian villages fur- 
ther down the river, in some of which they met 
with no little opposition. Proceeding onward, ere- 
long they encountered the tide of the sea, and 
April 6, they emerged on the broad bosom of the 
Gulf, " tossing its restless billows, Jimitless, voice- 
less and lonely as when born of chaos, without a 
sign of life." 

Coasting about a short time on the shores of 
the Gulf, the party returned until a sufficiently 
dry place was reached to effect a landing. Here 
another cross was raised, also a column, on which 
was inscribed these words: ^ 

" Louis le Grand, Roi de France et de Navarre, 
Reqne; Le Neuvieme, Avril, 1682." * 

" The whole party," says a " proces verbal," in 
the archives of France, " chanted the Te Deum, 
the ISxaudiat and the Domine salvum fac Regem, 
and then after a salute of fire-arms and cries of, 
Vive le Roi, La Salle, standing near the column, 
said in a loud voice in French : 

"In the name of the most high, mighty, invin- 
cible and victorious Prince, Louis the Great, by 
the grace of God, King of France and of Navarre, 
Fourteenth of that name, this ninth day of April, 
one thousand six hundred and eighty two, I, in 
virtue of the commission of His Majesty, which I 
hold in my hand, and whiph may be seen by all 
whom it may concern, have taken, and do now 
take, in the name of His Majesty and of his suc- 
cessors to the crown, possession of this country of 
Louisiana, the seas, harbor, ports, bays, adjacent 
straights, and all the nations, people, provinces, cities, 
towns, villages, mines, minerals, fisheries, streams 
and rivers, comprised in the extent of said Louisiana, 
from the north of the great river St. Louis, other- 
wise called tAe Ohio, Alighip, Sipore or Chukago- 
na, and this with the consent o% the Chavunons, 
Chickachaws, and other people dwelling therein, 
with whom we have made alliance ; as also along 
the river Colbert or Mississippi, and rivers which 
discharge themselves therein from its source beyond 
the Kious or Nadouessious, and this with their 
consent, and with the consent of the Illinois, Mes- 
igameas, Natchez, Koroas, which are the most con- 
siderable nations dwelling therein, with whom also 

* Louis the Great, King of France and of Navarre, reigning the 
ninth day of April, 1682. 

we have made alliance, either by ourselves or others 
in our behalf, as far as its mouth at the sea or 
Gulf of Mexico, about the twenty-seventh degree 
of its elevation of the North Pole, and also to the 
mouth of the River of Palms; upon the assurance 
which we have received .from all these nations that 
we are the first Europeans who have descended or 
ascended the river Colbert, hereby protesting 
against all those who may in future undertake to 
invade any or all of these countries, peoples or 
lands, to the prejudice of the right of His Majesty, 
acquired by the consent of the nations herein 

The whole assembly responded with shouts and 
the salutes of fire-arms. The Sieur de La Salle 
caused to be planted at the foot of the column a 
plate of lead, on one side of which was inscribed 
the arms of France and the following Latin inscrip- 

RobertTS Cavellier, cvm Domino de Tonly, Legato, 
R. P. Zenobi Membro, RecoUecto, et, Vigintl Gallis 
Primo3 Hoc Flvmen inde ab ilineorvm Pago, enavigavit, 
ejvsqve ostivm fecit Pervivvm, nono Aprilis cio ioc 

The whole proceedings were acknowledged be- 
fore La Metaire, a notary, and the conquest was 
considered complete. 

Thus was the foundation of France laid in the 
new republic, and thus did she lay claim to the 
Northwest, which now includes Ohio, and the 
county, whose history this book perpetuates. 

La Salle and his party returned to Canada soon 
after, and again that country, and Prance itself, 
rang with anthems of exultation. He went on to 
France, where he received the highest honors. 
He was given a fleet, and sailors as well as colon- 
ists to return to the New World by way of a south- 
ern voyage, expecting to find the mouth of the 
Mississippi by an ocean course. Sailing past the 
outlets, he was wrecked on the coast of Texas, and 
in his vain endeavors to find the river or return to 
Canada, he became lost on the plains of Arkansas, 
where he, in 1687, was basely murdered by one of 
hisfollowers. " Youaredown now, GrandBashaw," 
exclaimed his slayer, and despoiling his remains, they 
left them to be devoured by wild beasts. To such 
an ignominious end came this daring, bold adven- 
turer. Alone in the wilderness, he was left, with 
no monument but the vast realm he had discov- 
ered, on whose bosom he was left without cover- , 
ing and without protection. 

" For force of will and vast conception ; for va- 
rious knowledge, and quick adaptation of his genius 






to untried circumstances ; for a sublime magnani- 
mity, that resigned itself to the will of Heaven, 
and yet triumphed over affliction by energy of 
purpose and unfaltering hope — he had no superior 
among his countrytnen. He had won the affec- 
tions of the governor of Canada, .the esteem of 
Colbert, the confidence of Seignelay, the favor of 
Louis XIV. After the beginning of the coloniza- 
tion of Upper Canada, he perfected the discovery 
of the Mississippi from the Falls of St. Anthony 
to its mouth ; and he will be remembered through 
all time as the father of colonization in the great 
central valley of the West."* 

Avarice, passion and jealousy were not calmed by 
the blood of La Salle. All of his conspirators per- 
ished by ignoble deaths, while only seven of the six- 
teen succeeded in continuing the journey until 
they reached Canada, and thence found their way 
to France. 

Tonti, who had been left at Fort St. Louis, on 
" Starved Rock" on the Illinois, went down in 
search of his beloved commander. Failing to find 
him, he returned and remained here until 1700, 
thousands of miles away from friends. Then he 
went down the Mississippi to join D'I)Derville, who 
had made the discovery of the mouth ,of the Mis- 
sissippi by an ocean voyage. Two years later, he 
went on a mission to the Chickasaws, but of his 
subsequent history nothing is known. 

The West was now in possession of the French. 
La Salle's plans were yet feasible. The period of 
exploration was now over. The great river and 
its outlet was known, and it only remained for that 
nation to enter in and occupy what to many a 
Frenchman was the "Promised Land." Only 
eighteen years had elapsed since Marqi^ette and 
Joliet had descended the river and shown the 
course of its outlet. A spirit, less bold than La 
Salle's would never in so short a time have pene- 
trated for more than a thousand miles an unknown 
wilderness, and solved the mystery of the world. 

When Joutel and his companions reached France 
in 1688, all Plurope was on the eve of war. Other 
nations than the French wanted part of the New 
World, and when they saw that nation greedily 
and rapidly accumulating territory there, they en- 
deavored to stay its progress. The league of Augs- 
burg was formed in 1687 by the princes of the Em- 
pire to restrain the ambition of Louis XIV, and 
in 1688, he began hostilities by the capture of 
Philipsburg. 'The next year, England, under the 

* Bancroft. 

lead of William III, joined the alliance, and Louis 
found himself compelled, with only the aid of the 
Turks, to contend against the united forces of the 
Empires of England, Spain, Holland, Denmark, 
Sweden and Norway. Yet the tide of battle wa- 
vered. In 1689, the French were defeated at 
Walcourt, and the T^urks at Widin; but in 1690, 
the French were victorious at Charleroy, and the 
Turks at Belgrade. The next year, and also the 
next, victory inclined to the French, but in 1693, 
Louvois and Luxemberg were dead and Namur 
surrendered to the allies. The war extended to the 
New World, where it was maintained with more 
than equal success by the French, though the En' 
glish population exceeded it more than twenty to one. 
In 1688, the French were estimated at about 
twelve thousand souls in North America, while the 
English were more than two hundred thousand. 
At first the war was prosecuted vigorously. In 
1689, De. Ste. Helene and D'Iberville, two of the 
sons of Charles le Morne, crossed the wilderness 
and reduced the English forts on Hudson's Bay. 
But in August of the same year, the Iroquois, the 
hereditary foes of the French, captured and burned 
Montreal. Frontenac, who had gone on an ex- 
pedition against New York by sea, was recalled. 
Fort Frontenac was abandoned, and no French 
posts left in the West between Trois Rivieres and 
Mackinaw, and were it not for the Jesuits the en- 
tire West would now have been abandoned. To 
recover their influence, the French planned three 
expeditions. -One resulted in the destruction of 
Schenectady, another, Salmon Falls, and the third, 
Casco Bay. On the other hand. Nova Scotia was 
reduced by the colonies, and an expedition against 
Montreal went as far as t6 Lake Champlain, where 
it failed, owing to the dissensions of the leaders. 
Another expedition, consisting of twenty-four ves- 
sels, arrived before Quebec, which also failed 
through the incompetency of Sir William Phipps. 
During the succeeding years, various border con- 
flicts occurred, in all of which border scenes of 
savage cruelty and savage ferocity were enacted. 
The peace of Ryswick, in 1697, closed the war. 
France retained Hudson's Bay, and all the places 
of which she was in possession in 1688; but the 
boundaries of the English and French claims in 
the New World were still unsettled. 

The conclusion of the conflict left the French 
at liberty to pursue their scheme of colonization 
in the Mississippi Valley. In 1698, D'Iberville 
was sent to the lower province, which, erelong, 
was made a separate independency, called Louisiana. 





Forts were erected on Mobile Bay, and the division 
of the territory between the French and the 
Spaniards was settled. Trouble existed between 
the French and the Chickasaws, ending in the 
cruel deaths of many of the leaders, in the 
fruitless endeavors of the Canadian and Louisi- 
anian forces combining against the Chickasaws. 
For many years the conflict raged, with unequal 
successes, until the Indian power gave way before 
superior military tactics. In the end, New Orleans 
was founded, in 1718, and the French power 

Before this was consummated, however, France 
became entangled in another war against the 
allied powers, ending in her defeat and the loss 
of Nova Scotia, Hudson's Bay and Newfound- 
land. The peace of Utrecht closed the war 
in 1713. 

The French, weary with prolonged strife, 
adopted the plan, more peaceful in its nature, of 
giving out to distinguished men the monopoly of 
certain districts in the fur trade, the most pros- 
perous of any avocation then. Crozat and 
Cadillac — the latter the founder of Detroit, in 
1701 — were the chief ones concerned in this. 
The founding of the villages of Kaskaskia, Ca- 
hokia, Vincennes, , and others in the Mississippi 
and Wabash Valleys, led to the rapid develop- 
ment, according to the French custom of all 
these parts of the West, while along all the chief 
water-courses, other trading posts and forts were 
established, rapidly fulfilling the hopes of La 
Salle, broached so many years before. 

The French had, at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, four principal routes to their 
western towns, two of which passed over the soil 
of Ohio. The first of these was the one followed 
by Marquette and Joliet, by way of the Lakes to 
Green Bay, in Wisconsin ; thence across a portage 
to the Wisconsin River, down 'which they floated 
to the Mississippi. On theii- return they came 
up the Illinois River, to the site of Chicago, 
whence Joliet returned to Quebec by the Lakes. 
La Salle's route was first by the Lakes to the St. 
Joseph's River, which he followed to the portajj^e 
to the Kankakee, and thence downward to the 
Mississippi. On his second and third attempt, 
he crossed the lower peninsula of Michigan to 
the Kankakee, and again traversed its waters to 
the Illinois. The third route was established 
about 1716. It followed the southern shores of 
Lake Erie to the mouth of the Maumee River ; 
following this stream, the voyagers went on to the 

junction between it and the St. Mary's, which 
they followed to the " Oubache " — Wabash — and 
then to the French villages in Vigo and Knox 
Counties, in Indiana. Vincennes was the oldest 
and most important one here. It had been 
founded in 1702 by a French trader, and was, at 
the date of the establishment of the third route, 
in a prosperous condition. For many years, the 
traders crossed the plains of Southern Illinois to 
the French towns on the bottoms opposite St. 
Louis. They were afraid to go on down the 
"Waba" to the Ohio, as the Indians had fright- 
ened them with accounts of the great monsters 
below. Finally, some adventurous spirit went 
down the river, found it emptied into the Ohio, 
and solved the problem of the true outlet of the 
Ohio, heretofore supposed to be a tributary of the 

The fourth route was from the southern shore 
of Lake Erie, at Presqiieville, over a portage of 
fifteen miles to the head of French Creek, at 
Waterford; Penn. ; thence down that stream to the 
Ohio, and on to the Mississippi. Along all these 
routes, ports and posts were carefully maintained. 
Many were on the soil of Ohio, and were the first 
attempts of the white race to possess its domain. 
Many of the ruins of these posts are yet found on 
the southern shore of Lake Erie, and at the 
outlets of streams flowing into the lake and the Ohio 
River. The principal forts- were at Mackinaw, at 
Presqueville, at the mouth of the St. Joseph's, on 
Starved Rock, and along the Father of Waters. 
Yet another power was encroaching on them: a 
sturdy race, clinging to the inhospitable Atlantiq 
shores, were coming over the mountains. The 
murmurs of a conflict were already heard — a con- 
flict that would change the fate of a nation. 

The French were extending their explorations 
beyond the Mississippi", they were also forming a 
political organization, and increasing their influence 
over the natives. Of a passive nature, however, 
their power and their influence could "not with- 
stand a more aggressive nature, and they were 
obliged, finally, to give way. They had the 
fruitful valleys of the West more than a century ; 
yet they developed no resources, opened no mines 
of wealth, and left the country as passive as they 
found it. 

Of the growth of the West under French rule, 
but little else remains to be said. The sturdy 
Anglo-Saxon race on the Atlantic coast, and their 
progenitors in England, began, now, to turn their 
attention to this vast country. The voluptuousness 




of the French court, their neglect of the true 
basis of wealth, agriculture, and the repressive 
tendencies laid on the colonists, led the latter to 
adopt a hunter's life, and leave the country unde- 
veloped and ready for the people who claimed the 
country from "sea to sea." Their explorers were 
now at work. The change was at hand. 

Occasional mention has been made in the his- 
tory of the State, in preceding pages, of settle- 
ments and trading-posts of the French traders, 
explorers and missionaries, within the limits of 
Ohio. The French were the first white men to 
occupy the northwestern part of the New World, 
and though their stay was brief, yet it opened the 
way to a sinewy race, living on the shores of the 
Atlantic, who in time came, saw, and conquered 
that part of America, making it wha:t the people 
of to-day enjoy. 

As early as 1669, four years before the discov- 
ery of the Mississippi by Joliet and Marquette, 
La Salle, the famous explorer, discovered the'Ohio 
River, and paddled down its gentle current as far 
as the falls at the present city of Louisville, but he, 
like others of the day, made no settlement on "its 
banks, only claiming the country for his King by* 
virtue of this discovery. 

Early in the beginning of the eighteenth cent- 
ury, French traders and voyagers passed along the 
southern shores of Lake Erie, to the mouth of the 
Maumee, up whose waters they rowed their bark 
canoes, on their way to their outposts in the Wa- 
bash and Illinois Valleys, established between 
1675 and 1700. As soon as they could, without 
danger from their inveterate enemies, the Iroquois, 
masters of all the lower lake country, erect a 
trading-post at the mouth of this river, they did 
so. It was made a depot of considerable note, 
and was, probably, the first permanent habitation 
of white- men in Ohio. It remained until after 
the peace of 1763, the termination of the French 
and Indian war, and the occupancy of this country 
by the English. On the site of the French trading- 
post, the British, in 1794, erected Fort Miami, 
which they garrisoned until the country came 
under the control of Americans. Now, Maumee 
City covers the ground. 

The French had a trading-post ai the mouth of 
the Huron River, in what is now Erie County. 
When it was built is not now known. It was, how- 
ever, probably one of their early outposts, and 
may have been built before 1750. They had an- 
other on the shore of the bay, on or near the site 
of Sandusky City. Both this and the one at the 

mouth of the Huron River were abandoned before 
the war of the Revolution. On Lewis Evan's map 
of the British Middle Colonies, published in 1755, 
a French fort, called "Fort Junandat, built in 
1754," is marked on the east bank of the San- 
dusky River, several miles below its mouth. Fort 
Sandusky, on the western bank, is also noted. 
Several Wyandot towns are likewise marked. But 
very little is known concerning any of these 
trading-posts. They were, evidently, only tempo- 
rary, and were abandoned when the English came 
into possession of the country. 

The mouth of the Cuyahoga River was another 
important place. On Evan's map there is marked 
on the west bank of the Cuyahoga, some distance 
from its mouth, the words "French House," doubt- 
less, the station of a French trader. The ruins 
of a house, found about five miles from the mouth 
of the river, on the west bank, are supposed to 
be those of the trader's station. 

In 1786, the Moravian missionary, Zeisberger, 
with his Indian converts, left Detroit in a vessel 
called the Mackinaw, and sailed to the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga. From there they went up the 
river about ten miles, and settled in an abandoned 
Ottawa village, where Independenise now is, which 
place they called " Saint's Rest." Their stay was 
brief, for the following April, they left for the 
Huron River, and settled near the site of Milan, 
Erie County, at a locality they called New Salem. 

There are but few records of settlements made 
by the French until after 1750. Even these can 
hardly be called settlements, as they were simply 
trading-posts. The French easily affiliated with 
the Indians, and had little energy beyond trading. 
They never cultivated fields, laid low forests, and 
subjugated the country. They were a half-Indian 
race, so to speak, and hence did little y anything 
in developing the West. 

About 1749, some English traders came to a 
place in what is now Shelby County, on the 
banks of a creek since known as Loramie's 
Creek, and established a trading-station with the 
Indians. This was the first English trading-place 
or attempt at settlement in the State. It was here 
but a short time, however, when the French, hear- 
ing of its existence, sent a party of soldiers to the 
Twigtwees, among whom it was founded, and de- 
manded the traders as intruders upon French ter- 
ritory. The Twigtwees refusing to deliver up 
their friends, the French, assisted by a large party 
of Ottawas and Chippewas, attacked the trading- 
house, probably a block-house, and, after a severe 





battle, captured it. ' The traders were taken to 
Canada. This fort was called by the English 
" Pickawillany," from which "Piqua" is probably 
derived. About the time that Kentucky was set- 
tled, a Canadian Frenchman, named Loramie, 
established a store on the site of the old fort. He 
was a bitter enemy of the Americans, and for a 
long time Loramie' s store was the headquarters of 
mischief toward the settlers. 

The French had the faculty of endearing them- 
selves to the Indians by their easy assimilation of 
their habits; and, no doubt, Loramie was equal to 
any in this respect, and hence gained great influ- 
ence over them. Col. Johnston, many years an 
Indian Agent from the United States among the 
Western tribes; stated that he had often seen the 
" Indians burst into tears when speaking of the 
times when their French father had dominion 
over them ; and their attachment always remained 

So much influence had .Loramie with the In- 
dians, that, when Gen. Clarke, from Kentucky, 
invaded the Miami Valley in 1782, his attention 
was attracted to the spot. He came on and burnt 
the Indian settlement here, and destroyed the store 
of the Frenchman, selling his goods among the 
men at auction. Loramie fled to the Shawanees, 
and, with a coloBy of that nation, emigrated west 
of the Mississippi, to the Spanish possessions, 
where he again began his life of a trader. 

In 1794, during the Indian war, a fort was 
built on the site of the store by Wayne, and 
named Fort Loramie. The last officer who had 
command here was Capt. Butler, a nephew of 
Col. Richard Butler, who fell at St. Clair's defeat. 
While here with his family, he lost an interesting 
boy, about eight years of age. About his grave, 
the sorroi^ng father and mother built a substantial 
picket-fence, planted honeysuckles over it, which, 
long after, remained to mark the grave of the 
soldier's boy. 

The site of Fort Loramie was always an im- 
portant point, and was one of the places defined 
on the boundary line at the Qreenville treaty. 
Now a barn covers the spot. 

At the junction of the Auglaize and Maumee 
Eivers, on the site of Fort Defiance, built by Gen. 
Wayne in 1794, was a settlement of traders, 
established some time before the Indian war 
began. " On the high ground extending from the 
Maumee a quarter of a mile up the Auglaize, 
about two hundred yards in width, was an open 
space, on the west and south of which were oak 

woods, with hazel undergrowth. Within this 
opening, a few hundred yards above the point, on 
the steep bank of the Auglaize, were five or six 
cabins and log houses, inhabited principally by 
Indian traders. The most northerly, a large 
hewed-log house, divided below into three apart- 
ments, was occupied as a warehouse, store and 
dwelling, by George Ironside, the most wealthy 
and influential of the traders on the point. Next 
to his were the houses of Pirault (Pero) a French 
baker, and McKenzie, a Scot, who, in addition to 
merchandising, followed the occupation of a silver- 
smith, exchanging with the Indians his brooches, 
ear-drops and other silver ornaments, at an 
enormous profit, for skins and furs. 

Still further up were several other fami- 
lies of French and English; and two Ameri- 
can prisoners, Henry Ball, a soldier taken in St. 
Clair's defeat, and his wife, Polly Meadows, 
captured at the same time, were allowed to live 
here and pay their masters the price of their 
ransom — he, by boating to the rapids of the Mau- 
mee, and she by washing and sewing. Fronting 
the house of Ironside, and about fifty yards from 
the bank, was a small stockade, inclosing two 
hewed-log houses, one of which was occupied by • 
James Girty (a brother of Simon), the other, 
occasionally, by Elliott and McKee, British 
Indian Agents living at Detroit."* 

The post, cabins and all they contained fell 
under the control of the Americans, when the 
British evacuated the shores of -the lakes. 
While they existed, they were an undoubted 
source of Indian discontent, and had much to do 
in prolonging the Indian war. The country 
hereabouts did not settle until some time after 
tlfe creation of the State government. 

As soon as the French learned the true source 
of the Ohio and Wabash Rivers, both were made 
a highway to convey the products of their hunt- 
ers. In coursing down the Ohio, they made 
trading-places, or depots, where they could obtain 
furs of the Indians, at accessible points, generally 
at the mouths of the rivers emptying into the 
Ohio. One of .these old forts or trading-places 
stood about a mile and a half south of the outlet 
of the Scioto. It was here in 1740; but when 
it was erected no one could tell. The lopality 
must have been pretty well known to the whites, 
however; for, in 1785, three years before the 
settlement of Marietta wab made, four families 

* Narrative of 0. M. Spencer. 

^ % 





made an ineffectual attempt to settle near the same 
place. They were from Kentucky, but were 
driven away by the Indians a short time after 
they arrived, not being allowed to build cabins, 
and had only made prepai-ations to plant corn 
and other necessaries of life. While the men 
were encamped near the vicinity of Piketown, 
in Pike County, when on a hunting expedition, 
they were surprised by the Indians, and two of 
them slain. The others hastened back to the 
encampment at the mouth of the Scioto, and 
hurriedly gathering the families together, fortu- 
nately got them on a flat-boat, at that hour on its 
way down the river. By the aid of the boat, 
they were enabled to reach MaysvUle, and gave 
up the attempt to settle north of the Ohio. 

The famous "old Scioto Salt Works," in Jack- 
son County, on the banks of Salt Creek, a tributary 
of the Scioto, were long known to the whites before 
any attempt M;as made to- settle in Ohio. They 
were indicated on the maps published in 1755. 
They were the resort, for generations, of the In- 
dians in all parts of the West, who annually came 
here to make salt. They oft«n brought white 
prisoners with them, and thus the salt works be- 
came known. There were no attempts made to 
settle here, however, until after the Indian war, 
which closed in 1795. As soon as peace was as- 
sured, the whites came here for salt, and soon after 
made a settlement. Another early salt spring 
was in what is now Trumbull County. It is also 
noted on Evan's map of 1755. They were occu- 
pied by the Indians, French, and by the Americans 
as early as 1780, and perhaps earlier. 

As early as 1761 Moravian missionaries came 
among the Ohio Indians and -began their labors. 
In a few years, under the lead of Revs. Fredrick 
Post and John Heckewelder, permanent stations 
were established in several parts of the State, chief- 
ly on the Tuscarawas River in Tuscarawas County. 
Here were the three Indian villages — Shoenbur^, 
Gnadenhutten and Salem. The site of the first is 
about two miles south of New Philadelphia ; Gna- 
denhutten was seven miles further south, and about 
five miles still on was Salem, a short distajice from 
the present village of Port Washington. The first 
and last named of these villages were on the west 
side of the Tuscarawas River, near the margin of 
the Ohio Canal. Gnadenhutten was on the east 
side of the river. It was here that the brutal 
massacre of these Christian Indians, by the rangers 
under Col. Williamson, occurred March 8, 1782. 
The account of the massacre and of these tribes 

appears in these pages, and it only remains to 
notice what became of them. 

The hospitable and friendly character of these 
Indians had extended beyond their white breth- 
ren on the Ohio. The American people at large 
looked on the act of Williamson and his men as an 
outrage on humanity. Congress felt its influence, 
and gave them a tract of twelve thousand acres, 
embracing their former homes, and induced them 
to return from the northern towns whither they had 
fled. As the whites came into the country, 'their 
manners degenerated until it became necessary to 
remove them. Through Gen. Cass, of Michigan, 
an agreement was made with them, wheseby Con- 
gress paid them over $6,000, an annuity of $400, 
and 24,000 acres in some territgry to be designated 
by the United States. This treaty, by some means, 
was never effectually carried out, and the princi- 
pal part of them took up their residence ■ near a 
Moravian missionary station on the River Thames, 
in Canada. Their old churchyard still exists on 
the Tuscarawas River, and here rest the bones of 
several of their devoted teachers. It is proper 
to remark here, that Mary Heckewelder, daughter 
of the missionary, is generally believed to have 
been the first white child born in Ohio. How- 
ever, this is largely conjecture. Captive women 
among the Indians, before the birth of Mary 
Heckewelder, are known to have borne children, 
which afterward, with their mothers, were restored 
to their friends. The assertion that Mary 
Heckewelder was the first child born in Ohio, is 
therefore incorrect. She is the first of whom any 
definite record is made. 

These outposts and the Gallipolis settlement are 
about all that are known to have existed prior to the 
settlement at Marietta. About one-half mile below 
Bolivar, on the western line of Tuscarawas County, 
are the remains of Fort Laurens, erected in 1778 
by a detachment of 1,000 men under Gen. Mc- 
intosh, from Fort Pitt. It was, however, occu- 
pied but a short time, vacated in August, 1779, as 
it was deemed untehable at such a distance from 
the frontier. 

During the existence of the six years' Indian 
war, a settlement of French emigrants was made 
on the Ohio River, that deserves notice. It illus- 
trates very clearly the extreme ignorance and 
credulity prevalent at that day. In May or June 
of 1788,, Joel Barlow left this country for Europe, 
" authorized to dispose of a very large body of 
land in the West. " In 1790, he distributed pro- 
posals in Paris for the disposal of lands at five 




shillings per acre, which, says Volney, " promised 
a climate healthy and delightfiil ; scarcely such a 
thing as a frost in the winter ; a river, called by 
way of eminence ' The Beautiiul, ' abounding in 
fish of an enormous size; magnificent forests of a 
tree from which sugar flows, and a shrub which 
yields candles ; venison in abundance ; no military 
enrollments, and no quarters to find- for soldiers." 
Purchasers became numerous, individuals and 
whole families sold their property, and in the 
course of 1791 many embarked at the various 
French sea-ports, each with his title in his pocket. 
Five hundred settlers, among whom were many 
wood carvers and guilders to His Majesty, King of 
France, coachmakers, friseurs and peruke makers, 
and other artisans and artistes, equally well fitted 
for a frontier life, arrived in the United States in 
1791-92, and acting without concert, traveling 
without knowledge of the language, customs and 
roads, at last managed to reach the spot designated 
for their residence. There they learned they had 
been cruelly deceived, and that the titles they held 
were worthless. Without food, shelterless, and 
danger closing around them, they were in a position 
that none' but a Frenchman could be in without 
despair. Who brought them thither, and who was 
to blame, is yet a disputed point. Some affirm 
that those to whom large grants of land were made 
when the Ohio Company procured its charter, were 
the real instigators of the movement. They failed 
to pay for their lands, and hence the title reverted 
to the Government. This, coming to the ears of 
the poor Frenchmen,' rendered their situation more 
distressing. They never paid for their lands, and 
only through the clemency of Congress, who after- 
ward gave them a grant of land, and confirmed 
them in its title, were they enabled to secure a foot- 
hold. Whatever doubt there may be as to the 

causes of these people being so .grossly deceived, 
there can be none regarding their suiFerings. They 
had followed a jack-o-lantern into the howling 
wilderness, and must work or starve. The land 
upon which they had been located was covered 
with immense forest trees, to level which the coach- 
makers were at a loss. At last, hoping to conquer 
by a coup de main, they tied ropes to the branches, 
and while a dozen • pulled at them as many fell at 
the trunk with all sorts of edged tools, and thus 
soon brought the monster to the earth. Yet he 
was a burden. He was down, to be sure, but as 
much in the way as ever. Several lopped off the 
branches, others dug an immense trench at his side, 
into which, with might and main, all rolled the 
large log, and then buried him from sight. They 
erected their cabins in a cluster, as they had seen 
them in their own native land, thus aiFording some 
protection from marauding bands of Indians. 
Though isolated here in the lonely wilderness, and 
neatly out of funds with which to purchase pro- 
visions from descending boats, yet once a week 
they met, and drowned care in a merry dance, 
greatly to the wonderment of the scout or lone 
Indian who chanced to witness their revelry. 
Though their vivacity, could work wonders, it would 
not pay for lands nor buy provisions. Some of those 
at Gallipolis (for such they called their settlement, 
from Gallia, in France) went to Detroit, some to 
Kaskaslda, and some bought land of the Ohio 
Company, who treated them liberally. Congress, 
too, in 1795, being informed of their suffering?, 
and how they had been deceived, granted them 
24,000 acres opposite Little Sandy River, to which 
grant, in 1798,. 12,000 acres more were added. 
The tract has since been known as French Grant. 
The settlement is a curious episode in early West- 
ern history,, and deserves a place in its annals. 

""'* ® 









AS has been noted, the French title rested on 
the discoveries of' their missionaries and 
traders, upon the occupation of the country, and 
upon the construction of the treaties of Ryswick, 
Utrecht and Aix la Chapelle. The English 
claims to the same region were based on the ^ct 
of a prior occupation of the corresponding coast, 
on an opposite construction of the same treaties, 
and an alleged cession of the rights of the 
Indians. The rights acquired by discovery were 
conventional, and in equity were good only 
between European powers, and could not affect the 
rights of the natives, but this distinction was dis- 
regarded by all European powers. The inquiry of 
an In,dian chief embodies the whole controversy: 
" Where are the Indian lands, since the French 
claim all on the north side of the Ohio and the 
English all on the south side of it?" 

The English charters expressly granted to all 
the original colonies the country westward to the 
South Sea, and the claims thus set up in the West, 
though held in abeyance, were never relinquished. 
The primary distinction between the two nations 
governed their actions in the New World, and led 
finally to the supremacy of the English. They 
were fixed agricultural communities. The French 
were mere trading-posts. Though the French 
were the prime movers in the exploration of the 
West, the English made discoveries during their 
occupation, however, mainly by their traders, who 
penetrated the Western wilderness by way of the 
Ohio River, entering it from the two streams which 
uniting form that river. Daniel Coxie, in 1722, 
published, in London, "A description of. the 
English province of Carolina, by the Spaniards 
called Florida, and by the French called La Louis- 
iane, as also the great and famous river Mescha- 
cebe, or Mississippi, the five vast navigable lakes 
of fresh water, and the parts adjacent, together 
with an account of the commodities of the growth 
and production of the said province." The title, 
of this work exhibits very clearly the opinions of 
the English people respecting the West. As early 
as 1630, Charles I granted to Sir Robert Heath 
" All that part of America lying between thirty- 

one and thirty-six degrees north latitude, from sea 
to sea," out of which the limits of Carolina were 
afterward taken. This immense grant was con- 
veyed in 1638,' to the Earl of Arundel, and after- 
ward came into the possession of Dr. Daniel Coxie. 
In the prosecution of this claim, it appeared that 
Col. Wood, of Virginia, from 1€54 to 1664, ex- 
plored several branches of the Ohio and " Mescha- 
cebe," as they spell the Mississippi. A Mr. Need- 
ham, who was employed by Col. Wood, kept a 
journal of the exploration. There is also the ac- 
count of some one who had explored the Missis- 
sippi to the Yellow, or Missouri River, before 1676. 
These, and others, are said to have been there 
when La Salle explored the outlet of the Great 
River, as he found tools among the natives which 
were of European manufacture They had been 
brought here by English adventurers. Also, when 
Iberville was colonizing the lower part of Louis- 
iana, these same persons visited the Chickasaws' 
and stirred them up against the French. It is also 
stated that La Salle found that some one had been 
among the Natchez tribes when he returned from 
the discovery of th^ outlet of the Mississippi, and 
excited them against him. There" is, however, no 
good authority for these statements, and they are 
doubtless incorrect. There is also an account that 
in 1678, several persons went from New England 
as far south as New Mexico, " one hundred and 
fifty leagues beyond the Meschacebe," the narrative 
reads, and on their return wrote an account of the 
expedition. This, also, cannot be traced to good 
authority. The only accurate account of the 
English reaching the West was when Bienville 
met the British vessel at the "English Turn," 
about 1700. A few of their traders may have 
been in the valley west of the Alleghany Mount- 
ains before 1700, though no reliable accounts are 
now found to confirm these suppositions. Still, 
from the earliest occupation of the Atlantic Coast 
by the English, they claimed the country, and, 
though the policy of its occupation rested for a 
time, it was never ftiUy abandoned. Its revival 
dates from 1710 properly, though no immediate 
endeavor was made for many years after. That 




year, Alexander Spottswood was made Grovernor of 
Virginia. No sooner did he assume the functions 
of ruler, than, casting his eye over his dominion, he 
saw the great West beyond the Alleghany Mount- 
ains unoccupied by the English, and rapidly filling 
with the French, who he observed were gradually 
confining the English to the Atlantic Coast. His 
prophetic eye saw at a glance the animus of the 
whole scheme, and he determined to act promptly 
on the defensive. Through his representation, the 
Virginia Assembly was induced to make an appro- 
priation to defray the expense of a'n exploration of 
the mountains, and see if a suitable pass could not 
then be found where they could be crossed. The 
Governor led the expedition in person. The pass 
was discovered, a route marked out for future em- 
igrants, and the party returned to Williamsburg. 
There the Governor established the order of the 
"Knights of the Golden Horseshoe," presented 
his report to the Colonial Assembly and one to his 
King. In each report, he exposed with great bold- 
ness the scheme' of the French, and advised the 
building of a chain of forts across to the Ohio, and 
the formation of settlements to counteract them. 
The British Go^rnment, engrossed with other 
matters, neglected his advice. Forty years after, 
they remembered it, only to regret that it was so 
thoughtlessly disregarded. 

Individuals, however, profited by his advice. By 
1730, traders began in earnest to cross the mount- 
ains and gather from the Indians the stores beyond. 
They now began to adopt a system, and abandoned 
the heretofore renegade habits of those who had 
superseded them, many of whom never returned to 
the Atlantic Coast. In 1742, John Howard de- 
scended the Ohio in a skin canoe, and, on the 
Mississippi was taken prisoner by the French. His 
captivity did not in the least deter others from 
coming. Indeed, the date of his voyage was the 
commencement of a vigorous trade with the In- 
dians by the English, who crossed the Alleghanies 
by the route discovered by Gov. Spottswood. In 
1748, Conrad Weiser, a German of Herenberg, who 
had acquired in early life a knowledge of the Mo- 
hawk tongue by a residence among them, was sent 
on an embassy to the Shawanees on the Ohio. He 
went as far as Logstown, a Shawanee village on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles be- 
low the site of Pittsburgh. Here he met the chiefs 
in counsel, and secured their promise of aid against 
the French. ' 

The principal ground of the claims of the 
English in the Northwest was the treaty with the 

Five Nations — the Iroquois. This powerful confed- 
eration claimed the jurisdiction over an immense 
extent of country. Their policy differed considera- 
bly from other Indian tribes. They were the only 
confederation which attempted apy form of gov- 
ernment in America. They were often termed the 
" Six Nations," as the entrance of another tribe 
into the confederacy made that number. They 
were the cqnquerors of nearly all tribes from Lower 
Canada, to and beyond the Mississippi. They only 
exacted, however, a tribute ft-om the conquered 
tribes, leaving them to manage their own internal 
affairs, and stipulating that to them alone did the 
right of cession belong. T^^eir country, under 
these claims, embraced all of America north of the 
Cherokee Nation, in Virginia; all Kentucky, and 
all the Northwest, save a district in Ohio and Indi- 
ana, and a small section in Southwestern Illinois, 
claimed by the Miami Confederacy. The Iroquois, 
or Six Nations, were the terror of all other tribes. 
It was they who devastated the Illinois country 
about Rock Fort in 1680, and caused wide-spread 
alarm among all the Western Indians. In 1684, 
Lord Howard, Governor of Virginia, held a treaty 
with the Iroquois at Albany, when, at the request 
of Col. Duncan, of New York, they placed them- 
selves under the protection of the English. They 
made a deed of sale then, by treaty, to the British 
Government, of a vast tract of country south and 
east of the Illinois River, and extending into Can- 
ada. In 1726, another deed was drawn up and 
signed by the chiefs of the national confederacy by 
which their lands were conveyed in trust to 
England, " to , be protected and defended by His 
Majesty, to and for the use of the grantors and 
their heirs."* 

If the Six Nations had a good claim to the West^ 
ern country, there is but little doubt but England 
was justified in defending their country against the 
French, as, by the treaty of Utrecht, they had 
agreed not to invade the lands of, Britain's Indian 
allies. This claim was vigorously congested by 
France, as that country claimed the Iroquois had 
no lawful jurisdiction over the West. In all the 
disputes, the interests of the contending nations 
was, however, the paramount consideration. The 
rights of the Indians were little regarded. 

The British also purchased land by the treaty 
of Lancaster, in 1744, wherein they agreed to pay 
the Six Nations for land settled unlawfully in 
Pennsylvania, Virginia and Maryland. The In- 

* Annals of the West. 

•^ a 





dians were given goods and gold amounting to 
near a tiiousand pounds sterling. They were also 
promised the protection of the English. Had this 
latter provision been faithfully carried out, much 
blood would have been saved in after years. The 
treaties with the Six Nations were the real basis 
of the claims of Great Britain to ihe West ; claims 
that were only settled by war. The Shawanee In- 
dians, on the Ohio, were also becoming hostile to 
the English, and began to assume a threatening 
exterior. Peter Chartiez, a half-breed, residing in 
Philadelphia, escaped from the authorities, those 
by whom he was held for a violation of the laws, 
and joining the Shawanees, persuaded them to join 
the French. Soon after, in 1743 or 1744, he 
placed himself at the head of 400 of their war- 
riors, and lay in wait on the Alleghany River for 
the provincial traders. He captured two, exhib- 
ited to them a^ captain's commission from the 
French, and seized their goods, worth £1,600. 
The Indians, after this, emboldened by the aid 
given them by the French, became more and more 
hostile, and Weiser was again sent across the mount- 
ains in 1748, with presents to conciliate them and 
sound them on their feelings for the rival nations, 
and also to see what they thought of a settlement 
of the English to be made in the W^t. The visit 
of Conrad Weiser was successful, and Thomas Lee, 
with twelve other Virginians, among whom were 
Lawrence and Augustine Washington, brothers of 
George Washington, formed a company which 
they styled the Ohio Company, and, in 1748, peti- 
tioned the King for a grant beyond the mountains. 
The monarch .approved the petition and the gov- 
ernment of Virginia was ordered to grant the Com- 
pany 500,000 acres within the bounds of that 
colony beyond the AUeghanies, 200,000 of which 
were to be located at once. This provision was to 
hold good for ten years, free of quit rent, provided 
the Company would settle 100 families within 
seven years, and build a fort sufficient for their 
protection. These terms the Copipany accepted, 
and sent at once to London for a cargo suitable for 
the Indian trade. This was the beginning of 
EngKsh Companies in the West; this one forming 
a prominent part in the history of Ohio, as will 
be seen hereafter. Others were also formed in 
V^irginia, whose object was the colonization of the 
West. One of these, the Loyal Company, received, 
on the 12th of June, 1749, a grant of 800,000 
acres, from the line of Canada on the north and 
west, and on the 29th of October, 1751, the Green- 
briar Company received a grant of 100,000 acres. 

To these encroachments, the French were by no 
means blind. They saw plainly enough that if 
the English gained a foothold in the Wdst, they 
would inevitably endeavor to obtain the country, 
and one day the issue could only be decided by 
war. Vaudreuil, the French Governor, had long 
anxiously watched the coming struggle. In 1774, 
he wrote home representing the consequences that 
would surely come, should the English succeed in 
their plans. The towns of the French in Illinois 
were producing large amounts of bread-stufi's and 
provisions which they sent to New Orleans. These 
provinces were becoming valuable, and must not bo 
allowed to come under control of a rival power. 
In 1749, Louis Celeron was sent by the Governor 
with a party of soldiers to plant leaden plates, suit- 
ably inscribed, along the Ohio at the mouths of 
the principal streams. Two of these plates were 
afterward exhumed. One was sent to the Mary- 
land Historical Society, and the inscription* deci- 
phered by De Witt Clinton. On these plates was 
clearly stated the claims of France, a% will be seen 
from the translation below. 

England's claim, briefly and clearly stated, read 
as follows: "That all lands, or countries west- 
ward from the Atlantic Ocean to the South Sea, 
between 48 and H4 degrees of North Latitude, 
were expressly included in the grant of King 
James th^ First, to divers of his subjects, so long 
time since as the year 1606, and afterwards con- 
firmed in the year 1620 ; and under this grant, 
the colony of Virginia claims extent so far west 
as the South Sea, and the ancient colonies of Mass- 
achusetts Bay and Connecticut, were by their 
respective charters, made to extend to the said 
South Sea, so that not only the right to the s^a 
coast, but to all the Inland countries from sea to 
sea, has at all times been asserted by the Crown of 
England. "f 

To make good their titles, both nations were now 
doing their utmost. Professedly at peace, it only 
needed a' torch applied, as it were, to any point, to 
instantly precipitate hostilities. The French were 

* The following is the translation of the inscription of the plate 
found at Venango : " In the year 1749, reign of Louis XV, King of 
France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detacbment by Monsieur 
the Marquis of Glallisoniere, Commander-in-chief of New France, 
to establish tranquillity in certain Indian villages in these Cantons, 
have buried this plate at the confluence of the Toraclakoin, this 
twenty-ninth of July, near the River Ohio, otherwise Beautiful 
River, as a monument of renewal of possession which we have taken 
of the said river, and all its tributaries; and of all the land on both 
sides, as far as the sources of said rivetB; inasmuch as the preceding 
Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by their arms 
and by treaties ; especially by those of Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix 
La Chapelle." 

i Colonial Records of Pennsylvania. 




busily engaged erecting forts from the southern 
shores of Lake Erie to the Ohio, and on down in 
the Illinois Valley'; up at Detroit, and at all its 
posts, preparations were constantly going on for the 
crisis, now sure to come. The issue between the 
two governments was now fully made up. It ad- 
mitted of no compromise but the' sword. To that, 
however, neither power desired an immediate ap- 
peal, and both sought rather to estabUsh and fortify 
their interests, and to conciliate the Indian tribes. 
The English, through the Ohio Company, sent out 
Christopher Gist in thefall of 1750, to explore the 
regions west of the mountains. He was instructad 
to examine the passes, trace the courses of the 
rivers, mark the falls, seek for valuable lands, ob- 
serve the strength, and to conciliate the friendship 
of the Indian tribes. He was well fitted for such 
an enterprise. Hardy, sagacious, bold, an adept in 
Indian character, a hunter by occupation, no man 
was better qualified than he for such an undertak- 
ing. He visited Logstown, where he was jealously 
received, parsed over to the Muskingum River and 
Valley in Ohio, where he found a village of Wyan- 
dots, divided 'in sentiment. At this village he met 
Crogan, another equally famous frontiersman, who 
had been sent out by Pennsylvania. Together 
they held a council with the chiefs, and received 
assurance of 'the friendship of the tribe. This 
done, they passed to the Shawnee towns on the 
Scioto, received their assurances of friendship, and 
went on to the Miami Valley, which they crossed, 
' remarking in Crogan's journal of its great fertili- 
ty. They made a raft of logs on which they 
crossed the Great Miami, visited Piqua, the chief 
town of the Pickawillanies, and here made treaties 
with the Weas and Piankeshaws. While here, a 
deputation of the Ottawas visited the Miami Con- 
federacy to induce them to unite with the French. 
-They were repulsed through the influence of the 
English agents, the Miamis sending Gist word that 
they would " stand like the mountains. " Crogan 
now returned and published an account of their 
wanderings. Gist followed the Miami to its 
mouth, passed down the Ohio till within fifteen 
miles of the falls; then returned by way of the 
Kentucky River, over the highlands of Kentucky 
to Virginia, arriving in May, 1751. He had 
visited the Mingoes, Delawares, Wyandots, Shawa- 
nees and Miamis, proposed a union among these 
tribes, and appointed a grand council to meet at 
Logstown to form an alliance among themselves 
and with Virginia. His journey was marvelous 
for the day. It was extremely hazardous, as he 

W£is part of the time among hostile tribes, who 
could have captured him and been well rewarded 
by the French Government. But Gist knew how 
to act, and was successftil. 

"While Gist was doing this, some English traders 
established themselves at a place in what is now 
known as Shelby County, Ohio, and opened a 
store for the purpose of trading with the Indians. 
This was clearly in the limits of the West, claimed 
by the French, and at once aroused them to action. 
The fort or stockade stood on the banks of Loramie's 
Creek, about sixteen miles northwest of the present 
city of Sydney. It received the name Loramie 
from the creek by the French, which received 
its name in turn from the French trader of 
that name, who had a trading-post on this 
creek. Loramie had fled to the Spanish country 
west of the Mississippi, and for many years 
was a trader there ; his store being at the junc- 
tion of the Kansas and Missouri, near the present 
city of Kansas City, Mo. When the English 
traders came to Loramie's Creek, and erected 
their trading-place, they gave it the name of Pick- 
awillany, from the tribe of Indians there. The 
Miami confederacy granted them this privilege 
as the result of the presents brought by Crogan and 
Gist. It is also asserted that Andrew Montour, 
a half-breed, son of a Seneca chief and the famous 
Catharine Montour, who was an important fac- 
tor afterward in the English treaties with the 
Indians, was with them, and by his influence did 
much to aid in securing the privilejie. Thus was 
established the first EngUsh trading-post in the 
Northwest Territory and in Ohio. It, however, 
enjoyed only a short duration. The French could 
not endure so clear an invasion of their country, 
and gathering a force of Ottawas and Chippewas, 
now their allies, they attacked the stockade in 
June, 1752. At first they demanded of the Miamis 
the surrender of the fort, as they were the real 
cause of its location, having granted the English 
the privilege. The Miamis not only reused, but 
aided the British in the defense. In the battle that 
ensued, fourteen of the Miamis were slain, and all 
the traders captured. One account says they were 
burned, another, and probably the correct one, 
states that they were taken to Canada as prisoners 
of war. It is probable the traders were from Penn- 
sylvania, as that commonwealth made the Miamis 
presents as condolence for their warriors that were 

Blood had now been shed. The opening gun of 
the French and Indian war had been fired, and botSi 

9 \ 



nations became more deeply interested in aifairs in 
the West. The English were determined to secure 
additional title to the West, and, in 1752, sent 
Messrs. Fry, Lomax and Patton as commissioners 
to Logstown to treat with the Indians, and confirm 
the Lancaster treaty. They met the Indians on 
the 9th of June, stated their desires, and on the 
11th received their answer. At first, the sav- 
ages were not inclined to recognize the Lancaster 
treaty, but agreed to aid the English, as the French 
had already made war on the Twigtees (at Picka^ 
willany), and consented to the establishment of a 
fort and trading-post at the forks of the Ohio. 
This was not all the Virginians wanted, however, 
and taking aside Andrew Montour, now chief of the 
Six Nations, persuaded him to use his influence 
with the red men. By such means, they were in- 
duced to treat, and on the 13th they all united in 
signing a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in 
its full extent, consenting to a settlement southwest 
of the Ohio, and covenanting that it should not be 
disturbed by them. By such means was obtained 
the treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

All this time, the home governments were en- 
deavoring to out-maneuver each other with regard 
to the lands in the West, though there the outlook 
only betokened war. The French understood bet- 
ter than the English how to manage the Indians, 
and succeeded in attaching them firmly to their 
cause. The English, were not honest in their 
actions with them, and hence, in after years, the 
massacres that followed. 

At the close of 1752, Gist was at work, in con- 
formity with the Lancaster and Logstown treaties, 
laying out a fort and town on Chartier's Creek, 
about ten miles below the fork. Eleven families 
had crossed the mountains to settle at Grist's resi- 
dence west of Laurel Hill, not far from the Yough- 
iogheny. Groods had come from England for the 
Ohio Company, which were carried as far West as 
Will's Creek, where Cumberland now stands ; , and 
where tl^^y were taken by the Indians and traders. 

On the other hand, the French were gathering 
cannon and stores on Lake Erie, and, without 
treaties or deeds of land, were gaining the good 
will of the inimical tribes, and preparing, when all 
was ready, to strike the blow. Their fortifications 
consisted of a chain of forts from Lake Erie to 
the Ohio; on the border. One was at Presque Isle, 
on the site of Erie ; one on French Creek, on the 
site of Waterford, Penn.; one at the mouth of 
French Creek, in Venango County, Penn.; while 
opposite it was another, effectually commanding 

that section of country. These forts, it will be 
observed, were all in the limits of the Pennsyl- 
vania colony. The Grovernor informed the Assem- 
bly of their existence, who voted £600 to be used 
in purchasing presents for the Indians near the 
forts, and thereby hold their friendship. Virginia, 
also, took similar measures. Trent was sent, with 
guns and ammunition and presents, to the friendly 
tribes, and, while on his mission, learned of the 
plates of lead planted by the French. In October, 
1753, a treaty was consummated with representa- 
tives of the Iroquois, Delawares, Shawanees, Twig- 
twees and Wyandots, by commissioners from 
Pennsylvania, one of whom was the philosopher 
Franklin. At the conferences held at this time, 
the Indians complained of the actions of the 
French in forcibly taking possession of the dis- 
puted country, and also bitterly denounced them 
for using rum to intoxicate the red men, when 
they desired to gain any advantage. Not long 
after, they had similar grounds of complaint against 
the English, whose lawless traders cared for nothing 
but to gain the furs of the savage at as little ex- 
pense as possible. 

The encroachments of the French on what was 
regarded as English territory, created intense feel- 
ing in the colonies, especially in Virginia. The 
purpose of the French to inclose the English on 
the Atlantic Coast, and thus prevent their extension 
over the mountains, became more and more ap- 
parent, and it was thought that this was the open- 
ing of a scheme already planned" by the French 
Court to reduce all North America under the do- 
minion of France. Gov. Dinwiddle determined 
to send an ambassador to the French posts, to as- 
certain their real intentions and to observe the 
amount a,nd disposition of their forces. He selected 
a young Virginian, then in his twenty-first year, 
a surveyor by trade and one well qualified for the 
duty. That young man afterward led the Ameri- 
can, Colonies in their struggle for liberty. George 
Washington and one companion, Mr Gist, suc- 
cessftiUy made the trip, in the solitude of a severe 
winter, received assurance from the French com- 
mandant that they would by no means abandon 
their outposts, and would not yield unless com- 
pelled by force of arms. The commandant was 
exceedingly polite, but firm, and assured the young 
American that " we claim the country on the Ohio 
by virtue of the discovery of La Salle (in 1699) 
and will not give it up to the English. Our orders 
are to make prisoners of every Englishman found 
trading in the Ohio Valley." 




During Washington's absence steps were taken 
to fortify the point formed by the junction of the 
Monongahela and Alleghany ; and when, on his 
return, he met seventeen horses loaded with mate- 
rials and stores for a fort at the forks of the Ohio, 
and, soon after, some families going out to settle, 
he knew the defense had begun. As soon as 
Washington made his report, Grov. Dinwiddle 
wrote to the Board of Trade, stating that the 
French were building a fort at Venango, and that, 
in March, twelve or fifteen hundred men would 
be ready to descend the river with their Indian 
allies, for which purpose three hundred canoes had 
been collected ; and that Logstown was to be made 
headquarters, while forts were to be built in other 
places. He sent expresses to the Governors of 
Pennsylvania and New York, apprising them of the 
nature of affairs, and calling upon them for assist- 
ance. He also raised two companies, one of which 
was raised by Washington, the other by Trent. 
The one under Trent was to be raised on the 
frontiers, and was, as soon as possible, to repair to 
the Fork and erect there a fort, begun by the Ohio 
Company. Owing to various conflicting opinions 
between the Governor of Pennsylvania and his 
Assembly, and the conference with theSix Nations, 
held by New York, neither of those provinces put 
forth any vigorous measures until stirred to action 
by the invasions on the frontiers, and until directed 
by the Earl of Holderness, Secretary of State. 

The fort at Venango was finished by the French 
in April, 1754. All along the creek resounded 
the clang of arms and the preparations for war. 
New York and Pennsylvania, though inactive, 
and debating whether the French really had in- 
vaded English territory or not, sent aid to the 
Old Dominion, now all alive to the conquest. The 
two companieshadbeen increased to six; Washing- 
ton Was raised to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, 
and made second under command of Joshua 
Fry. Ten cannon, lately from England, were for- 
warded from Alexandria ; wagons were got ready 
to carry westward provisions and stores through 
the heavy spring roads; and everywhere men were 
enlisting under the King's promise of two hundred 
thousand acres of land to those who would go. 
They were gathering along Will's Creek and far 
beyond, while Trent, who had come for more men 
and supplies, left a little band of forty-one men, 
working away in hutiger and want at the Fork, to 
which both nations were looking with anxious eyes. 
Though no enemy was near, and only a few Indian 
scouts were seen, keen eyes had observed the low 

fortifications at the Fork. Swift feet had borne 
the news of it up the valley, and though Ensign 
Ward, left in comman,d, felt himself secure, on the 
17 th of April he saw a sight that made his heart 
sick. Sixty batteaux and three hundred canoes 
were coming down the Alleghany. The com- 
mandant sent him a summons, which evaded no 
words in its meaning. It was useless to contend, 
that evening he supped with his conqueror ; the 
next day he was bowed out by the polite French- 
man, and with his men and tools marched up the 
Monongahela. The first birds of spring were fill- 
ing the air with their song ; the rivers rolled' by, 
swollen by April showers and melting snows ; all 
nature was putting on her robes of green ; and the 
fortress, which the English had so earnestly strived 
to obtain and fortify, was now in the hands of the 
French. Fort Du Quesne arose on the incomplete 
fortifications. The seven years' war that followed 
not only affected America, but spread to all quar- 
ters of the world. The war made England a great 
imperial power ; drove the French from Asia and 
America; dispelled the brilliant and extended 
scheme of Louis and his voluptuous empire. 

The active field of operations was in the Canadas 
principally, and along the western borders of Penn- 
sylvania. There were so few people ihen in the 
present confines of Ohio, that only the possession 
of the country, in common with all the West, 
could be the animus of the conflict. It so much 
concerned this part of the New World, that a brief 
resum6 of the war will be necessary to fully under- 
stand its history. 

The fall of the post at the fork of the Ohio, Fort 
Du Quesne, gave the French control of the West. 
Washington went on with his few militia to re- 
take the post. Though he was successful at first, 
he was in the end defeated, and surrendered, 
being allowed to return with all his munitions of 
war. The two governments, though trying to 
come to a peacefiil solution of the question, were 
getting ready for the conflict. France went stead- 
ily on, though at one time England gave, in a 
measure, her consent to allow the French to retain 
all the country west of the Alleghanies and gjputh 
of the lakes. Had this been done, what a different 
future would have been in America ! Other des- 
tinies were at work, however, and the plan fell 

England sent Gen. Braddock and a fine force 
of men, who marched directly toward the post on 
the Ohio. His ill-fated expedition resulted only 
in the total defeat of his army, and his own death. 





Washington saved a remnant nf the army, and 
made his way back to the colonies. The En- 
glish needed a leader. They next planned four 
campaigns; one against Fort Du Quesne; one 
against Crown Point; one against Niagara, and 
one against the French settlements in Nova Scotia. 
Nearly every one proved a failure. The English 
were defeated on sea and on land, all owing to the 
incapacity of Parliament, and the want of a suit^ 
able, vigorous leader. The settlements on the front- 
iers, now exposed to a cruel foe, prepared to defend 
themselves, and already the signs of a government 
of their own, able to defend itself, began to 
appear. They received aid from the colonies. 
Though the French were not repulsed, they and 
their red allies found they could not murder with 
impunity. Self-preservation was a stronger incen- 
tive in conflict than aggrandizement, and the 
cruelty of the Indians found avengers. 

The great Pitt became Prime Minister June 29, 
1757. The leader of the English now appeared. 
The British began to regain their losses on sea and 
land, and for them a brighter day was at hand. 
The key to the West must be retaken, and to G-en. 
Forbes was assigned the duty. Preceding him, 
a trusty man was sent to the Western Indians 
at' the head-waters of the Ohio, and along tte Mo- 
nongahela and Alleghany, to see if some compro- 
mise with them could not be made, and their aid 
secured. The French had been busy through their 
traders inciting the Indians against the English. 
The lawless traders were another source of trouble. 
Caring nothing for either nation, they carried on a 
distressing traffic in direct violation of the laws, 
continually engendering ill-feeling among the na- 
tives. "Your traders," said one of them, "bring 
scarce anything but rum and flour. They bring 
little powder and lead, or other valuable goods. 
The rum ruins us. We beg you would prevent 
its coming in such quantities by regulating the 
traders. * * * These wicked whisky sell- 
ers, when they have got the Indians in liquor, make 
them sell the very clothes off their backs. If this 
practice be continued, we must be inevitably ruined. 
We mosteamestly, therefore, beseech ^^ou to remedy 
it." They complained of the French traders the same 
way. They were also beginning to see the animus 
of the whole conflict. Neither power cared as 
much for them as for theit land, and flattened and 
bullied by turns as served their purposes best. 

The man selected to go upon this undertaking 
was Christian Frederic Post, a Moravian, who had 
lived among the Indians seventeen years, and mar- 

ried into one of their tribes. H(' \va«< a missionary, 
and though obliged to cross a C(,Lin ry whose every 
stream had been dyed by blood, and every hillside 
rung with the death-yell, and grown red with the 
light of burning huts, he went willingly on his way. 
Of his journey, sufibrings and doings, his own 
journal tells the story. He left Philadelphia on the 
15th of July, 1758, and on the 7th of August 
safely passed the French post at Venango, went on 
to Big Beaver Creek, where he held a conference 
with the chiefs of the Indians gathered there. It 
was decided that a great conference should be 
held opposite Fort Du Quesne, where there were 
Indians of eight nations. "We will bear you in 
our bosoms," said the natives, when Post expressed 
a fear that that he might be delivered over to the 
French, and royally they fulfilled their promises. 
At the conference, it was made clear to Post that 
all the Western Indians were wavering in their 
allegiance to the French, owing largely to the fail- 
ure of that nation to fiilfill their promises of aid to 
prevent them from being.deprived of their land by 
the Six Nations, and through that confederacy, by the 
English. The Indians complained bitterly, more- 
over, of the disposition of the whites in over-run- 
ning and claiming their lands. "Why did you not 
fight your battles at home or on the sea, instead of 
coming into our country to fight them?" they 
asked again and again, and mournfully shook their 
heads when they thought of the future before them. 
" Your heart is good," said they to Post. " You 
speak sincerely; but We know there is always a great 
number who Y^ish to get rich ; they have enough ; 
look ! we do not want to be rich and take away 
what others have. The white people think we 
have no brains in our heads ; that they are big, 
and we are a handful ; but remember when you 
hunt for a rattlesnake, you cannot always find it, 
and perhaps it will turn and bite you before you see 
it."* When the war of Pontiac came, and all 
the West was desolated, this saying might have 
been justly remembered. After concluding a peace. 
Post set out for Philadelphia, and after incredi- 
ble hardships, reached the settlement uninjured 
early in September. His mission had more to do 
than at first is apparent, in the success <of the 
English. Had it not been for him, a second Brad- 
dock's defeat might have befallen Forbes, now on 
his way to subjugate Fort Du Quesne. 

Through the heats of August, the army hewed its 
way toward the West. Early in September it 

• Post's Journal. 




reached Raystown, whither Washington had been 
ordered with his troops. Sickness had prevented 
him from being here already, . Two officers were 
sent out to reconnoiter the fort, who returned and 
gave a very good account of its condition. Gen. 
Forbes desired to know more of it, and sent out 
Maj . Grant, with 800 men, to gain more complete 
knowledge. Maj. Grant, supposing not more than 
200 soldiers to be in the fort, marched near it and 
made a feint to draw them out, and engage them 
in battle. He was greatly misin.'()rmed as to the 
strength of the French, and in the engagement 
that followed he was badly beaten — 270 of his men 
killed, 42 wounded, and several, including himself, 
taken prisoners. The French, elated with their 
' victory, attacked the main army, but were repulsed 
and obliged to retreat to the fort. The army con- 
tinued on its march. On the 24th of November 
they reached Turtle Creek, where a council of war 
was held, and where Gen. Forbes, who had been so 
ill as to be carried on a ■ litter from the start, de- 
clared, with a mighty oath, he would sleep that 
night in the fort, or in a worse place. The Indi- 
ans had, however, carried the news to the French 
that the English were as plenty as the trees of the 
woods, and in their fright they set fire to the fort in 
the night and left up and down the Ohio River. 
The next morning the English, who had heard the 
explosion of the magazine, and seen the light of 
the burning walls, marched in and took peaceable 
possession. A small fortification was thrown up 
on the bank, and^ in honor of the great English 
statesman, it was called Fort Pitt. Col. Hugh Mer- 
cer was left in command, and the main body of the 
army marched back to the settlements. It reached 
Philadelphia January 17, 1759. On the 11th of 
March, Gen. Forbes died, and was buried in the 
chancel of Christ's Church, in that city. 

Post was now sent on a mission to the Six Na- 
tions, with a report of the treaty of Easton. He 
was again instrumental in preventing a coalition of 
the Indians and the French. Indeed, to this ob- 
scure Moravian missionary belongs, in a large 
measure, the honor of the capture of Fort Du 
Quesne, for by his influence had the Indians been 
restrained from attacking the army on its march. 

The garrison, on leaving the fort, went up and 
down the Ohio, part to Presque Isle by land, part to 
Fort Venango, while some of them went on down 
the Ohio nearly to the Mississippi, and there, in 
what is now Massac County, 111., erected a fort, 
called by them Fort Massac. It was afterward 
named by many Fort Massacr6, from the erroneous 

supposition that a garrison had been massacred 

The French, though deprived of tjie key to 
the West, went on preparing stores and ammunition, 
expecting to retake the fort in the spring'. Before 
they could do this, however, other places demanded 
their attention. 

The success of the campaign of 1758 opened 
the way for the consummation of the gfeat scheme 
of Pitt — the complete reduction of Canada. Three 
expeditions were planned, by which Canada, 
already well nigh annihilated and sufiiering for 
food, was to be subjugated. On the west, Prideaux 
was to attack Niagara ; in the center, Amherst was 
to advance on Ticonderoga and Crown Point ; on 
the east, Wolfe was to besiege Quebec. All these 
points gained, the three armies were to be united 
in the center of the province, 

Amherst appeared before Ticonderoga July 22. 
The French blew up their works, and retired 
to Crown Point, Driven from there, they re- 
treated to Isle Aux Nois and entrenched them- 
selves. The lateness of the season prevented fur- 
ther action, and Amherst went into winter quar- 
ters at Crown Point. Early in June, Wolfe 
appeared before Quebec with an army of 8,000 
men. On the night of September 12, he silently 
asceiided the river, climbed 1;he heights of Abra- 
ham, a spot considered impregnable by the 
French, and on the summit formed his army of 
5,000 men. Montcalm, the French commander, 
was compelled to give battle. The British col- 
umns, flushed with success, charged his half-formed 
lines, and dispersed them, 

"They fly! they fly!" heard Wolfe, just as he 
expired from the efiect of a mortal wound, though 
not till he had •6rdered their retreat cut ofi', and 
exclaimed, "Now, God be praised, I die happy." 
Montcalm, on hearing from the surgeon that death 
would come in a few hours, said, " I am glad of it. 
I shall not live to see the surrender of Quebec." At 
five the next morning he died happy. 

Prideaux moved up Lake Ontario, and on the 
6th of July invested Niagara. Its capture would 
'cut off the French from the west, arid every en- 
deavor was made to hold it. Troops, destined to 
take the small garrison at Fort Pitt, were held to 
assist in raising the siege of Niagara. M. de 
Aubry, commandant inTEllinois, came up with 400 
men and 200,000 pounds of flour. Cut ofi' by the 
abandonment of Fort Du Quesne from the Ohio 
route, he ascended that river as far as the Wabash, 
thence to portage of Fort Miami, or Fort Wayne, 


S) C 



down the Maumee to Lake Erie, and on to Presqu- 
ville, or Presque Isle, over the portage to Le Boeuf, 
and thence down French Creek to Port Venango. 
He was chosen to lead the expedition for the relief 
of Niagara. They were pursued by Sir William 
Johnson, successor to Prideaux, who had lost his 
life by the bursting of a cannon, and were obliged to 
flee. The next day Niagara, out off from succor, 

All America rang with exultation. Towns were 
bright with illuminations ; the hillsides shone with 
bonfires. From press, from pulpit, from platform, 
and from speakers' desks, went up one glad song of 
rejoicing. England was victorious everywhere. 
The colonies had done their full share, and now 
learned their strength. That strength was needed 
now, for ere long a different conflict raged on the 
soil of America — a conflict ending in the birth of 
a new nation. 

The English sent Gen. Stanwix to fortify Fort 
Pitt, still looked upon as one of the principal for- 
tresses in the West. He erected a good fortifica- 
tion there, which remained under British control 
fifteen years. Now nothing of the fort is left. No 
memorial of the British possession remains in the 
West but a single rgdoubt, built in 1764 by Col. 
Bouquet, outside of the fort. Even this can hardly 
nbw be said to exist. 

The fall of Quebec did not immediately produce 
the submission of Canada. M. de Levi, on whom 
the command devolved, retired with the French 
Army to Montreal. In the spring of 1760, he be- 
sieged Quebec, but the arrival of an English fleet 
caused him to again retreat to Montreal. 

Amhferst ,and Johnson, meanwhile, effected a. 
union of their forces, the magnitude of whose 
armies convinced the French that resistance would 
be useless, and on the 8th of September, M. de 
Vaudreuil, the Governor of Canada-, surrendered 
Montreal, Quebec, Detroit, Mackinaw and all other 
posts in Canada, to the English commander-in- 
chief, Amherst, on condition that the French in- 
habitants should, during the war, be "protected 
in the full and free exercise of their religion, and 
the full enjoyment of their civil rights, leaving 
their future destinies to be decided by the treaty 
of peace." 

Though peace was concluded in the New World, 
on the continent the Powers experienced some 
difficulty in arriving at a satisfactory settlement. 
It was finally settled by what is known in history 
as the "family compact." France and Spain saw 
in the conquest the growing power of England, 

and saw, also, that its' continuance only extended 
that power. Negotiations were re-opened, and on 
the 3d of November, 1762, preliminaries were 
agreed to and signed, and afterward ratified in 
Paris, in February, 1763. By the terms of the 
compact, Spain ceded to Great Britian East and 
West Florida. To compensate Spain, France 
ceded to her by a secret article, all Louisiana west 
of the Mississippi. 

The French and Indian war was now over. 
Canada and all its dependencies were now in pos- 
session of the English, who held undisputed sway 
over the entire West as far as Mississippi. It only 
remained for them to take possession of the out- 
posts. Major Robert Rogers was sent to take pos- 
session of Detroit and establish a garrison there. 
He was a partisan officer on the borders of New 
Hampshire, where he earned a name for bravery, 
but afterward tarnished it by treasonable acts. On 
his way to Detroit, on the 7th of November, 1760, 
he was met by the renowned chief, Pontiac, who 
authoritatively commanded him to pause and ex- 
plain his acts. Rogers replied by explaining the 
conquest of Canada, and that he was acting under 
orders from his King. Through the influence of 
Pontiac, the army was saved from the Indians 
sent out by the French, and was allowed to pro- 
ceed on its way. Pontiac had assured his protec- 
tion as long as the English treated him with due 
deference. Beletre, the commandant at Detroit, 
refused to surrender to the English commander, 
until he had received positive assurance from his 
Governor, Vaudreuil, that the country was indeed 
conqueifed. On the 29th of September, the colors 
of France gave way to the ensign of Great Britain 
amid the shouts of the soldiery and the astonish- 
ment of the Indians, whose savage natures could 
not understand how such a simple act declared one 
nation victors of another, and who wondered at 
the forbearance displayed. The lateness of the 
season prevented further operations, but early tjie 
next spring, Mackinaw, Green Bay, Ste. Marie, St. 
Joseph and the Ouitenon surrounded, and nothing 
was left but the Ilhnois towns. These were se- 
cured as soon as the necessary arrangements could 
be made. 

Though the English were now masters of the 
West, and had, while many of these events nar- 
rated were transpiring, extended their settlements 
beyond the Alleghanies, they were by no means 
secure in their possession. The woods and prairies 
were full of Indians, who, finding the English like 
the French, caring more for gain than the welfare 




of the natives, began to exhibit impatience and re- 
sentment as they saw their lands gradually taken 
from them. The English policy differed very 
materially from the French. The French made 
the Indian, in a measure, independent and taught 
him a desire for European goods. They also 
affiliated easily with them, and became thereby 
strongly endeared to the savage. The French 
were a merry, easy-going race, fond of gayety and 
delighting in adventure. The English were harsh, 
stern, and made no advances to gain the friend- 
ship of the savage. They wanted land to cultivate 
and drove away the Indian's game, and forced him 
farther west. "Where shall we go?" said the 
Indian, despondently; "you drive us farther and 
farther west; by and by you will want all the 
land." And the Anglo-Saxon went sturdily on, 
paying no heed to the complaints. The French 

traders incited the Indian to resent the encroach- 
ment. " The English will annihilate you and take 
all your land," said they. " Their father, the King 
of France, had been asleep, now he had awakened 
and was coming with a great army to reclaim Can- 
ada, that had been stolen from him while he slept." 
Discontent under such circumstances was but 
natural. Soon all the tribes, from the mountains 
to the Mississippi, were united in a plot. It was 
discovered in 1761, and arrested.. The next sum- 
mer, another was detected and arrested. The 
officers, and all the people, failed to realize the 
danger. The rattlesnake, though not found, was 
'ready to strike. It is only an Indian discontent, 
thought the people, and they went on preparing to 
occupy the country. They were mistaken — ^the 
crisis only needed a leader to direct it. That 
leader appeared. 




PONTIAO, the great chief of the Ottawas, was 
now about fifty years old. He had watched 
the conflict between the nations with a jealous eye, 
and as he saw the gradual growth of the English 
people, their encroachment on the lands of the In- 
dians, their greed, and their assumption of the soil, 
his soul was stirred within him to do something 
for his people: He had been a true friend of the 
French, and had led the Indians at the defeat of 
Braddock. Amid all the tumult, he alone saw the 
true state of affairs. The English would inevit- 
ably crush out the Indians. To save his race he 
saw another alliance with the French was neces- 
sary, and a restoration of their power and habits 
needed. It was the plan of a statesman. It only 
failed because of the perfidy of the French. Matur- 
ing his plans late in the autumn of 1762, he sent 
messengers to all the Western and Southern tribes, 
with the black wampum and red tomahawk, em- 
blems of war, from the great Pontiac. " On a cer- 
tain day in the next year," said the messenger, " all 
the tribes are to rise, seize all the English posts, 
and then attack the whole frontier." 

The great council of all the tribes was held at 
the river Eeorces, on the 27th of April, 1763. 
There, before the assembled chiefs, Pontiac deliv- 

ered a speech, ftiU of eloquence and art. He 
recounted the injuries and encroachments of the 
English, and disclosed their designs. The French 
king was now awake and would aid them. Should 
they resign their homes and the graves of their 
fathers without an effort? Were their young men 
no longer brave? Were they squaws? The 
Great Master of Life had chided them for their 
inactivity, and had sent his commands to drive 
the " Red Dogs " from the earth. The chiefs 
eagerly accepted the wampum and the tomahawk, 
and separated to prepare for the coming strife.* 

The post at Detroit was informed of the plot 
the evening before it was to occur, by an Ojibway 
girl of great beauty, the mistress of the com- 
mander, Major Gladwin. Pontiac was foiled here, 
his treachery discovered, and he was sternly ordered 
from the conference. A regular seige followed, 
but he could not prevail. He exhibited a degree 
of sagacity unknown in the annals of savage war- 
fare, but all to no purpose ; the English were too 
strong for him. 

At all the other posts, save one, however, the 
plans of Pontiac were carried out, and atrocities, 
unheard of before in American history, resulted. 
The Indians attacked Detroit on the first of May, 

• • 




and, foiled in tlieir plans, a siege immediately fol- 
lowed. On the 16th, a party of Indians appeared 
before the fort at Sandusky. Seven of them were 
admitted. Suddenly, while smoking, the massacre 
begins. All but Ensign PauUi, the commander, 
fail. He is carried as a trophy to Pontiac. 

At the mouth of the St. Joseph's, the mission- 
aries had maintained a mission station over sixty 
years. They gave way to an English garrison of 
fourteen soldiers and a few traders. On the 
morning of May 25, a deputation of Pottawato- 
mies are allowed to enter. In less than two min- 
utes, all the garrison but the commander are slain. 
He is sent to Pontiac. 

Near the present city of Fort Wayne, Ind., 
at the junction of the waters, stood Fort Miami, 
garrisoned by a few men. Holmes, the com- 
mander, is asked to visit a sick woman. He is 
slain on the way, the sergeant following is made 
prisoner, and the nine soldiers surrender. 

On the night of the last day of May, the wam- 
pum reaches the Indian village below La Fayette, 
Ind., and near Fort Ouitenon. The commander 
of the> fort is lured into a cabin, bound, and his 
garrison surrender. Through the clemency of 
French settlers, they are received into their houses 
and protected. 

At Michilimackinac, a game of ball is projected. 
Suddenly the ball is thrown through the gate of the 
stockade. The Indians press in, and, at a signal, 
almost all are slain or made prisoners. 

The fort at Presque Isle, now Erie, was the 
point of communication between Pittsburgh and 
Niagara and Detroit. It was one of the most 
tenable, and had a garrison of four and twenty 
men. On the 22d of June, the commander, to 
save his forces from total annihilation, surrenders, 
and all are carried prisoners to Detroit. 

The capitulation at Erie left Le Boeuf with- 
out hope. He was attacked on the 18th, 
but kept off the Indians till -midnight, when he 
made a successful retreat. As they passed Ve- 
nango, on their way to Fort Pitt, they saw only 
the ruins of that garrison. Not one of its immates 
had been spared. 

Fort Pitt was the most important station west 
of the AUeghanies. " Escape ! " said Turtle's 
Heart, a Delaware warrior ; " you will all be 
slain. A great army is coming." "There are 
three large English armies coming to my aid," 
said Ecuyer, the commander. " I have enough 
provisions and ammunition to stand a siege of three 
years' time." A second and third attempt was 

made by the savages to capture the post, but all to 
no avail. Baffled on all sides here, they destroy 
Ligonier, a few miles below, and massacre men, 
women and children. Fort Pitt was besieged till 
the last day of July, but withstood all attacks. 
Of all the outposts, only it and Detroit were left. 
All had been captured, and the majority of the 
garrison slain. Along the frontier, the war was 
waged with fury. The Indians were fighting for 
their homes and their hunting-grounds; and for 
these they fought with the fury and zeal of 

Detachments sent to aid Detroit are cut off. 
The prisoners are burnt, and Pontiac, infusing his 
zealous and demoniacal spirit into all his savage 
allies, pressed the siege with vigor. The French 
remained neutral, yet Pontiac made requisitions 
on them and on their neighbors in Illinois, issuing 
bOls of credit on birch-bark, all of which were 
faithfully redeemed. Though these two posts 
could not be captured, the frontier could be 
annihilated, and vigorously the Indians pursued 
their policy. Along the borders of Pennsylvania 
and Virginia a relentless warfare was waged, 
sparing no one in its way. Old age, feeble infancy, 
strong man and gentle woman, fair girl and hope- 
ful boy — all fell before the scalping- knife of the 
merciless savage. The frontiers were devastated. 
Thousands were obliged to flee, leaving their 
possessions to the torch of the Indian. 

The colonial government, under British direc- 
tion, was inimical to the borders, and the colonists 
saw they must depend only upon their own arms 
for protection. Already the struggle for' freedom 
was upon them. They could defend only them- 
selves. They must do it, too ; for that defense is 
now needed in a different cause than settling dis- 
putes between rival powers. " We have millions 
for defense, but not a cent for tribute," said they, 
and time verified the remark. 

Gen. Amherst bestirred himself to aid the 
frontiers. He sent Col. Henry Bouquet, a native 
of Switzerland, and now an officer in the English 
Army, to relieve the garrison at Fort Pitt. They 
followed the route made by Gen. Forbes, and on 
the way relieved Forts Bedford and Ligonier, both 
beleaguered by the Indians. About a day's jour- 
ney beyond Ligonier, he was attacked by a body 
of Indians at a place called Bushy Run. For 
awhile, it seemed that he and all his army would 
be destroyed ; but Bouquet was bold and brave 
and, under a feint of retreat, routed the savages. 
He passed on, and relieved the garrison at Fort 



Pitt, and thus secured it against- the assaults of 
the Indians. 

The campaign had been disastrous to the En- 
gUsh, but fatal to the plans of Pontiac. He could 
not capture Detroit, and he knew the great scheme 
must fail. The battle of Bushy Run and the 
relief of Fort Pitt closed the campaign, and all 
hope of co-operation was at an end. Circum- 
stances were combined against the confederacy, 
and it was fast falling to pieces. A proclamation 
was issued to the Indians, explaining to them the 
existing state of affairs, and showing to them the 
futility of their plans. Pontiac, however, would 
not give up. Again he renewed the siege of De- 
troit, and Gren. Grage, now in command of the 
army in the colonies, resolved to carry the war 
into their own country. Col. Bradstreet was or- 
dered to lead one army by way of the lak^s, 
against the Northern Indians, while Col. Bouquet 
was sent against the Indians of the Ohio. Col. 
Bradstreet went on his way at the head of 1,200 
men, but trusting too much to the natives and 
their promises, his expedition proved largely a fail- 
ure. He relieved Detroit in August, 1764, which 
had been confined in the garrison over fifteen 
months, and dispersed the Indians that yet lay 
around the fort. But on his way back, he saw how 
the Indians had duped him, and that they were 
still plundering the settlements. His treaties were 
annulled by Grage, who ordered him to destroy 
their towns. The season was far advanced, his 
provisions were getting low, and he was obliged to 
return to Niagara chagrined and disappointed. 

Col. Bouquet knew well the character of the 
Indians, and shaped his plans accordingly. He 
had an army of 1,500 men, 500 regulars and 1,000 
volunteers. They had had experience in fighting 
the savages, and could be depended on. At Fort 
Louden, he heard of Bradstreet's ill luck, and saw 
through the deception practiced by the Indians. 
He arrived at Fort Pitt the lYth of September, 
where he arrested a deputation of chiefs, who met 
him with the same promises that had deceived 
Bradstreet. He sent one of their number back, 
threatening to put to death the chiefs unless they 
allowed his messengers to safely pass through their 
country to Detroit. The decisive tone of his 
words convinced them of the fate that awaited 
them unless they complied. On the 3d of Octo- 
ber the ariny left Fort Pitt, marched down the 
river to and across the Tuscarawas, arriving in the 
vicinity of Fredrick Post's late mission on the lYth. 
There a conference was held with the assembled 

tribes. Bouquet sternly rebuked them for their 
faithlessness, and when told by the chiefs they could' 
not restrain their young men, he as sternly told 
them they were responsible for their acts. He 
told them he would trust them no longer. If they 
delivered up all their prisoners within twelve days 
they might hope for peace, otherwise there would 
be no mercy shown them. They were com:pletely 
humbled, and, separating hastily, gathered their 
captives. On the 25th, the army proceeded down 
to the Tuscarawas, to the junction with White 
Woman River, near the town of Coshocton, in 
Coshocton County, Ohio, and there made prepa- 
rations for the reception of the captives. There 
they remained until the 18th of November; from 
day to day prisoners were brought in — men, women 
and children — and delivered to their friends. Many 
were the touching scenes enacted during this time. 
The separated husband and wife met, the latter 
often carrying a child born in captivity. Brothers 
and sisters, separated in youth, met ; lovers rushed 
into each other's arms ; children found their 
parents, mothers their sons, fathers their daughters, 
and neighbors those from whom they had been 
separated many years. Yet, there were many dis- 
tressing scenes. Some looked in vain for long-lost 
relatives and friends, that never should return. 
Others, that had been captured in their infancy, 
would not leave their savage friends, and when 
force was used some fled away. One mother 
looked in vain for a child she had lost years be- 
fore. Day by day, she anxiously watched, but no 
daughter's voice reached her ears. One, clad in ' 
savage attire, was brought before her. It could 
not be her daughter, she was grown. So was the 
maiden before her. " Can not you remember some 
mark?" asked Bouquet, whose sympathies were 
aroused in this case. "There is none," said the 
anxious and sorrowful mother. "Sing a song you 
sang over her cradle, she may remember," suggested 
the commander. One is sung by her mother. As 
the song of childhood floats out among the trees 
the maiden stops and listens, then approaches. 
Yes, she remembers. Mother and daughter are 
held in a close embrace, and the stern Bouquet 
wipes away a tear at the scene. 

On the 18th, the army broke up its encamp- 
ment and started on its homeward march. Bouquet 
kept six principal Indians as hostages, and re- 
turned to the homes of the captives. The Indians 
kept their promises faithfiilly, and the next year 
representatives of all the Western tribes met Sir 
William Johnson, at the Grerman Flats, and made 

—1 B 





a treaty of peace. A tract of land in the Indian 
country was ceded to the whites for the benefit of 
those who had suffered in the late war. The In- 
dians desired to make a treaty with Johnson, 
whereby the Alleghany River should be the west- 
ern boundary of the English, but he excused him- 
self on the ground of proper power. 

Not long after this the Illinois settlements, too 
remote to know much of the struggle or of any of 
the great events that had convulsed an empire, and 
changed the destiny of a nation, were brought 
under the English rule. There were five villages 
at thisdat«: Kaskaskia, Cahokia, St. Philip,' Vin- 
cennes and Prairie du Rocher, near Fort.Chartres, 
the militaiy headquarters of these French posses- 
sions. They were under the control or command 
of M. de Abadie, at New Orleans. They had also 
extended explorations west of the Mississippi, and 
made a few settlements in what was Spanish terri- 
tory. The country had been, however, ceded to 
Prance, and in February, 1764, the country was 
formally taken possession of and the present city 
of St. Louis laid out. 

As soon as the French knew of the change of 
government, many of them went to the west side of 
the river, and took up their residence there.. They 
were protected in their religion and civil rights by 
the terms of the treaty, but preferred the rule of 
their own King. 

The British took possession of this country early 
in 1765. Gen. Gage sent Capt. Stirling, of the 
English Army, who arrived before summer, and to 
whom St. Ange, the nominal commandant, surren- 
dered the authority. The British, through a suc- 
cession of commanders, retained control of thecoun- 
try until defeated by George Rogers Clarke, and 
his "ragged Virginia militia." 

After a short time, the ^^rench again ceded the 
country west of the Mississippi to Spain, and re- 
linquished forever their control of all the West in 
the New World. 

The population of Western Louisiana, when the 
exchange of governments occurred, was estimated 
to be 13,538, of which 891 were in the Illinois 
country — as it was called — west of the Mississippi. 
East of the river, and before the French crossed 
into Spanish country, the population was estimated 
to be about 3,000. All these had grown into 
communities of a peculiar character. Indeed, that 
peculiarity, as has been observed, never changed 
until a gradual amalgamation with the American- 
people effected it, and that took more than a cen- 
tury of time to accomplish. 

The English now owned the Northwest. True, 
they did not yet occupy but a small part of it, but 
traders were again crossing the mountains, ex- 
plorers for lands were on the Ohio, and families 
for settlement were beginning to look upon the 
West as their future home. Companies were again 
forming to purchase large tracts in the Ohio coun- 
try, and open them for emigration. One thing yet 
stood in the way — a definite boundary line. That 
line, however, was between the English and the 
Indians, and not, as had heretofore been the case, 
between rival European Powers. It was necessary 
to arrange some definite boundary before land com- 
panies, who were now actively pushing their claims, 
could safely survey and locate their lands. 

Sir William Johnson, who had at previous times 
been instrumental in securing treaties, wrote re- 
peatedly to the Board of Trade, who controlled the 
greater part of the commercial transactions in the 
colonies — and who were the first to exclaim against 
extending English settlements beyond a limit 
whereby they would need manufactures, and there- 
by become independent of the Mother Country — 
urging upon them, and through them the Crown, the 
necessity of a fixed boundary, else another Indian 
war was probable. The Indians found themselves 
gradually hemmed in by the growing power of the 
whites, and began to exhibit hostile feelings. The 
irritation became so great that in the summer of . 
1767, Gage wrote to the Governor of Pennsylvania 
concerning it. The Governor communicated his 
letter to the General Assembly, who sent repre- 
sentatives to England, to urge the immediate set- 
tlement of the question. In compliance with these 
requests, and the letters of prominent citizens, 
Franklin among the number, instructions were sent 
to Johnson, ordering him to complete the purchase 
from the Six Nations, and settle all differences. 
He sent word to all the Western tribes to meet 
him at Fort Stanwix, in October, 1768. The con- 
ference was held on the 24th of that month, and 
was attended by colonial representatives, and by 
Indians from all parts of the Northwest. It was 
determined that the line should begin on the Ohio, 
at the mouth of the Cherokee (Tennessee), thence 
up the river to the Alleghany and on to Kittan- 
ning, and thence across to the Susquehanna. By 
this line, the whole country south of the Ohio and 
Alleghany, to which the Six Nations had any 
claim, was transferred. Part of this land was 
made to compensate twenty-two traders, whose goods 
had been stolen in 1763. The deeds made, were 
upon the express agreement that no claims should 






ever be based on the treaties of Lancaster, Logs- 
town, etc., and were signed by the chiefs of the Six 
Nations for themselves, their allies and dependents, 
and the Shawanees, Delawares, Mingoes of Ohio,, 
and others; though the Shawanees and Delaware 
deputies did not sign them. On this treaty, in a 
great measure, rests the title by purchase to Ken- 
tucky, Western Virginia and Western Pennsylva^ 
nia. The rights of the Cherokees were purchased 
by Col. Donaldson, either for the King, Virginia, 
or for himself, it is impossible to say which. 

The grant of the northern confederacy was now 
made. The white man could go in and possess 
these lands, and know that an army would protect 
him if necessary. Under such a guarantee. West- 
ern lands came rapidly into market. In addition 
" to companies already in existence for the purchase 
of land, others, the most notable of these being the 
"Walpole" and the "Mississippi" Land Companies, 
were formed. This latter had among its organizers 
such men as Francis Lightfoot Lee, Richard 
Henry Lee, George Washington and Arthur Lee. 
Before any of these companies, some of whom ab- 
sorbed the Ohio Company, could do anything, tlie 
Revolution came on, and all land transactions were 
at an end. After its close. Congress would not 
sanction their claims, and they fell through. This 
did not deter settlers, however, from crossing the 
mountains, and settling in the Ohio country. In 

spite of troubles with the Indians — some of whom 
regarded the treaties with the Six Nations as un- 
lawfiil, and were disposed to complain at the rapid 
influ?: of whites — and the failure of the land com- 
panies, settlers came steadily during the decade 
from 1768 to 1778, so that by the close of that 
time, there was a large population south of the 
Ohio River; while scattered along the northern 
banks, extending many miles into the wilderness, 
were hardy adventurers, who were carving out 
homes in the magnificent forests everywhere cov- 
ering the country. 

Among the foremost speculators in Western 
lands, was Greorge Washington. As early as 1763, 
he employed Col. Crawford, afterward the leader in 
" Crawford's campaign," to purchase lands for him. 
In 1770, he crossed the mountains in company 
with several gentlemen, and examined the country , 
along the Ohio, down which stream he passed to 
the mouth of the Great Kanawha, where he shot 
some bufialo, then plenty, camped out a few nights, 
and returned, fully convinced, it seems, that one 
day the West would be the best part of the New- 
World. He owned, altogether, nearly fifty thou- 
sand acres in the West, which he valued at $3.33 
per acre. Had not the war of the Revolution just 
then broken out, he might have been a resident of 
the West, and would have been, of course, one of 
its most prominent citizens. 



MEANWHILE, Kentucky was filling with 
citizens, and though considerable trouble 
was experienced with the Indians, and the operations 
of Col. Richard Henderson and others, who made 
unlawful treaties with the Indians, yet Daniel 
Boone and his associates had established a 
commonwealth, and, in 1777, a county was 
formed, which, er«long, was divided into three. 
Louisville was laid out on land belonging to 
Tories, and an important start made in this part 
of the West. Emigrants came down the Ohio 
River, saw the northern shores were inviting, and 
sent back such accounts that the land north of the 
river rapidly grew in favor with Eastern people. 

One of the most important Western characters, 
Col. (afterward Gen.) George Rogers Clarke, had 
had much to do in forming its character. He 
was born November 19, 1752, in Albemarle 
County, Va., and early came West. He had an 
unusually sagacious spirit, was an excellent sur- 
veyor and general, and took an active interest in 
all State and national afiairs. He understood the 
animus of the Revolution, and was prepscred to 
do his part. Col. Clarke was now meditating* a 
move unequaled in its boldness, and one that had 
more to do with the success of America in the 
struggle for independence than at first appears. 
He saw through the whole plan of the British, 






who held all the outposts, Kaskaskia, Detroit, 
Vincennes and Niagara, and determined to circum- 
vent them and wrest the West from their power. 
The British hoped to encircle the Americans by 
these outposts, and also unite the Indians in a 
common war against them. That had been 
attempted by the French when the English con- 
quered them. Then the French had a powerful 
ally in the person of Pontiac, yet the brave''front- 
iersmen held their homes in many places, though 
the Indians " drank the blood of many a Briton, 
scooping it up in the hollow of joined hands." 
Now the Briton had no Pontiac to lead the scat- 
tered tribes— tribes who now feared the unerring 
aim of a settler, and would not attack him openly — 
Clarke knew that the Delawares were divided in 
feeling and that the Shawanees were but imperfectly 
united in favor of England since the murder of 
their noted chiefs. He was convinced that, if the 
British could be driven from the Western posts, 
the natives could easily be awed into submission, 
or bribed into neutrality or friendship. They 
admired, from their savage views of valor, the 
side that became victorious. They cared little for 
the cause for which either side was fighting. 
Clarke sent out spies among them to ascertain the 
feasibility of his plans. The spies were gone 
from April 20 to June 22, and fully corroborated 
his views concerning the English policy and the 
feahngs of the Indians and French. 

Before proceeding in the narrative of this expe- 
dition, however, it will be well to notice a few acts 
transpiring north of the Ohio River, especially re- 
lating to the land treaties, as they were not without 
effect on the British policy. ' Many of the Indians 
north and south of the Ohio would not recognize 
the validity of the Fort Stanwix treaty, claiming 
the Iroquois had no right "to the lands, despite 
their conquest. These discontented natives har- 
assed the emigrants in such a manner that many 
Indians were slain in retaliation. This, and the 
working of the French traders, who at all times 
were bitterly opposed to the Englishsrule, filled the 
breasts of the natives with a malignant hate, which 
years of bloodshed could not wash out. The 
murder of several Indians by lawless whites fanned 
the coal into a blaze, and, by 1774, several retaliar 
tory murders occurred, committed by the natives 
in revenge for their fallen friends. The Indian 
slew any white man he found, as a revenge on some 
friend of his slain ; the frontiersman, acting on the 
same principle, made the borders extremely dan- 
gerous to invaders and invaded. Another cause 

of fear occurred about this time, which threatened 
seriously to retard emigration. 

Pittsburgh had been claimed by both Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia, and, in endeavoring to settle 
the dispute. Lord Dunmore's war 'jbllowed. Dr. 
John Connelly, an ambitious, intriguing person, 
induced Lord Dunmore to assert the claims of Vir- 
ginia, in the name of the King. In attempting to 
carry out his intentions, he was arrested by Arthur 
St. Clair, representing the proprietors of Pennsyl- 
vania, who was at Pittsburgh at the time. Con- 
nelly was released on bail, but went at once to 
Staunton, where he was sworn in as a Justice of 
Peace. Returning, he gathered a force of one 
hundred and fifty men, suddenly took possession of 
Pittsburgh, refused to allow the magistrates to 
enter the Court House, or to exercise the functions 
of their offices, unless in conformity to his will. 
Connelly refused any terms offered by the Penn- 
sylvania deputies, kept possession of the place, 
acted very harshly toward the inhabitants, stirred 
up the neutral Indians, and, for a time, threatened 
to make the boundary line between the two colonies 
a very serious question. His actions led to hostile 
deeds by some Indians, when the whites, no doubt 
urged by him, murdered seven Indians at the 
mouth of the Captina River, and at the house of 
a settler named Baker, where the Indians were 
decoyed under promises of friendship and offers of 
rum. Among those murdered at the latter place, 
was the entire family of the famous Mingoe chief, 
Logan. This has been charged to Michael Cresap ; 
but is untrue. Daniel Grreathouse had command 
of the party, and though Cresap may have been 
among them, it is unjust to lay the blame at his 
feet. Both murders, at Captina and Yellow Creek, 
were cruel aud unwarranted, and were, without 
doubt, the cause of the war that followed, though 
the root of the matter lay in Connelly's arbitrary 
actions, and in his needlessly alarming the Indians. 
Whatever may have been the facts in relation to 
the murder of Logan's family, they were of such 
a nature as to make all feel sure of an Indian war, 
and preparations Were made for the conflict. 

An army was gathered at Wheeling, which, 
some time in July, under command of Col. Mc- 
Donald, descended the Ohio to the mouth of Cap- 
tina Creek. They proposed to march against an 
Indian town on the Muskingum. The Indians 
sued for peace, but their pretensions being found 
spurious, their towns and crops were destroyed. 
The army then retreated to WUliamsburg, having 
accomplished but little. 


-* — ? 




The Delawares were anxious for peace ; even the 
Mingoes, whose relatives had been slain at Yellow 
Creek, and Captina, were restrained; but Logan, 
who had been turned to an inveterate foe to the 
Americans, came 'suddenly upon the Monongahela 
settlements, took thirteen scalps in revenge for the 
loss of his family, returned home and expressed 
himself ready to treat with the Long Knives, the 
Virginians. Had Connelly acted properly at this 
juncture, the war might have been ended; but 
his actions only incensed both borderers and In- 
dians. So obnoxious did he become that Lord 
Dunmore lost faith in him, and severely repri- 
manded him. 

To put a stop to the depredations of the Indians, 
two Jftrge bodies of troops were gathered in Vir- 
ginia, one under Gen. Andrew Lewis, and one 
under command of Dunmore himself. Before 
the armies could meet at the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha, their objective point, Lewis' army, which 
arrived first, was attacked by a furious band of Dela- 
wares, Shawanees, Iroquois and Wyandots. The 
conflict was bitterly prolonged by the Indians, who, 
under the leadership of Cornstalk, were deter- 
mined to make a decisive effort, and fought till 
late at night (October 10, 1Y74), and then only by 
a strategic move of Lewis' command — which re- 
sulted in the defeat of the IndiarUS, compelling them 
to cross the Ohio — was the conflict ended. Mean- 
while, Dunmore's army came into the enemy's 
country, and, being joined by the remainder of 
Lewis' command, pressed forward intending to an- 
nihilate the Indian towns. Cornstalk and his 
chiefs, however, sued for peace, and the conflict 
closed. Dunmore established a camp on Sippo 
Creek, where he held conferences with the natives 
and concluded the war. When he left the country, 
he stationed 100 men at the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha, a few more at Pittsburgh, and another 
corps at Wheeling, then called Fort Fincastle. 
Dunmore intended to return to Pittsburgh the 
next spring, meet the Indians and form a definite 
peace ; but the revolt of the colonies prevented." 
However, he opened several ofi&ces for the sale of 
lands in the West, some of which were in the limits 
of the Pennsylvania colony. This led to the old* 
boundary dispute again; but before it could be 
settled, the Revolution began, and Lord Dunmore's, 
as well as almost all other' land speculations in the 
West, were at an end. 

In 1775 and 1776, the chief events transpiring 
in the West relate to the treaties with the Indians, 
and the endeavor on the part of the Americans to 

have them remain neutral in the family quarrel now 
coming on, which they could not understand. The 
British, like the French, however, could not let 
them alone, and finally, as a retaliatory measure. 
Congress, under advice of Washington, won some of 
them over to the side of the colonies, getting their 
aid and holding them neutral. The colonies only 
offered them rewards for prisoners ; never, like the . 
British, offering rewards for scalps. Under such 
rewards, the atrocities of the Indians in some quar- 
ters were simply horrible. The scalp was enough 
to get a reward, that was a mark of Indiaji valor, 
too, and hence, helpless innocence and decrepit old 
age were not spared. They stirred the minds of 
the pioneers, who saw the protection of their fire- 
sides a vital point, and led the way to the scheme 
of Col. Clarke, who was now, as has been noted, the 
leading spirit in Kentucky. He saw through the 
scheme of the British, and determined, by a qui'ck, 
decisive blow, to put an. end to it, and to cripple 
their power in the West. 

Among the acts stimulating Clarke, was the attack 
on Fort Henry, a garrison about one-half mile 
above Wheeling Creek, on the Ohio, by a renegade 
white man, Simon Girty, an agent in the employ of 
the British, it is thought, and one of the worst 
wretches ever known on the frontier. When Girty 
attacked Fort Henry, he led his red allies in regu- 
lat military fashion, and attacked it without mercy. 
The defenders were brave, and knew with whom 
they were contending. Great bravery was displayed 
by the women in the fort, bne of whom, a Miss 
Zane, carried a keg of gunpowder from a cabin 
to the fort.. Though repeatedly fired at by the sav- 
ages, she reached the'fort in safety. After awhile, 
however, the effect of the frontiersmen's shots began 
to be felt, and the Indians sullenly withdrew. 
Re-enforcements coming, the fort was held, and 
Girty and his band were obliged to flee. 

Clarke saw that if the British once got con- 
trol over the Western Indians the scene at Fort 
Henry would be repeated, and would not likely, 
in all cases, eij,d in favor of the Americans. With- 
out communicating any of his designs, he left Har- 
rodsburg about the 1st of October, 1777, and 
reached the capital: of Virginia by November 5. 
Still keeping his mind, he awaited a favorable op- 
portunity to broach his plans to those in power, 
and, in the meanwhile, carefully watched the exist- 
ing state of feeling. When the opportunity came, 
Clarke broached his plans to Patrick Henry, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, who at once entered warmly 
into them, recognizing their great importance. 





Through his aid, Clarke procured the nocessary au- 
thority to prosecute his plans, and returned at once 
to Pittsburgh. He iptended raising men about 
this post, but found them fearful of leaving their 
homes unprotected. However, he 'secured three 
companies, and, with these and a number of volun- 
teers, picked up on the way down the Ohio Rive% 
he fortified Corn Island, near the falls, and made 
ready for his expedition. He had some trouble in 
keeping his men, some of those from Kentucky 
refusing to aid in subduing stations out of their 
own country. He did not announce his real inten- 
tions till he had reached this point. Here Col. 
Bowman joined him with his Kentucky militia, 
and, on the 24th of June, 1778, during a total 
eclipse of the sun, the party left the fort. Before 
his start, he learned of the capture of Burgoyne, 
and, when nearly down to Fort Massac, he met 
some of his spies, who informed him of the exag- 
gerated accounts of the ferocity of the Long 
Knives that the French had received from the 
British. By proper action on his part, Clarke saw 
both these items of information could be made 
very beneficial to him. Leaving the river near 
Fort Massac, he set out on the march to Kaskas- 
kia, through a hot summer's sun, over a country 
ftill of savage foes. They reached the town un- 
noticed, on the evening of July 4, and, before 
the astonished British and French knew it, they 
were all prisoners. M. Rocheblave, the English 
commander, was secured, but his wife adroitly con- 
cealed the papers belonging to the garrison. In 
the person of M. Gibault, the French priest, Clarke 
found a true friend. When the true character of 
the Virginians became apparent, the French were 
ea.sily drawn to the American side, and the priest 
secured the surrender and allegiance of Cahokia 
throtigh his personal influence. M. Gibault told 
him he would also secure the post at St. Vincent's, 
which he did, returning from the mission about 
the 1st of August. During the interval, Clarke re- 
enlisted his men, formed his plans, sent his pris- 
oners to Kentucky, and was ready for future action 
when M. Gibault arrived. He sent Capt. Helm 
and a single soldier to Vincennes to hold that fort 
until he could put a garrison there. It is but 
proper to state that the English commanderj Col.' 
Hamilton, and his band of soldiers, were absent at 
Detroit when the priest secured the village on the 
"Ouabache." When Hamilton returned, in the 
autumn, he was greatly surprised to see the Amer- 
ican flag floating from the ramparts of the fort, 
and when approaching the gate he was abruptly 

halted by Capt. Helm, who stood with a lighted fuse 
in his hand by a cannon, answering Hamilton's 
demand to surrender with the imperative inquiry, 
"Upon what terms, sir?" "Upon the honors of 
war," answered Hamilton, and he marched in 
greatly chagrined to see he had been halted by 
two men. The British commander sat quietly 
down, intending to go on down the river and sub- 
due Kentucky in the spring, in the mean time 
ofi"ering rewards for American scalps, and thereby 
gaining the epithet " Hair-buyer General." Clarke 
heard of his actions late in January, 1779, and, as 
he says, " I knew if I did not take him he would 
take me," set out early in February with his troops 
and marched across the marshy plains of Lower 
Illinois, reaching the Wabash post by the 22d of 
that month. The unerring aim of the Westerner 
was efiectual. " They will shoot your eyes. out," 
said Helm to the British troops. " There, I told 
you so," he further exclaimed, as a soldier vent- 
ured near a port-hole and received a shot directly 
in his eye. On the 24th the fort surrendered. 
The American flag waved again over its ramparts. 
The "Hair-buyer General" was sent a prisoner to 
Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement 
for his cruel acts. Clarke returned to Kaskaskia, 
perfected his plans to hold the Illinois settlements, 
went on to Kentucky, from where he sent word to 
the colonial authorities of the success of his expe- 
dition. Had he received the aid promised him, 
Detroit, in easy reach, would have fallen too, but 
Gen. Green, failing to send-it as promised, the capt- 
ure of that important post was delayed. 

Had Clarke failed, and Hamilton succeeded, the 
whole West would have been swept, from the Alle- 
ghanies to the Mississippi. But for this small 
army of fearless Virginians, the union of all the 
tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies 
might have been effected, and the whole current 
of American history changed. America owes 
Clarke and his band more than it can ever pay. 
Clarke reported the capture of Kaskaskia and the 
Illinois country early after its surrender, and in 
October the county of Illinois was established, 
extending over an unlimited expanse of country, 
by the Virginia Legislature. John Todd was 
appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor. 
In November, Clarke and his men received the 
thanks of the same body, who, in after years, 
secured them a grant of land, which they selected 
on the right bank of the Ohio Biver, opposite 
Louisville. They expected here a city would rise 
one day, to be the peer of Louisville, then coming 





into prominence as an important place. By some 
means, their expectations failed, and only the 
dilapidated village of Clarkesburg perpetuates 
their hopes. 

The conquest of Clarke changed the face of 
affairs in relation to the whole country north of 
the Ohio River, which would, in all probability, 
have been made the boundary between Canada and 
the United States. When this was proposed, the 
strenuous arguments based on this conquest, by 
the American Commissioners, secured the present 
boundary line in negotiating the treaty of 1793. 

Though Clarke had failed to capture Detroit, 
Congress saw the importance of the post, and 
resolved on securing it. Gen. McCosh, commander 
at Fort Pitt, was put in coinmand, and $1,000,- 
000 arid 3,000 men placed at his disposal. By 
some dilatory means, he got no further than the 
Tuscarawas River, in Ohio, where a half-way 
house, called Fort Laurens, for the President of 
Congress, was built. It was too far out to be of 
practicable value, and was soon aftei; abandoned. 

Indian troubles and incursions by the British 
were the most absorbing themes in the West. 
The British went so far as Kentucky at a later 
date, while they intended reducing Fort Pitt, only 
abandoning it when learning of its strength. 
Expeditions against the Western Indians were led 
by Gen. Sullivan, Col. Daniel Broadhead, Col. 
Bowman and . others, which, for awhile, silenced 
the natives and taught them the power of the 
Americans. They could not organize so readily 
as before,' and began to attach themselves more 
closely to the British,.or commit their depredations 
in bands, fleeing into the wilderness as soon as 
they struck a blow. In this way, several localities 
suffered, until the settlers became again exasper- 
ated ; other expeditions were formed, and a second 
chastisement given. In 1781, Col. Broadhead 
led an expedition against the Central Ohio Indians. 
It did not prove so successful, as the Indians were 
led by the noted chief Brant, who, though not 
cruel, was a foe to the Americans, and assisted the 
British greatly in their endeavors to secure the West. 

Another class of events occurred now in the 
West, civil in their relations, yet destined to form 
an important part of its history— its land laws. 

It must be borne in mind, that Virginia claimed' 
the greater portion of the country north of the 
Ohio River, as well as a large part south. The 
other colonies claimed land also in the West under 
the old Crown grants, which extended to the 
South or Western Sea. To more complicate mat- 

J ^ ^ 

ters, several land companies held proprietary rights 
to portions of these lands gained by grants from 
the Crown, or from the Colonial Assemblies. 
Others were based on land warrants issued 
in 1763; others on selection and survey and 
still others on settlement. In this state of 
mixed affairs, it was difficult to say, who held a 
secure claim. It was a question whether the old 
French grants were good or not, especially since 
the change in government, and the eminent pros- 
pect of still another change. To, in some way, 
aid in settling these claims, Virginia sent a com- 
mission to the West to sit as a court and determine 
the proprietorship of these claims. This court, 
though of as doubtful authority as the claims 
themselves, went to work in Kentucky and along 
the Ohio River in 1779, and, in the course of one 
year, granted over three thousand certificates. 
.These were considered as good authority for a 
definite title, and were so regarded in afler pur- 
chases. Under them, many pioneers, like Daniel 
Boone, lost their lands, as all were required to 
hold some kind of a patent, while others, who 
possessed no more principle than "land-sharks" 
of to-day, acquired large tracts of land by holding 
a patent the court was bound to accept. Of all 
the colonies, Virginia seemed to have the best 
title to the Northwest, save a few parcels,. such as 
the Connecticut or Western Reserve and some 
similar tracts held by New York, Massachusetts 
and New Jersey. When the territory of the 
Northwest was ceded to the General Government, 
this was recognized, and that country was counted 
as a Virginia county. 

The Spanish Government, holding the region 
west of the Mississippi, and a portion east toward 
its outlet, became an important but secret ally of 
the Americans. When the French revolt .was 
suppressed by O'Reilly, and the Spanish assumed 
the government of Louisiana, both Upper and 
Lower, there was a large tract of country, known 
as Florida (East and West), claimed by England, 
and duly regarded as a part of her dominion. 
The boundaries had been settled when the French 
first occupied Lower Louisiana. The Spaniards 
adopted the patriarchal form of rule, as much as 
was consistent with their interests, and allowed the 
French full religious and civil liberty, save that all 
tribunals were after the Spanish fashion, and 
governed by Spanish rules. The Spaniards, long 
jealous of England's growing power, secretly sent 
the Governors of Louisiana word to aid the 
.Americans in their struggle for freedom. Though 




they controlled the Mississippi River, they allowed 
an American officer (Capt. Willing) to descend the 
river in January, 1778, with a party of fifty men, 
and ravage the British shore from Manchez Bayou 
to Natchez. 

On the 8th of May, 1779, Spain declared war 
against Great Britain ; and, on the 8th ~b{ July, 
the people of Louisiana were allowed to take a 
part in the war. Accordingly, Galvez collected a 
force of 1,400 men, and, on the 7th of September, 
took Fort Manchac. By the 21st of September, 
he had taken Baton Rouge and Natchez. Eight 
vessels were captured by the Spaniards on the 
Mississippi and on the lakes. In 1780 Mobile 
fell ; in March, 1781, Pensacola, the chief British 
post in West Florida, succumbed after a long 
siege, and, on the 9th of May, all West Florida 
was surrendered to Spain. 

This war, or the war on the Atlantic Coast, did 
not immediately afiect Upper Louisiana. Great 
Britain, however, attempted to capture St. Louis. 
Though the commander was strongly suspected of 
being bribed by the English, yet the place stood 
the siege from the combined force of Indians and 
Canadians, and the assailants were dispersed. This 
was done during the summer of 1680, and in the 
autumn, a company of Spanish and French resi- 
dents, -under La Balme, went on an expedition 
against Detroit. They marched as far north as 
the British trading-post Ke-ki-ong-a, at the head 
of the Maumee River, but being surprised in the 
night, and the commander slain, the expedition 
was defeated, having done but little. 

Spain may have had personal interests in aiding 
the Americans. She was now in control of the Mis- 
sissippi River, the natural outlet of the Northwest, 
and, in 1780, began the troubles relative to the 
navigation of that stream. The claims of Spain 
were considered very unjust by the O&ntinental 
Congress, and, while deliberating over the question, 
Virginia, who was jealously alive to her Western 
interests, and who yet held jurisdiction over Ken- 
tucky, sent through Jefferson, the Governor, Gen. 
George Rogers Clarke, to erect a fort below the 
mouth of the Ohio. This proceeding was rather 
unwarrantable, especially as the fort was built in 
the country of the Chickasaws, who had thus far 
been true friends to the Americans, and who looked 
upon the fort as an innovation on their territory. 
It was completed and occupied but a short time, 
Clarke being recalled. 

Virginia, in 1780, did a very important thing; 
namely, establishing an institution for higher edu- 

cation. The Old Dominion confiscated the lands 
of " Robert McKenzie, Henry Collins and Alex- 
ander McKee, Britons, eight thousand acres," and 
invested the proceeds of the sale in a public semi- 
nary. Transylvania University now lives, a monu- 
menC to that spirit. 

While Clarke was building Fort Jefierson, a force 
of British and Indians, under command of Capt. 
Bryd, came down from Canada and attacked the 
Kentucky settlements, getting into the country be- 
fore any one was aware. The winter before had 
been one of unusual severity, and game was ex 
ceedingly scarce, hence the army was not prepared 
to conduct a campaign. After the capture of Rud- 
dle's Station, at the south fork of the Licking, Bryd 
abandoned any ftirther attempts to reduce the set- 
tlements, except capturing Martin's Station, and 
returned to Detroit. 

This expedition gave an additional motive for 
the chastisement of the Indians, and Clarke, on his 
return from Fort JeiFerson, went on an expedition 
against the Miami Indians. He destroyed their 
towns at Loramie's store, near the present city of 
Sydney, Ohio, and at Piqua, humbling the natives. 
While on the way, a part of the army remained 
on the north bank of the Ohio, and erected two 
block -houses on the present site of Cincinnati. 

The exploits of Clarke and his men so efiectually 
chastised the Indians, that, for a -time, the West 
was safe. During this period of quiet, the meas- 
ures which led to the cession of Western lands to 
the General Government, began to assume a defi- 
nite form. All the colonies claiming Western 
lands were willing to cede them to the Government, 
save Virginia, which colony wanted a large scope 
of Southern country southeast of the Ohio, as f&x 
as South Carolina. All recognized the justice of 
all Western lands becoming public property, and 
thereby aiding in extinguishing the debts caused by 
the war of the Revolution, now about to close. 
As Virginia held a somewhat difierent view, the 
cession was not made until 1783. 

The subject, however, could not be allowed to 
rest. The war of the Revolution was now drawing 
to a close ; victory on the part of the colonies was 
apparent, and the Western lands must be a part of 
the pubUc domain. Subsequent events brought 
about the desired cession, though several events 
transpired before the plan of cession was consum- 

Before the close of 1780, the Legislature of 
Virginia passed an act, establishing the "town of 
Louisville," and confiscated the lands of John 




Connelly, who was one of its original proprietors, 
and who distinguished himself in the ' commence- 
ment of Lord Dunmore's war, and who was now a 
Tory, and doing all he could against the patriot 
cause. The proceeds of the sale of his lands were 
divided between Virginia and the county of Jefferson. 
Kentucky, the next year, was divided into three 
counties, Jefferson, Lincoln and Fayette. Courts 
were appointed in each, and the entry and location 
of lands given into their hands'. Settlers, in spite 
of Indian troubles and British intrigue, were 
pouring over the mountains, particularly so during 
the years I'ZSO and 1781. The expeditions of 
Clarke against the Miami Indians ; Boone's cap- 
tivity, and escape from them; their defeat when 
attacking Boonesboro, and other -places — ^all 
combined to weaken their power, and teach them 
to respect a nation whose progress they could not 

The pioneers of the West, obliged to depend on 
themselves, owing to the struggle of the colonies 
for freedom, grew up a hardy, self-reliant race, 
with all the vices and virtues of a border life, and 
with habits, manners and customs necessary to 
their peculiar situation, and suited to their peculiar 
taste. A resume of their experiences and daily 
lives would be quite interesting, did the limits of 
this history admit it here. In the part relating 
directly to this 'county, the reader will find such 
lives given ; here, only the important events can 
be noticed. 

The last event of consequence occurring in the 
West before the close of the Revolution, is one 
that might well have been omitted. Had such 
been the case, a great stain would have been spared 
the character of Western pioneers. Reference is 
made to the massacre of the Moravian Christian 

These Indians were of the Delaware nation 
chiefly, though other Western tribes were visited 
and many converts made. The first converts were 
made in New York and Connecticut, where, after 
a good start had been made, and a prospect of 
many souls being saved, they incurred the enmity 
of the whites, who, becoming alarmed at their suc- 
cess, persecuted them to such an extent that they 
were driven out of New York into Pennsylvania, 
where, in 1744, four years, after their arrival in 
the New World, they began new missions. In 
1748, the New York and Connecticut Indians fol- 
lowed their teachers, and were among the founders 
of Friedenshutten, "Tents of Peace," a hamlet 
near Bethlehem, where their teachers were sta/- 

tioned. Other hamlets grew arojind them, until 
in the interior of the colony, existed an Indian 
community, free from all savage vices, and grow- 
ing up in Christian virtues. As their strength 
grew, lawless whites again began to oppress them. 
They could not understand the war of 1754, and 
were., indeed, in a truly embarrassing 'position. 
The savages could form no conception of any cause 
for neutrality, save a secret sympathy with the 
Enghsh ; and if they could not take up the hatchet, 
they were in the way, and must be removed. Fail- 
ing to do this, their red brothers became hostile. 
The whites were but little better. The old suspi- 
cions which drove them from New York were 
aroused. They were secret Papists, in league with 
the French, and fiirnished them with arms and in- 
telligence; they were interfering with the liquor 
traffic; they were enemies to the Government, 
and the Indian and the white man combined against 
them. They were oblige^d to move from place to 
place; were at one time protected nearly a year, 
near Philadelphia, from lawless whites, and finally 
were compelled to go far enough West to be out 
of the way of French and English arms, or the 
Iroquois and Cherokee hatchets. They came 
finally to the Muskingum, where they made a set- 
tlement CEilled Schonbrun, "beautiful clear spring," 
in what is now Tuscarawas County. Other settle- 
ments gathered, from time to time, as the years 
went on, till in 1772 large numbers of them were 
within the borders of the State. 

Until the war of independence broke out, they 
were allowed to peacefully pursue their way. When 
that came, they were between Fort Pitt and De- 
troit, one of which contained British, the other 
Americans. Again they could not understand the 
struggle, and could not take up the hatchet. This 
brought on them the enmity of both belligerent 
parties, and that of their own forest companions, 
who could not see wherein their natures could 
change. Among the most hostile persons, were 
the white renegades McKee, Grirty and Elliott. 
On their instigation, several of them were slain, 
and by their advice they were obliged to leave their 
fieldg and homes, where they had many comforts, 
and where they had erected good chapels in which 
to worship. 'It was just before one of these forced 
removals that Mary, daughter of the missionary 
Heckewelder, was born. She is supposed to be 
the first white female child born north of the Ohio 
River. Her birth occurred April 16, 1781. It 
is but proper to say here, that it is an open ques- 
tion, and one that will probably never be decided. 


J 1^ 



t. e. Who was the first white child born in Ohio ? 
In all probability, the child was born during the 
captivity of its mother, as history plainly shows 
that when white women were released from the 
Indians, some of them carried children born while 
among the natives. 

When the Moravians were forced to leave their 
settlements on the Muskingum, and taken to San- 
dusky, they left growing fields of corn, to which 
they were obliged to return, to gather food. This 
aroused the whites, only wanting some pretext 
whereby they might attack them, and a party, 
headed by Col. David Williamson, determined to 
exterminate them. The Moravians, hearing of their 
approach, fled, but too late to warn other settle- 
ments, and Gnadenhutten, Salem and one or two 
smaller settlements, were surprised and taken. 
Under deceitfiil promises, the Indians gave up all 
their arms, showed the whites their treasures, and 
went unknowingly to a terrible death. When ap- 
prised of their fate, determined on Ijy a majority 
of the rangers, they begged only time to prepare. 
They wete led two by two, the men into one, the 
women and children into another "slaughter- 
house," as it was termed, and all but two lads were 
wantonly slain. An infamous and more bloody 
deed never darkened the pages of feudal times ; 
a deed that, in after years, called aloud for venge- 
ance, and in some measure received it. Some of 
Williamson's men wrung their hands at the cruel 
fate, and endeavored, by all the means in their 
power, to prevent it ; but all to no purpose. The 
blood of the rangers was up, and they would not spare 
"man, woman or child, of all that peaceful band." 

Having completed their horrible work, (March 
8, 1782), Williamson and his men returned to 
Pittsburgh. Everywhere, the Indians lamented 
the untimely death of their kindred, their savage 
relatives determining on their revenge; the Chris- 
tian ones could only be resigned and weep. 

Williamson's success, for such it was viewed by 
many, excited the borderers to another invasian, 
and a second army was raised, this time to 
go to the Sandusky town, and annihilate the 
Wyandots. Col. William Crawford was elected 
leader ; he accepted reluctantly ; on the way, 
the army tvas met by hordes of savages on the 5th of 

June, and totally routed. They were away north, 
in what is now Wyandot County, and were obliged 
to flee for their lives. The blood of the murdered 
Moravians called for revenge. The Indians de- 
sired it; were they not relatives of the fallen 
Christians ? Crawford and many of his men fell 
into their hands ; all suffered unheard-of tortures, 
that of Crawford being as cruel as Indian cruelty 
could devise. He was pounded, pierced, cut with 
knives and burned, all of which occupied nearly a 
night, and finally lay down insensible on a bed of 
coals, and died. The savage captors, in demoniacal 
glee, danced around him, and upbraided him for 
the cruel murder of their relatives, giving him this 
only consolation, that had they captured William- 
son, he might go free, but he must answer for Will- 
iamson's brutality. 

The war did not cease here. The Indians, now 
aroused, carried their attack as far south as into 
Kentucky, killing Capt. Estill, a brave man, and 
some of his companions. The British, too, were 
active in aiding them, and the 14th of August a 
large force of them, under Girty, gathered silently 
about Bryant's Station. They were obliged to re- 
treat. The Kentuckians pursued them, but were 
repulsed with considerable loss. 

The attack on Bryant's Station aroused the peo- 
ple of Kentucky to strike a blow that would be 
felt. Gen. Clarke was put at the head of an army 
of one thousand and fifty men, and the Miami 
country was a second time destroyed. Clarke even 
went as far north as the British trading-post at the 
head of the Miami, where he captured a great 
amount of property, and destroyed the post. Other 
outposts also fell, the invading army suffering but 
little, and, by its decisive action, practically closing 
the Indian wars in the West. Pennsylvania suf- 
fered some, losing Haiinahstown and one or two 
small settlements. Williamson's and Crawford's 
campaigns aroused the fury of the Indians that 
took time and n)uch blood and war to subdue. The 
Kevolution was, however, drawing to a close. Amer- 
ican arms were victorious, and a new nation was 
now coming into existence, who would change the 
whole. current of Western matters, and make of the 
Northwest a land of liberty, equality and union. 
That nation was now on the stage. 







THE occupation of the West by the American, 
really dates from the campaign of G-en. Clarke in 
1778, when he captured the British" posts in the 
IlUnois country, and Vincennes on the Wabash. 
Had he been properly supported, he would have 
reduced Detroit, then in easy reach, and poorly de- 
fended. As it was, however, that post remained in 
charge of the British tUl after the close of the war 
of the Revolution. They also held other lake 
posts; but these were included in the terms of 
peace, and came into the possession of the Ameri- 
cans. They were abandoned by the British as 
soon as the different commanders received notice 
from their chiefs, and British rule and English 
occupation ceased in that part of the New World. 

The war virtually closed by the surrender of 
Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Va., October 19, 
1781. The struggle was prolonged, however, by 
the British, in the vain hope that they could re- 
trieve the disaster, but it was only a useless waste 
of men and money. America would not be sub- 
dued. "If we are to be taxed, we will be repre- 
sented," said they, "else we will be a free govern- 
ment, and regulate our own taxes." In the end, 
they were free. 

Provisional articles of peace between the United 
States and Great Britain were signed in Paris on 
the 30th.of November, 1782. This was followed 
by an armistice negotiated at Versailles on the 20th 
of January, 1783 ; and finally, a definite treaty of 
peace was concluded at Paris on the 3d of the next 
September, and ratified by Congress on the 4th of 
January, 1784. By the second article of the defi- 
nite treaty of 1783, the boundaries of the United 
States were fixed. A glance at the map of that 
day shows the boundary to have been as follows: 
Beginning at Passamaquoddy Bay, on the coast of 
Maine, the line ran north a little above the forty- 
fifth parallel of latitude, when it diverged southwest- 
erly, irregularly, until it reached that parallel, when 
it followed it until it reached the St. Lawrence RiVer. 
It followed that river to Lake Ontario, down its 
center ; up the Niagara River ; through Lake Erie, 

up the Detroit River and through Lakes Huron and 
Superior, to the northwest extremity of the latter. 
Then it pursued another irregular western course 
to the Lake of the Woods, when it tfirned south- 
ward to the Mississippi River. The commissioners 
insisted that should be the western boundary, as 
the lakes were the northern. It followed the Mis- 
sissippi south until the mouth of Red River was 
reached, when, turning east, it followed almost a 
direct line to the Atlantic Coast, touching the 
coast a little north of the outlet of St. John's 

From this outline, it wUl be readily seen what 
boundary the United States possessed. Not one- 
half of its present domain. 

At this date, there existed the original thirteen 
colonies : Virginia occupying all Kentucky and 
all the Northwest, save about half of Michigan and 
Wisconsin, claimed by Massachusetts ; and the upper 
part of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and the lower 
part (a narrow strip) of Michigan, claimed by Con- 
necticut. Georgia included all of Alabama and 
Mississippi. The Spaniards claimed all Florida 
and a narrow part of lower Georgia. All (;he coun- 
try west of the Father of Waters belonged to Spain, 
to whom it had been secretly ceded when the fam- 
ily compact was made. That nation controlled the 
Mississippi, and gave no small uneasiness to the 
young government. It was, however, happily set- 
tled finally, by the sale of Louisana to the United 

. Pending the settlement of these questions and 
the formation of tho Federal Union, the cession of 
the Northwest by Virginia again came before 
Congress. That body found itself unable to fulfill 
its promises to its soldiers regarding land, and 
again urged the Old Dominion to cede "the Terri- 
tory to the General, Government, for the good of 
all. Congress forbade settlers from occupying the 
Western lands till a definite cession had been 
made, and the title to the lands in question made 
good. But speculation was stronger than law, 
and without waiting for the slow processes of courts. 

•^ (S~ 





the adventurous settlers were pouring into the 
country at a rapid rate, only retarded by. the rifle 
and scaJping-knife of the savage — a temporary 
check. The policy of allowing any parties to obtain 
land from the Indians was strongly discouraged 
by Washington. He advocated the idea that only 
the General Government could do that, and, in a 
letter to James Duane, in Congress, he strongly 
urged such a course, and pointed out the danger 
of a border war, unless some such measure was 
stringently followed. 

' Under the circumstances, Congress pressed the 
claims of cession upon Virginia, and finally in- 
duced the Dominion to modify the terms proposed 
two years before. On the 20th of December, 
1783, Virginia accepted the proposal of Congress, 
and authorized her delegates to make a deed to 
the United States of all her right in the territory 
northwest of the Ohio. 

The Old Dominion stipulated in her deed of 
cession, that the territory should be divided into 
States, to be admitted into the Union as any other 
State, and to bear a proportionate share in the 
maintenance of that Union; that Virginia should 
be re-imb.ursed for the expense incurred in subduing 
the British posts in the territory; that the French 
and Canadian inhabitants should be protected in their 
rights ; that the grant to Gen. George Rogers Clarke 
and his men, as well as all other similar grants, 
should be confirmed, and that the lands should be 
considered as the common property of the United 
States, the proceeds to be applied to the use of the 
whole country. Congress accepted these condi- 
tions, and the deed was made March 1, 1784. 
Thus the country came from under the dominion 
of Virginia, and became common property. 

A serious difficulty arose about this time, that 
threatened |for awhile to involve England and 
America anew in war. Virginia and several 
other States refused to abide by that part of the 
treaty relating to the payment of debts, especially 
so, when the British carried away quite a number 
of negroes claimed by the Americans. This re- 
fusal on the part of the Old Dominion and her 
abettors, caused the English to retain her North- 
western outposts, Detroit, Mackinaw, etc. She 
held these till 1786, when the questions were 
finally settled, and then readily abandoned them. 

The return of peace greatly augmented emigra- 
tion to the West, especially to Kentucky. When 
the war closed, the population of that county (the 
three counties having been made one judicial dis- 
trict, and Danville designated as the seat of gov- 

ernment) was estimated to be about twelve thousand. 
In one year, after the close of the war, it increased 
to 30,000, and steps for a State government were 
taken. Owing to the divided sentiment among its 
citizens, its perplexing questions of land titles 
and proprietary rights, nine conventions were held 
before a definite course of action could be reached. 
This prolonged the time till 1792, when, in De- 
cember of that year, the election for persons to 
form a State constitution was held, and the vexed 
and complicated questions settled. In 1783, the 
first wagons bearing merchandise came across the 
mountains. Their contents were received on flat- 
boats at Pittsburgh, and taken down the Ohio to 
Louisville, which that spring boasted of a store, 
'opened by Daniel Broadhead. The next year, 
James Wilkinson opened one at Lexington. 

Pittsburgh was now the principal town in the 
West. It occupied the same position regarding 
the outposts that Omaha has done for several years 
to Nebraska. The town of Pittsburgh was laid 
out immediately after the war of 1764, by Col. 
Campbell. It then consisted of four squafe about 
the fort, and received its name from that citadel. 
The treaty with the Six Nations in 1768, con- 
veyed to the proprietaries of Pennsylvania all the 
lands of the Alleghany below Kittanning, and all 
the country south of the Ohio, within the limits of 
Penn's charter. This deed of cession was recog- 
nized when the line between Pennsylvania and 
Virginia was fixed, and gave the post to the Key- 
stone State. In accordance with this deed, the 
manor of Pittsburgh was withdrawn from market 
in 1769, and was held as the property of the Penn 
family. When Washington visited it in 1770, it 
seems to have declined in consequence of the 
afore-mentioned act. He mentions it as a " town of 
about twenty log houses, on the Monongahela, 
about three hundred yards from the fort." The 
Penn's remained true to the King, and henee all 
their land that had not been surveyed and returned 
to the land office, was confiscated by the common- 
wealth. Pittsburgh, having been surveyed, was 
still left to them. In the spring of 1784, Tench 
Francis, the agent of the Penns, was induced to 
lay out the manor into lots and ofier them for sale. 
Though, for many years, the place was rather un- 
promising, it eventually became the chief town in 
that part of the West, a position it yet holds. In 
1786, John Scull and Joseph Hall started the 
Pittsburgh Gazette, the first paper published west 
of the mountains. In the initial number, appeared a 
lengthy article from the pen of H. H. Brackenridge, 

9 "V 



afterward one of the most prominent members 
of the Pennsylvania bar. He 'had located in 
Pittsburgh in 1781. His letter gives a most hope- 
ful prospect in store for the future city, and is a 
highly descriptive article of the Western country. 
It is yet preserved in the "Western Annals," and 
is well worth a perusal. 

Under the act of peace in 1783, no provision was 
made by the Briiish for their allies, especially the 
Six Nations. The question was ignored by the 
English, and was made a handle by the Americans 
in gaining them to their cause before the war had 
fully closed. The treaties made were regarded by 
the Indians as alliances only, and when the En- 
glish left the country the Indians began to assume 
rather a hostile bearing. This excited the whites, 
and for a while a war with that formidable con- 
federacy was imminent. Better councils prevailed, 
and Congress wisely adopted the policy of acquiring 
their lands by purchase. In accordance with this 
policy, a treaty was made at Fort Stanwix with 
the Six Nations, in October, 1784. By this treaty, 
all lands west of a line drawn from the mouth of 
Oswego Creek, about four miles east of Niagara, 
to the mouth of Buffalo Creek, and on to the 
northern boundary of Pennsylvania, thence west 
along that boundary to its western extremity, 
thence south to the Ohio River, should be ceded 
to the United States. (They claimed west of this line 
by conquest.) The Six Nations were to be secured 
in the lands they inhabited, reserving only si^ miles 
square around Oswego fort for the support of the 
same. By this treaty, the indefinite claim of the 
Six Nations to the West was extinguished, and the 
question of its ownership settled. 

It was now ■ occupied by other Western tribes, 
who did not recognize the Iroquois claim, and who 
would not yield without a purchase. Especially 
was this the case with those Indians living in the 
northern part. To get possession of that country 
by the same process, the United States, through 
ite commissioners, held a treaty at Fort Mcintosh 
on the 21st of January, 1785. The Wyandot, 
Delaware, Chippewa and Ottawa tribes were pres- 
ent, and, through their chiefs, sold their lands to 
tiie Grovernmeht. The Wyandot and Delaware 
nations were given a reservation in the north part 
of Ohio, where they were to be protected. The 
others were allotted reservations in Michigan. To 
all was given complete control of their lands, allow- 
ing them to punish any white man attempting to 
settle thereon, and guaranteeing them in their 

By such means Congress gained Indian titles to 
the vast realms north of the Ohio, and, a few 
months later, that legislation was commenced that 
should determine the mode of its disposal aitd the 
plan of its settlements. 

To facilitate the settlement of lands thus acquired. 
Congress, on May 20, 1785, passed an act for dispos- 
ing of lands in the Northwest Territory. Its main 
provisions were ; A surveyor or surveyors should be 
appointed from the States ; and a geographer., and 
his assistants to act with them. The surveyors 
were to divide the territory into townships of six' 
miles square, by lines running due north and 
south, and east and west. The starting-place 
was to be on the Ohio River, at a point where the 
southern and western boundaries of Pennsylvania 
intersected. This would give the first range, and 
the first township. As soon as seven townships were 
surveyed, the maps and plats of the same were to 
be sent to the Board of the Treasury, who would 
record them and proceed to place the land in the 
market, and so on with all the townships as fast as 
they could be prepared ready for sale. Each town- 
ship was to be divided into thirty-six sections, or 
lots. Out of these sections, numbers 8, 11, 26 and 
29 were reserved for the use of the Government, 
and lot No. 16, for the establishment of a common- 
school fund. One-third of all mines and minerals was 
also reservedfor the United States. Three townships 
on Lake Erie were reserved for the use of officers,- 
men and others, refugees from Canada and from 
Nova Scotia, who were entitled to grants of land. 
The Moravian Indians were also exempt from 
molestatiouj and guaranteed in their homes. Sol- 
diers' claims, and all others of a like nature, were 
also recognized, and land reserved for them. 

Without waiting for the act of Congress, settlers 
had been pouring into the country, and, when or- 
dered by Congress to -leave undisturbed Indian 
lands, refused to do so. They went into the In-' 
dian country at their peril, however, and when 
driven out by the Indians could get no redress 
from the Government, even when life was lost. 

The Indians on the Wabash jnade a treaty at 
Port Finney, on the Miami, January 31, 1786, 
promising allegiance to the United States, and were 
allowed a reservation. This treaty did not include 
the Piankeshaws, as was at first intended. These, 
refusing to live peaceably, stirred up the Shawa- 
nees, who began a series of predatory excursions 
against the settlements. This led to an expedition 
against them and other restless tribes. Gen. Clarke 
commanded part of the army on that expedition, 





but got no farther than Vincennes, when, owing to 
the discontent of his Kentucky troops, he was 
obhged to return. Col. Benjamin Logan, how- 
ever, marched, at the head of four or five hundred 
mounted riflemen, into the Indian country, pene- 
trating as far as the head-waters of Mad Kiver. 
He destroyed- several towns, much corn, and took 
about eighty prisoners. Among these, was the 
chief of the nation, who was wantonly slain, 
greatly to Logan's regret, who cohld not restrain 
his men. His expedition taught the Indians sub- 
mission, and that they must adhere to their con- 

Meanwhile, the difiiculties of the navigation of 
the Mississippi arose. Spain would not relinquish 
the right to control the entire southern part of the 
river, allowing no free navigation. She was secretly 
hoping to cause a revolt of the Western provinces, 
especially Kentucky, and openly favored such a 
move. She also claimed, by conquest, much of the 
land on the eaat side of the river. The slow move- 
ments of Congress; the failure of Virginia to 
properly protect Kentucky, and the inherent rest- 
lessness in some of the Western men, well-nigh 
precipitated matters, and, for a while, serious results 
were imminent. The Kentuckians, and, indeed, 
all the people of the West, were determined the 
river should be free, and even went so far as to 
raise a regiment, and forcibly seize Spanish prop- 
erty in the West. Great Britain stood ready, too, 
to aid the West should it succeed, providing it 
would make an alliance with her. But while the 
excitement was at its height, Washington coun- 
seled better ways and patience. The decisive tone 
of the new republic, though almost overwhelmed 
with a burden of debt, and with no credit, debarred 
the Spanish from too forcible measures to assert 
their claims, and held back the disloyal ones from 
attempting a revolt. 

New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut ceded 
their lands, and now the United States were ready 
to ftilfiU their promises of land grants, to the sol- 
diers who had preserved the nation. This did 
much to heal the breach in the West, and restore 
confidence there ; so that the Mississippi question 
was overlooked for a time, and Kentucky forgot her 

The cession of their claims was the signal for 
the formation of land companies in the East ; com- 
panies whose object was to settle the Western coun- 
try, and, at the same time, enrich the founders of 
the companies. Some of these companies had been 
formed in the old colonial days, but the recent war 

had put a stop to all their proceedings. Congress 
would not recognize their claims, and new com- 
panies, under old names, were the result. By such 
means, the Ohio Company emerged from the past, 
and, in 1786, took an active existence. 

Benjamin Tupper, a Revolutionary soldier, and 
since then a government surveyor, who had been 
•west as far as Pittsburgh, revived the question. 
He was prevented from prosecuting his surveys by 
hostile Indians, and returned to Massachusetts. 
He broached a plan to Gen. Rufiis Putnam, as to 
the renewal of their memorial of 1783, which re- 
sulted in the publication of a plan, and inviting all 
those interested, to meet in February in their re- 
spective counties, and choose delegates to a con- 
vention to be held at the " Bunch-of-grapes Tav- 
ern." in Boston, on the first of March, 1786. On 
the day appointed, eleven persons appeared, and 
by the 3d of March an outline was drawn up, and 
subscriptions under it began at once. The leading 
features of the plan were : " A fiind of $1,000,000, 
mainly in Continental certificates, was to be raised 
for the purpose of purchasing lands in the Western 
country; there were to be 1,000 shares of $1,000 
each, and upon each share $10 in specie were to 
be paid for contingent expenses. One year's inter- 
est was to be appropriated to the charges of making 
a settlement, and assisting those unable to move 
without aid. The owners of every twenty shares 
were to choose an agent . to represent them and 
attend to their interests, and the agents were to 
choose the directors. The plan was approved, and 
in a year's time from that date; the Company was 

By the time this Company was organized, all 
claims of the colonies in the coveted territory were 
done away with by their deeds of cession, Connect- 
icut being the last. 

While troubles were still existing south of the 
Ohio River, regarding the navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi, and many urged the formation of a sepa- 
rate, independent State, and while Congress and 
Washington were doing what they could to allay 
the feeling north of the Ohio, the New England 
associates were busily engaged, now that a Com- 
pany was formed, to obtain the land they wished 
to purchase. On the 8th of March, 1787, a meet- 
ing of the agents chose Gen. Parsons, Gen. Put- 
nam and the Rev. Mannasseh Cutler, Directors for 
the Company. The last selection was quite a 
fitting one for such an enterprise. Dr. Cutler was 

* HiBtorical Collections. 


5> Vy "^ 

® — ll^ 




an accomplished scholar, an excellent gentleman, 
and a firm believer in freedom. In the choice of 
him as the agent of the Company, lies the fact, 
though unforeseen, of the beginning of anti-slavery 
in America. Through him the famous " compact 
of 1787," the true corner-stone of the Northwest, 
originated, and by him was safely passed. He 
was a good "wire-puller," too, and in this had an 
advantage. Mr. Hutchins was at this time the 
geographer for the United States, and was, jffob- 
ably, the best-posted man in America regarding 
the West. Dr. Cutler learned from him that the 
most desirable portions were on the Muskingum 
River, north of the Ohio, and was advised by him 
to buy there if he could. 

Congress wanted money badly, and many of the 
members favored the plan. The Southern mem- 
bers, generally, were hostile to it, as the Doctor 
would listen to no grant which did not elnbody 
the New England ideas in the charter. These 
members were finally won over, some bribery be- 
ing used, and some of their favorites made officers 
of the Territory, whose formation was now going 
on. This took time, however, and Dr. Cutler, be- 
coming impatient, declared they would purchase 
from some of the States, who held small tracts in 
various parts of the West. This intimation brought 
the tardy ones to time, and, on the 23d of July, 
Congress authorized the Treasury Board to make 
the contract. On the 26th, Messrs. Cutler and 
Sargent, on behalf of the Company, stated in 
writing their conditions; and on the 27th, Con- 
gress referred their letter to the Board, and an, 
order of the same date was obtained. Of this Dr. 
Cutler's journal says: 

" By this grant we obtained near five millions 
of acres of land, amounting to $3,500,p00; 1,500,- 
000 acres for the Ohio Company, and the remainder 
for a private speculation, in .which many of the 
principal characters of America are concerned. 
Without connecting this peculation, similar terms 
and advantages for the Ohio Company could not 
have been obtained." 

Messrs. Cutler and Sargent at once closed a ver- 
bal contract with the Treasury Board, which was 
executed in form on the 27th of the next Octo- 

By this contract, the vast region bounded on the 
south by the Ohio, west by the Scioto, east by the 
seventh range of townships then surveying, and 
north by a due west line, drawn from the north 

* Land Laws. 

boundary of the tenth township from the Ohio, 
direct to the Scioto, was sold to the Ohio associ- 
ates and their secret copartners, for $1 per acre, 
subject to a deduction of one-third for bad lands 
and other contingencies. 

The whole tract was not, however, paid for nor 
taken, by the Company — even their own portion of ' 
a mUUon and a half acres, and extending west to the 
eighteenth range of townships, was not taken ; and 
in 1792, the boundaries of the purchase proper 
were fixed as follows : the Ohio on the south, the' 
seventh range of townships on the east, the six- 
teenth range on the west, and a line on the north 
so drawn as to make the grant 750,000 acres, be- 
sides reservations; this grant being the portion 
which it was originally agreed the Company might 
enter into at once. In addition to this, 214,285 
acres were granted as army bounties, under the 
resolutions of 1779 and 1780, and 100,000 acres 
as bounties to actual settlers; both of the latter 
tracts being within the original grant of 1787, and 
adjoining the purchase as before mentioned. 

While these things, were progressing. Congress 
was bringing into form an ordinance for the gov- 
ernment and social organization of the North- 
west Territory. Virginia made her cession in 
March, 1784, and during the month following the 
plan for the temporary government of the newly 
acquired territory came under discussion. On the 
19th of April, Mr. Spaight, of North Carolina, 
moved to strike from the plan reported, by Mr. 
Jefferson, the emancipationist of his day, a provis- 
ion for the prohibition of slavery north of the Ohio 
after the year 1800. The motion prevailed. From 
that day till the 23d, the plan was discussed and 
altered, and finally passed unanimously with the ex- 
ception of South Carolina. The South would have 
slavery, or defeat every measure. Thus this hide- 
ous monster early began to assert himself. By the 
proposed plan, the Territory was to have been 
divided into States by parallels of latitude and merid- 
ian lines. This division, it was thought, would make 
ten States, whose names were as follows, beginning 
at the northwest corner, and going southwardly : 
Sylvania, Michigania, Cheresonisiis, Assenispia, 
Metropotamia, Illinoia, Saratoga, Washington, 
Polypotamia and Pelisipia.* 

A more serious difficulty existed, however, to 
this plan, than its catalogue of names — the number 
of States and their boundaries. The root of the evil 
was in the resolution passed by Congress in October, 

* Spark's Washington. 

^ £ 




1 780, which fixed the size of the States to be formed 
from the ceded lands, at one hundred to one hundred 
and fifty miles square. The terms of that resolu- 
tion being called up both by Virginia and Massar' 
cluisetts, further legislation was deemed necessary 
to change them. July 7, 1786, this subject came 
up in Congress, and a resolution passed in favor of 
a division into not less than three nor more than 
five States. Virginia, at the close of 1788, assented 
to this proposition, which became the basis upon 
which the division should be made. On the 29th 
of September, Congress having thus changed the 
plan for dividing the Northwestern Territory into 
ten States, proceeded again to consider the terms of 
an ordinance for the government of that region. At 
this juncture, the genius of Dr. Cutler displayed 
itself. A graduate in medicine, law and divinity ; 
an ardent lover of liberty ; a celebrated scientist, 
and an accomplished, portly gentleman, of whom 
the Southern senators said they had never before 
seen so fine a specimen from the New England colo- 
nies, no man was better prepared to form a govern- 
ment for the new Territory, than he. The Ohio 
Company was his real object. He was backed by 
them, and enough Continental money to purchase 
more than a million acres of land. This was aug- 
mented by other parties until, as has been noticed, 
he represented over five million acres. This would 
largely reduce the public debt. Jefierson and Vir- 
ginia were regarded as authority concerning the 
land Virginia had just ceded to the G-eneral Gov- 
ernment. Jefierson's policy was to provide for the 
national credit, and still check the growth of slavery. 
Here was a good opportunity. Massachusetts 
owned the Territory of Maine, which she was crowd- 
ing into market. She opposed the opening of 
the Northwest. This stirred Virginia. The South 
caught the inspiration and rallied around the Old 
Dominion and Dr. Cutler. Thereby he gained the 
credit and good will of the South, an auxiliary he 
used to good purpose. Massachusetts could not 
vote against him, because many of the constituents 
of her members were interested in the Ohio Com- 
pany. Thus the Doctor, using all the arts of the 
lobbyist, was enabled to hold the situation. True to 
deeper convictions, he dictated one of the most com- 
pact and finished documents of wise statesmanship 
that has ever adorned any statute-book. Jefierson 
gave it the term, "Articles of Compact," and 
rendered him valuable aid in its construction. This 
" Compact" preceded the Federal Constitution, in 
both of which are seen Jefierson's master-mind. 
Dr. Cutler followed closely the constitution of Mas- 

sachusetts, adopted three years before. The prom- 
inent features were : The exclusion of slavery from 
the Territory forever. Provision for public schools, 
giving one township for a seminary, and every six- 
teenth section.' (That gave one thirty-sixth bf all 
the land for public education.) A provision pro- 
hibiting the adoption of any constitution or the 
enactment of any law that would nullify pre-exist- 
ing contracts. 

The compact further declared that " Religion, ■ 
morality and knowledge being necessary to good 
government and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall always be en- 

The Doctor planted himself firmly on this plat- 
form, and would not yield. It was that or nothing. 
Unless they could make the land desirable , it was 
not wanted, and, taking his horse and buggy, he 
started for the Constitutional Convention in Phil- 
adelphia. His influence succeeded. On the 13th 
of July, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage 
and was unanimously adopted. Every member 
from the South voted for it ; only one man, Mr. 
Yates, of New York, voted against the measure ; 
but as the vote was made by States, his vote was 
lost, and the " Compact of 1787 " was beyond re- 
peal. Thus the great States of the Northwest 
Territory were consecrated to freedom, intelligence 
and morality. This act was the opening step for 
freedom in America. Soon the South saw their 
blunder, and endeavored, by all their power, to re- 
peal the compact. In 1803, Congress referred it 
to a committee, of which John Randolph was 
chairman. He reported the ordinance was a com- 
pact and could not be repealed. Thus it stood, 
like a rock, in the way of slavery, which still, in 
spite of these provisions, endeavored to plant that 
infernal institution in the West. Witness the 
early days of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. But the 
compact could not be violated ; New England ideas 
could not be put down, and her sons stood ready 
to defend the soil of the West from that curse. 

The passage of the ordinance and the grant of 
land to Dr. Cutler and his associates, were soon fol- 
lowed by a request from John Cleve Symmes, of 
New Jersey, for the country between the Miamis. 
Symmes had visited that part of the West in 1786, 
and, being pleased with the valleys of the Shawa- 
nees, had applied to the Board of the Treasury for 
their purchase, as soon as they were open to set- 
tlement. The Board was empowered to act by 
Congress, and, in 1788, a contract was signed, giv- 
ing him the country he desired. The terms of his 

-— \a 




purchase were similar to those of the Ohio Com- 
pany. His application was followed by others, 
whose success or failure will appear in the narrative. 

The New England or Ohio .Company was all 
this time busily engaged perfecting its arrange- 
ments to occupy its lands. The Directors agreed 
to reserve 5,760 acres near the confluence of the 
Ohio and Muskingum for a city and commons, for 
the old ideas of the English plan of settling a 
country yet prevailed. A meeting of the Direct- 
ors was held at Bracket's tavern, in Bostoii, No- 
vember 23, 1787, when four surveyors, and twen- 
ty-two attendants, boat-builders, carpenters, black- 
smiths and common workmen, numbering, in all 
forty persons, were engaged. Their tools were 
purchased, and wagons were obtained to transport 
them across the mountains. Gen. Rufus Putnam 
was made superintendent of the company, and 
Ebenezer Sprout, of Rhode Island, Anselm- Tup- 
per and John Matthews, from Massachusetts, and 
R. J. Meigs, from Connecticut, as surveyors. At 
the same meeting, a suitable person to instruct them 
in religion, and prepare the way to open a school 
when needed, was selected. This was Rev. Daniel 
Storey, who became the first New England minis- 
ter in the Northwest. 

The Indians were watching this outgrowth of 
affairs, and felt, from what they could learn in Ken- 
tucky, that they would be gradually surrounded by 
the whites. This they did not relish, by any' 
means, and gave the settlements south of the Ohio 
no little uneasiness. It was thought best to hold 
another treaty with them. In the mean time, to 
insure peace, the Governor of Virginia, and Con- 
gress, placed troops at Venango, Forts Pitt and 
Mcintosh, and at Miami, Vincennes, Louisville, 
and Muskingum, and the militia of Kentucky 
were held in readiness should a sudden outbreak 
occur. These measures produced no results, save 
insuring the safety of the whites,~and not _ until 
January, 1789, was Clarke able to carry out his 
plans. During that month, he held a meeting at Fort 
Harmar,* at the mouth of the Muskingum, where 
the New England Colony expected to locate. 

The hostile character of the Indians did not 
deter the Ohio Company from carrying out its 
plans. In the winter of 1787, Gen. Rufiis Put- 

* Fort Harmar was built in 1785, by a detachment of United States 
soldiers, under command of Maj, John Doughty. It was named in 
honor of Col. Josiah Harmar, to whose regiment Maj. Doughty was 
attached. It was the ;firBt military post erected by the Americans 
within the limits of Ohio, except Fort Laurens, a temporary struct- 
ure built in 1778. When Marietta was founded it was the military 
post of that part of the country, and was for many years an impor- 
tant station. 

nam and forty-seven pioneers advanced to the 
mouth of the Youghiogheny River, and began 
building a boat for transportation down the Ohio 
in the spring. The boat was the largest craft that 
had ever descended the river, and, in allusion to 
theif Pilgrim Fathers, it was called the Mayflower. 
It was 45 feet long and 12 feet wide, and esti- 
mated at 50 tons burden. Truly a formidable affair 
for the time. The bows were raking and curved 
like a galley, and were strongly timbered. The 
sides were made . bullet-proof, and it was covered 
with a deck roof Capt. Devol, the first ship- 
builder in the West, was placed in command. On 
the 2d of April, the Mayflower was launched, 
and for five days'the little band of pioneers sailed 
down the Monongahela and the Ohio, and, on the 
7th, landed at the mouth of the JMuskingum. 
There, opposite Fort Harmar, they chose a loca- 
tion, moored their boat for a temporary shelter, 
and began to erect houses for their occupation. 

Thus was begun the first English settlement in 
the Ohio Valley. About the 1st of July, they 
were re-enforced by the arrival of a colony from 
Massachusetts. It had been nine weeks on the 
way. It had hauled its wagons and driven ite 
stock to Wheeling, where, constructing flat-boats, 
it had floated down the river to the settlement. 

In October preceding this occurrence, Arthur 
St. Clair had been appointed Governor of the Ter- 
ritory by Congress, which body also appointed 
Winthrop Sargent, Secretary, and Samuel H. 
Parsons, James M. Varnum and John Armstrong 
Judges. Subsequently Mr. Armstrong declined 
the appoiptment, and Mr. Symmes was given the 
vacancy. None of these were on the ground 
when the first settlement was made, though the 
Judges came soon after. One of the first things the 
colony found necessary to do was to organize 
some form of government, whereby difficulties 
might be settled, though to the credit of the colony 
it may be said, that during the first three months 
of its existence but one difference arose, and that 
was settled by a compromise.* Indeed, hardly a 
better set of men for the purpose could have been 
selected. Washington wrote concerning this 
colony : 

" No colony in America was ever settled under 
s^ich favorable auspices as that which has com- 
menced at the Muskingum. Information, prop- 
erty and strength will be its characteristics. I 
know many of the settlers personally, and there 

♦"Western Monthly Magazine." 

^ < 



never were men better calculated to promote the 
welfare of such a community." 

On the 2d of July, a meeting of the Directors 
and agents was held on the banks of the Mus- 
kingum for the purpose of naming the newborn 
city and its squares. As yet, the settlement had 
been merely "The Muskingum;" but the name 
Marietta was now formally given it, in honor of 
Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the 
blockhouses stood was called Campus Martins; 
Square No. 19, Capitolium; Square No. 61, Ce- 
cilia, and the great road running through the 
covert^way, Sacra Via.* Surely, classical scholars 
were not scarce in the colony. 

On the Fourth, an oration was delivered by 
James M. Varnum, one of the Judges, and a 
public demonstration held. Five days after, the 
Governor arrived, and the colony began to assume 
form. The ordinance of 1787 provided two dis- 
tinct grades of government, under the first of 
which the whole power was under the Governor 
and the three Judges. This form was at once 
recognized on the arrival of St. Clair. The first 
law established by this court was passed on the 
25th of July. It established and regulated the 
militia of the Territory. The next day after its 
publication, appeared the Governor's proclamation 
erecting all the country that had been ceded by 
the Indians east of the Scioto River, into the 
county of Washington. Marietta was, of course, 
the county seat, and, from that day, went on 
prosperously. On September 2, the first court 
was held with becoming ceremonies. It is thus 
related in the American Pioneer : 

"The procession was formed at the Point 
(where the most of the settlers resided), in the 
following order: The High Sheriff, with his 
drawn sword; the citizens; the officers of the 
garrison at Fort Harmar; the members of the 
bar ; the Supreme Judges ; the Goveisior and 
clergyman ; the newly appointed Judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas, Gens. Ruftis Putnam 
and Benjamin Tupper. 

"They marched up the path that had been 
cleared through the forest to Campus Martius 
Hall (stockade), where the' whole countermarched, 
and the Judges (Putnam and Tupper) took their 
seats. The clergyman, Rev. Dr. Cutler, then 
invoked the divine blessing. The Sheriff, Col. 
Ebenezer Sproat, proclaimed with his solemn ' Oh 
yes ! ' that a court is open for the administration of 

* " Carey'fl Muaeum," Vol. 4, 

even-handed justice, to the poor and to the rich, 
to the guilty and to the innocejit, without respect 
of persons; none to be punished without a trial of 
their peers, and then in pursuance of the laws and 
evidence in the case. 

" Although this scene was exhibited thus early 
in the settlement of the West, few ever equaled it 
in the dignity and exalted character of its princi- 
pal participators. Many of them belonged to the 
history of our country in the darkest, as well as 
the most splendid, period of the Revolutionary 

Many Indians were gathered at the same time 
to witness the (to them) strange spectacle, and for 
the purpose of forming a treaty, though how 
far they carried this out, the Pioneer does not 

- The progress of the settlement was quite satis- 
factory during the year. Some one writing a 
letter from the town says : 

"The progress of the settlement is sufficiently 
rapid for the first year. We are continually erect- 
ing houses, but arrivals are constantly coming 
faster than we can possibly provide convenient 
covering. Our first ball was opened about the 
middle of December, at which were fifteen ladies, 
as well accomplished in the manner of polite 
circles as any I have ever seen in the older States. 
I mention this to show the progress of society in 
this new world, where, I believe, we shall vie with, 
if not excel, the old States in every accom- 
plishment necessary to render life agreeable and 

The emigration westward at this time was, 
indeed,, exceedingly large. The commander at 
Fort Harmar reported 4,500 persons as having 
passed that post between February and June, 
1788, many of whom would have stopped there, - 
had the associates been prepared to receive them. 
The settlement was free from Indian depredations 
until January, 1791, during which interval it 
daily increased in numbers and strength. 

Symmes and his friends were not idle during this 
time. He had secured his contract in October, 
1787, and, soon after, issued a pamphlet stating 
the terms of his purchase and the mode he intended 
to follow in the disposal of the lands. His plan 
was, to issue warrants for not less than one-quarter 
section, which might be located anywhere, save on 
reservations, or on land previously entered. The 
locator could enter an entire section should he de- 
sire to do so. The price was to be 601 cents per 
acre till May, 1788 ; then, till November, |1 ; and 


Q k^ 



after that time to be regulate4 by the demand for 
land. Each purchaser was bound to begin im- 
provements within two years, or forfeit one-sixth 
of the land to whoever would settle thereon and 
remain seven years. Military bounties might be 
taken in this, as in the purchase of the associates. 
For himself, Symmes reserved one township near 
the mouth of the Miami. On this he intended to 
build a great city, rivaling any Eastern port. He 
offered any one a lot on which to build a house, 
providing he would remain three years. Conti- 
nental certificates were rising, owing to the demand 
for land created by these two purchases, and Con- 
gress found the burden of debt correspondingly 
lessened. ' Symmes soon began to experience diffi- 
culty in procuring enough to meet his payments. 
He had also some trouble in arranging his boundary 
with the Board of the Treasury. These, and other 
causes, laid the foundation for another city, which is 
now what Symmes hoped his city would one day ibe. 

In January, 1Y88, Mathias Denman, of New 
Jersey, took an interest in Symmes' purchase, 
and located, among other tracts, the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has since been built. Retaining 
one-third of this purchase, he sold the balance to 
Robert Patterson and John Filson, each getting 
the same share. These three, about August, agreed 
to lay out a town on their land. It was designated 
as opposite the mouth of the Licking River, to 
which place it was intended to open a road from 
Lexington, Ky. These men little thought of the 
great emporium that now covers the modest site of 
this town they laid out that summer. Mr. Filson, 
who had been a schoolmaster, and was of a some- 
what poetic nature, was appointed to name the 
town. In respect to its situation, and as if with 
a prophetic perception of the mixed races that 
were in after years to dwell there, he named it Los- 
antiville,* " which, being interpreted," says the 
" Western Annals," " means m7?e, the town ; anti, 
opposite to ; os, the mouth ; L, of Licking. This 
may well put to the blush the Campus Martins 
of the Marietta scholars, and the Fort Solon of 
the Spaniards." 

Meanwhile, Symmes was busy in the East, and, 
by July, got thirty people and eight four-horse 
wagons under way for the West. These reached 
Limestone by September, where they met Mr. 
Stites, with several persons from Redstone. All 

* Judge Burnett, in his notes, disputes the above account of the 
origin of the city of Cincinnati. He Bays the name *' LosantiTille " 
was determined on, but not adopted, when the town was laid out. 
Tiiis version is probably the correct one, and will be found fully 
given in the detailed history of the settlements. 

came to Symmes' purchase, and began to look for 

Symmes' mind was, however, ill at rest. He 
could not meet his first payment on so vast a realm, 
and there also arose a difference of opinion be- 
tween him and the Treabury Board regarding the 
Ohio boundary. Symmes wanted all the land be- 
tween the two Miamis, bordering on the Ohio, 
while the Board wished him confined to no more 
than twenty miles of the river. To this proposal 
he would not agree, as he had made sales all along 
the river. Leaving the bargain in an unsettled 
state. Congress considered itself released from all 
its obligations, and, but for the representations of 
many of SymmeS' friends, he would have lost all 
his money and labor. His appointment as Judge 
was not favorably received by many, as they 
thought that by it he would acquire unlimited 
power. Some of his associates also complained of 
him, and, for awhile, it surely seemed that ruin 
only awaited him. But he was brave and hope- 
ful, and determined to succeed. On his return 
from a visit to his purchase in September, 1788, 
he wrote Jonathan Dayton, of New Jersey, one of 
his best friends and associates, that he thought 
some of the land near the Great Miami " positively 
worth a silver dollar the acre in its present state." 

A good many changes were made in his original 
contract, growing out of his inability to meet his 
payments. At first, he was to have not less than 
a million acres, under an act of Congress passed in 
October, 1787, authorizing the Treasury Board to 
contract with any one who could pay for such 
tracts, on the Ohio and Wabash Rivers, whose 
fronts should not exceed one-third of their depth. 

Dayton and Marsh, Symmes' agents, contracted 
with the Board for one tract on the Ohio, begin- 
ning twenty miles up the Ohio from the mouth of 
the Great Miami, and to run back for quantity be- 
tween the Miami and a line drawn from the Ohio, 
parallel to the gerieral course of that river. In 
1791, three years after Dayton and Marsh made 
the contract, Symmes found this would throw the 
purchase too far back from the Ohio, and applied 
to Congress to let him have all between the Mi- 
amies, running back so as to include 1,000,000 
acres, which that body, on April 12, 1792, agreed 
to do. When the lands were surveyed, however, it 
was found that a liiie drawn from the head of the 
Little Miami due west to the Great Miami, would 
include south of it less than six hundred thousand 
acres. Even this Symmes could not pay for, and 
when his patent was issued in September, 1794, it 

9 "V 



gave him and his associates 248,540 acres, exclu- 
sive of. reservations which amounted to 63,142 
acres. This tract was bounded by the Ohio, the 
two Miamis and a due east and west hne run so 
as to include the desired quantity. Symmes, how- 
ever, made no further payments, and the rest of 
his purchase reverted to the United States, who 
gave those who had bought under him ample pre- 
emption rights. 

The Government was able, also, to give him and 
his colonists but little aid, and as danger from hos- 
tile Indians was in a measure imminent (though all 
the natives were friendly to Symmes), settlers were 
slow to come. However, the band led by Mr. 
Stites arrived before the 1st of January, 1789, 
and locating themselves near the mouth of the 
Little Miami, on a tract of 10,000 acres which 
Mr. Stites had purchased from Symmes, formed 
the second settlement in Ohio. They were soon 
afterward joined by a colony of twenty-six persons, 
who assisted them to erect a block-house, and 
gather their com. The town was named Columbia. 
While here, the great flood of January, 1789, oc- 
curred, which did much to ensure the ftiture 
growth of Losantiville, or more properly, Cincin- 
nati. Symmes City, which was laid out near the 
mouth of the Great Miami, and which he vainly 
strove to make the city of the ftiture. Marietta 
and Columbia, all suffered severely by this flood, 
the greatest, the Indians said, ever known. The 
site of Cincinnati was not overflowed, and hence 
attracted the attention of the settlers. Denman's 
warrants had designated his purchase as opposite 
the mouth of the Licking; and that point escap- 
ing the overflow, late in December the place was 
visited by Israel Ludlow, Symmes' surveyor, Mr. 
Patterson and Mr. Denman, and about fourteen oth- 
ers, who left Maysville to "form a station and lay 
off a town opposite the Licking." The river was 
filled with ice "from shore to shore;" but, says 
Symmes in May, 1789, "Perseverance triumphing 
over difficulty, and they landed safe on a most de- 
Ughtful bank of the Ohio, where they founded 
the town of Losantiville, which populates consid- 
erably." The settlers of Losantiville built a few 
log huts and block-houses, and proceeded to im- 
prove the town. Symmes, noticing the location, 
says : " Though they placed their dwellings in the 
most marked position, yet they sufiered nothing 
from the freshet." This would seem to give cre- 
dence to Judge Burnett's notes regarding the origin 
of Cincinnati, who states the settlement was made 
at this time, and not at the time mentioned when 

Mr. Filson named the town. It is further "to be 
noticed, that, before the town was located by Mr. 
Ludlow and Mr. Patterson, Mr. Filson had been 
killed by the Miami Indians, and, as he had not paid 
for his one-third of the site, the claim was sold to 
Mr. Ludlow, who thereby became one of the origi- 
nal owners of the place. Just what day the town 
was laid out is not recorded. All the evidence 
tends to show it must have been late in 1788, or 
early in 1789. 

While the settlements on the north side of the 
Ohio were thus progressing, south of it fears of the 
Indians prevailed, and the separation sore was 
kept open. The country was, however, so torn by 
internal factions that no plan was likely to suc- 
ceed, and to this fact, in a large measure, may be 
credited the reason it did not secede, or join the 
Spanish or French faction, both of which were 
intriguing to get the commonwealth. During 
this year the treasonable acts of James Wilkinson 
came into view. Foir a while he thought success 
was in his grasp, but the two governments were at 
peace with America, and discountenanced any such 
efforts. Wilkinson, like all traitors, relapsed into 
nonentity, and became mistrusted by the govern- 
ments he attempted to befriend. Treason is al- 
ways odious. 

It will be borne in mind, that in 1778 prepa- 
rations had been made for a treaty with the Indi- 
ans, to secure peaceful possession of the lands 
owned in the West. Though the whites held 
these by purchase and treaty, yet many Indians, 
especially the Wabash and some of the Miami In- 
dians, objected to their occupation, claiming the 
Ohio boundary as the original division line. Clarke 
endeavored to obtain, by treaty at Fort Harmar, 
in 1778, a confirmation of these grants, but was 
not able to do so till January, 9, 1789. Rep- 
resentatives of the Six Nations, and of the Wyan- 
dots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawato- 
mies and Sacs, met him at this date, and confirmed 
and ' extended the treaties of Fort Stanwix and 
Fort Mcintosh, the one in 1784, the other in 
1785. This secured peace with the most of them, 
save a few of the Wabash Indians, whom they 
were compelled to conquer by arms. When this 
was accomplished, the borders were thought safe, 
and Virginia proposed to withdraw her aid in sup- 
port of Kentucky. This opened old troubles, and 
the separation dogma came out afresh. Virginia 
offered to allow the erection of a separate State, 
providing Kentucky would assume part of the old 
debts. This the young commonwealth would not 

\> "V 




do, arid sent a remonstrance.- Virginia withdrew 
the proposal, and ordered' a ninth, convention, 
which succeeded in evolving a plan whereby Ken- 
tucky took her place among the free States of the 

North of the Ohio, the prosperity continued. 
In 1789, Rev. Daniel Story, who had been ap- 
pointed missionary to the West, came out as a 
teacher of the youth and a preacher of the Grospel. 
Dr. Cutler had preceded him, not in the capacity 
of a minister, though he had preached ; hence Mr. 
Story is truly, the first missionary from the Prot- 
estant Church who came to the Ohio VaUey in 
that capacity. When he came, in 1789, he found 
nine associations on the Ohio Company's purchase, 
comprising two hundred and fifty persons in all ; 
and, by the close of 1790, eight settlements had 
been made: two at Belpre (belle prairie), one at 
Newbury, one at Wolf Creek, one at Duck Creek, 
one at the mouth of Meigs' Creek, one at Ander- 
son's Bottom, and one at Big Bottom. An ex- 
tended sketch of all these settlements will be found 
farther on in this volume. 

Symmes had, all this time, strenuously endeav- 
ored to get his city — called Cleves City — favorably 
noticed, and filled with people. He saw a rival in 
Cincinnati. That place, if made military head- 
quarters to protect the Miami Valley, would out- 
rival his town, situated near the bend of the 
Miami, near its mouth. On the 15th of June, 
Judge Symmes received news that the Wabash 
Indians threatened the Miami settlements, and as 
he had received only nineteen men for defense, he 
applied for more. Before July, Maj. Doughty 
arrived at the "Slaughter House" — as the Miami 
was sometimes called, owing to previous murders 
that had, at former times, occurred therein. 
Through the influence of Symmes, the detach- 
ment landed at the North Bend, and, for awhile, 
it was thought the fort would "be erected there. 
This was what Symmes wanted, as it would 
secure him the headquarters of the military, and 
aid in getting the headquarters of the civil gov- 
ernment. The truth was, however, that neither 
the proposed city on the Miami — North Bend, as 
it afterward became known, from its location — or 
South Bend, could compete, in point of natural 
advantages, with the plain on which Cincinnati is 
built. Had Fort Washington been built elsewhere, 
after the close of the Indian war, nature would 
have asserted her advantages, and insured the 
growth of a city, where even the ancient and mys- 
terious dwellers of the Ohio had reared the earthen 

walls of one of their vast temples. Another fact 
is given in relation to the erection of Fort Wash- 
ington at Losantiville, which partakes somewhat of 
romance. The Major, while waiting to decide at 
which place the fort should be built, happened to 
make the acquaintance of a black-eyed beauty, the 
wife of one of the resijlents. Her husband, notic- 
ing the affair, removed her to Losantiville. The 
Major followed ; he told Symmes he wished to see 
how a fort would do there, but promised to give his 
city the preference. He found the beauty there, and 
on his return Symmes could not prevail on him to 
remain. If the story be true, then the importance 
of Cincinnati owes its existence to a trivial circum- 
stance, and 'the old story of the ten years' war 
which terminated in the downfall of Troy, which 
is said to have originated owing to the beauty of 
a Spartan dame, was re-enacted here. Troy and 
North Bend fell because of the beauty of a~ wo- 
man ; Cincinnati was the result of the downfall of 
the latter place. 

About the first of January, 1790, Grovernor St., 
Clair, with his officers, descended the Ohio River 
from Marietta to Fort Washington. There he es- 
tablished the county of Hamilton, comprising the 
immense region of country contiguous to the 
Ohio, from the Hooking River to the Great 
Miami; appointed a corps of civil and military 
officers, and established a Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions. Some state that at this time, he changed 
the name of the village of Losantiville to Cin- 
cinnati, in allusion ■ to a society of that name 
which had recently been formed among the officers 
of the Revolutionary army, and established it as 
the seat of justice for Hamilton. This latter fact 
is eertain; but as regards changing the name of 
the village, there is no good authority for it. With 
this importance attached to it, Cincinnati began at 
once an active growth, and from that day Cleves' 
city declined. The next summer, frame houses 
began to appear in Cincinnati, while at the same 
time forty new log' cabins appeared about the 

On the 8th of January, the Grovernor arrived at 
the falls of the Ohio, on his way to estabhsh a 
government at Vincennes and Kaskaskia. From 
Clarkesville, he dispatched a messenger to Major 
Hamtramck, commander at Vincennes, with 
speeches to the various Indian tribes in this part 
of .the Northwest, who had not fully agreed to the 
treaties. St. Clair and Sargent followed in a few 
days, along an Indian trail to Vincennes, where he 
organized the county of Knox, comprising all the 




country along the Ohio, from the Miami to the 
Wabash, and made Vincennes the county seat. 
Then they proceeded across the lowey part of Hh- 
nois to Kaskaskia, where he estabhshed the county 
of St. Clair (so named by Sargent), comprising all 
the country from the Wabash to the Mississippi. 
•Thus the Northwest was divided into three coun- 
ties, and courts established therein. St. Clair 
called upon the French inhabitants at Vincennes 
and in the Illinois country, to show the titles to 
their lands, and also to defray the expense of a 
survey. To this latter demand they replied through 
their priest, Pierre Gribault, showing their poverty, 
and inability to comply. They were confirmed in 
their grants, and, as they had been good friends to 
the patriot cause, were relieved from the expense 
of the survey. 

While the Governor was managing these afifairs. 
Major Hamtramck was engaged in an effort to con- 
ciliate the Wabash Indians. For this purpose, he 
sent Antoine Gramelin, an intelligent French mer- 
chant, and a true friend of America, among them to 
carry messages sent by St. Clair and the Govern- 
ment, and to learn their sentiments and dispositions. 
Gamelin performed this important miasion in the 
spring of 1790 with much sagacity, and, as the 

French were good friends of the natives, he did 
much to conciliate these half-hostile tribes. He 
visited the towns of these tribes along the Wabash 
and as far north and east as the Miami village, 
Ke-ki-ong-ga — St. Mary's — at the junction of the 
St. Mary's and Joseph's Rivers (Fort Wayne). 

Gamelin's report, and the intelligence brought by 
some traders from the Upper Wabash, were con- 
veyed to the Governor at Kaskaskia. The reports 
convinced him that the Indians of that part of the 
Northwest were preparing for a war on the settle- 
ments north of the Ohio, intending, if possible, to 
drive them south of it; that river being still consid- 
ered by them as the true boundary. St. Clair left 
the administration of affairs in the .Western counties 
to Sargent, and returned at once to Fort Washing- 
ton to provide for the defense of the frontier. 

The Indians had begun their predatory incur- 
sions into the country settled by the whites, and 
had committed some depredations. The Kentuck- 
ians were enlisted in an attack against the Scioto 
Indians. April 18, Gen. Harmar, with 100 
regulars, and Gen. Scott, with 230 volunteers, 
marched from Limestone, by a circuitous route, to 
the Scioto, accomplishing but little. The savages 
had fled. 




A GREAT deal of the hostility at this period 
was directly traceable to the British. They 
yet held Detroit and several posts on the lakes, in 
violation of the treaty of 1783. They alleged as 
a reason for not abandoning them, that the Ameri- 
cans had not fulfilled the conditions of the treaty 
regarding the collection of debts. Moreover, they 
did nil they could to remain at the frontier and en- 
joy the emoluments derived from the ftir trade. 
That they aided the Indians in the conflict at this 
time, is undeniable. Just how, it is difiioult to 
say. But it is well known the savages had all the 
ammunition and fire-arms they wanted, more than 
they could have obtained from American and 
French renegade traders. They were also well 
supplied with clothing, and were able to prolong 
the war some time. ^ A great confederation was on 
the eve of formation. The leading spirits were 

Cornplanter, Brant, Little Turtle and other noted 
chiefs, and had not the British, as Brant said, 
"encouraged us to the war, and promised us aid, 
and then, when we were driven away by the Amer- 
icans, shut the doors of their fortresses against us 
and refused us food, when they saw us nearly con- 
quered, we would have effected our object." 

McKee, Elliott and Girty were also actively en- 
gaged in aiding the natives. All of them were in 
the interest of the British, a fact clearly proven 
by the Indians themselves, and by other traders. 

St. Clair and Gen. Harmar determined to send 
an expedition against the Maumee towns, and se- 
cure that part of the country. Letters were sent 
to the militia officers of Western Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and Kentucky, calling on them for militia 
to co-operate with the regular troops in the cam- 
paign. According to the plan of the campaign, 




300 militia were to rendezvous at Fort Steuben 
(Jeffersonville), march thence to Fort Knox, at 
Vincennes, and join Maj. Hamtramck in an expe- 
dition up the Wabash ; 700 were to rendezvous at 
Port Washington to join the regular army against 
the Maumee towns. 

While St. Clair was forming his army and ar- 
ranging for the campaign, three expeditions were 
sent out against the Miami towns. One against 
the Miami villages, not far from the Wabash, was 
led by Gen. Harmar. He had in his army about 
fourteen hundred men, regulars and militia. These 
two parts of the army could not be made to affili- 
ate, and, as a consequence, the expedition did little 
beyond burning the villages and destroying corn. 
The militia would not submit to discipline, and Would 
not serve under regular officers. It will be seen 
what this spirit led to when St. Clair went on his 
march soon after. 

The Indians, emboldened by the meager success 
of Harmar's command, continued their depreda- 
dations against the Ohio settlements, destroying 
the community at Big Bottom. To hold them in 
check, and also punish them, an army under Charley 
Scott went against the Wabash Indians. Little 
was done here but destroy towns and the standing 
corn. In July, another army, under Col. Wilkin- 
son, was sent against the Eel River Indians. Be- 
coming entangled in extensive morasses on the 
river, the army became endangered, but was finally 
extricated, and accomplished no more than either 
the other armies before it. As it was, however, the 
three expeditions directed against the Miamis and 
Shawanees, served only to exasperate them. The 
burning of their towns, the destruction of their 
corn, and the captivity of their women and chil- 
dren, only aroused them to more desperate efforts 
to defend their country and to harass their in- 
vaders. To accomplish this, the chiefs of the 
Miamis, Shawanees and the Delawares, Little 
Turtle, Blue Jacket and Buckongahelas, were en- 
gaged in forming a confederacy of all the tribes of 
the Northwest, strong enough to drive the whites 
beyond the Ohio. Pontiac had tried that before, 
even when he had open allies among the French. 
The Indians now had secret allies among the Brit- 
ish, yet, in the end, they did not succeed. While 
they were preparing for the contest, St. Clair was 
gathering his forces, intending to erect a chain of 
forts from the Ohio, by way of the Miami and 
Maumee valleys, to the lakes, and thereby effect- 
ually hold the savages in check. Washington 
warmly seconded this plan, and designated the 

junction of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph's Rivers as 
an important post. This had been a fortification 
almost from the time the English held the valley, 
and only needed little work J;o make it a formid- 
able fortress. Gen. Knox, the Secretary of War, 
also favored the plan, and gave instructions con- 
cerning it. Under these instructions, St. Claii* 
organized his forces as rapidly as he could, although 
the numerous drawbacks almost, at times, threat- 
ened the defeat of the campaign. Through the 
summer the arms and accouterments of the army 
were put in readineSs at Fort Washington. Many 
were found to be of the poorest quality, and to be 
badly out of repair. The militia came poorly 
armed, under the impression they were to be pro- 
vided with arms. While waiting in camp, habits 
of idleness engendered themselves, and drunken- 
ness followed. They continued their accustomed 
freedom, disdaining to drill, and refused to submit 
to the regular officers. A bitter spirit broke out 
between the regular troops and the militia, which 
none could heal. The insubordination of the mi- 
litia and their officers, caused them a defeat afler- 
wardj which they in vain attempted to fasten on 
the busy General, and the regular troops. 

The army was not ready to move till September 
17. It was then 2,300 strong. It then moved 
to a point upon the Great Miami, where they 
erected Fort Hamilton, the first in the proposed 
chain of fortresses. After its completion, they 
moved on forty-four miles farther, and, on the 12th 
of October, began the erection of Fort Jefferson, 
about six miles south of the present town of Green- - 
ville, Darke County. On the 2,4th, the army again 
took up its line of march, through a wilderness, 
marshy and boggy, and full of savage foes. The 
army rapidly declined under the hot sun ; even the 
commander was suffering from an indisposition. 
The militia deserted, in companies at a time, leav- 
ing the bulk of the work to the regular troops. 
By the 3d of November, the army reached a 
stream twelve yards wide, which St, Clair sup- 
posed to be a branch of the St. Mary of the Mau- 
mee, but which in reality was a tributary of the 
Wabash. Upon the banks of that stream, the 
army, now about fourteen hundred strong, en- 
camped in two lines. A slight protection was 
thrown up as a safeguard against the Indians, who 
were known to be in the neighborhood. The Gen- 
eral intended to attack them next day, but, about 
half an hour before sunrise, just after the militia 
had been dismissed from parade, a sudden attack 
was made upon them. The militia were thrown 




into confiision, and disregarded the command of 
the officers. They had not been sufficiently drilled, 
and now was seen, too late and too plainly, the evil 
effects of their insubordination. Through the 
morning the battle waged furiously, the men falling 
by scores. About nine o'clock the retreat began, 
covered by Maj. Cook and his troops. The re- 
treat was a disgraceful, precipitate flight, though, 
after four miles had been passed, the enemy re- 
turned to the work of scalping the dead and 
wounded, and of pillaging the camp. Through 
the day and the night their dreadfiil work con- 
tinued, one squaw afterward declaring " her arm 
was weary scalping the white men." The army 
reached Fort Jefferson a little after sunset, having 
thrown away much of its arms and baggage, though 
the act was entirely unnecessary. After remain- 
ing here a short time, it was decided by the officers 
to move on toward Fort Hamilton, and thence to 
Fort Washington. 

The defeat of St. Clair was the most terrible re- 
verse the Americans ever suffered fi'om the Indi- 
ans. It was greater than even Braddock's defeat. 
His army consisted of 1,200 men and 86 officers, 
of whom 714 men and 63 officers were killed or 
wounded. St. Clair's army consisted of 1,400 
men and 86 officers, of whom 890 men and 16 
officers were killed or wounded. The comparative 
effects of the two engagements very inadequately 
represent the crushing effect of St. Clair's defeat. 
An unprotected frontier of more than a thousand 
miles in extent was now thrown open to a foe made 
merciless, and anxious to drive the whites from the 
north side of the Ohio. Now, settlers were scat- 
tered along all the streams, and in all the forests, ex- 
posed to the cruel enemy, who stealthily approached 
the homes of the pioneer, to murder him and his 
family. Loud calls arose from the people to defend 
and protect them. St. Clair was covered with abuse 
for his defeat, when he really was not alone to blame 
for it. The militia would not be controlled. Had 
Clarke been at their head, or Wayne, who succeeded 
St. Clair, the result might have been different. As 
it was, St. Clair resigned ; though ever after he en- 
joyed the confidence of Washington and Congress. 

Four days after the defeat of St. Clair, the army, 
in its straggling condition, reached Fort Washing- 
ton, and paused to rest. On the 9th, St. Clair 
wrote fully to the Secretary of War. On the 12th, 
Gren. Knox communicated the information to Con- 
gress, and on the 26th, he laid before the Presi- 
dent two reports, the second containing sugges- 
tions regarding friture operations. His sugges- 

tions urged the establishmisnt of a strong Uiyted 
States Arlny, as it was plain the States could not 
control the matter. He also urged a thorough 
drill of the soldiers. No more insubordination 
could be tolerated. General Wayne was selected 
by Washington as the commander, and at once pro- 
ceeded to the task assigned to him. In June, 1792, 
he went to Pittsburgh to organize the army now 
gathering, which was to be the ultimate argu- 
ment with the Indian confederation. Through the 
summer he was steadily at work. "Train and dis- 
cipline them for the work they are meant for," 
wrote Washington, "and do not spare powder and 
Ifead, so the men be made good marksmen." In 
December, the forces, now recruited and trained, 
gathered at a point twenty-two miles below Pitts- 
burgh, on the Ohio, called Legionville, the army 
itself being denominated the Legion of the United 
States, divided into four sub-legions, and provided 
with the proper officers. Meantime, Col. Wilkinson 
succeeded St. Clair as commander at Fort Wash- 
ington, and sent out a force to examine the field of 
defeat, and bury the dead. A shocking sight met 
their view, revealing the deeds of cruelty enacted 
upon their comrades by the savage enemy. 

While Wayne's army was drilling, peace meas- 
ures were pressed forward by the United States 
with equal perseverance. The Iroqvtois were in- 
duced to visit Philadelphia, and partially secured 
from the general confederacy. They were wary, 
however, and, 'expecting aid from the British, held 
aloof. Brant did not come, as was hoped, and it 
was plain there was intrigue somewhere. Five 
independent embassies were sent among the West- 
ern tribes, to endeavor to prevent a war, and win 
over the inimical tribes. But the victories they 
had won, and the favorable whispers of the British 
agents, closed the ears of the red men, and all 
propositions were rejected in some form or other. 
All the embassadors, save Putnam, suffered death. 
He alone was able to reach his goal — the Wabash 
Indians — and effect any treaty. On the 27th of 
December, in company with Heckewelder, the Mo- 
ravian missionary, he reached Vincennes, and met 
thirty-one chiefs, representing the Weas, Pianke- 
shaws, Kaskaskias, Peorias, Illinois, Pottawatomies, 
Mascoutins, Kickapoos and Eel River Indians, and 
concluded a treaty of peace with them. 

The fourth article of this treaty, howeVfer, con- 
tained a provision guaranteeing to the Indians 
their lands, and when the treaty was laid before 
Congress, February 13, 1793, that body, after 
much discussion, refused on that accpunt to ratify it. 



A great council of the Indians was to be held 
at Auglaize during the autumn of 1792, when 
the assembled nations were to discuss fully their 
means of defense, and determine their future line 
of action. The council met in October, and was 
the largest Indian gathering of the time. The 
chiefs of all the tribes of the Northwest were there. 
The representatives of the seven nations of Canada, 
were in attendance. Complanter and forty-eight 
chiefs of the New York (Six Nations) Indians re- 
paired thither. " Besides these," said Cornplant«r, 
"there were so many nations we cannot tell the 
names of them. There were three men -from the 
Grora nation ; it took them a whole season to come ; 
and," continued he, "twenty-seven nations from 
beyond Canada were there." The question of 
peace or war was long and earnestly debated. Their 
future was solemnly discussed, and around the 
council fire native eloquence and native zeal 
shone in all their simple strength. One nation 
after another, through their chiefs, presented their 
views. The deputies of the Six Nations, who had 
been at Philadelphia to consult the "Thirteen 
Fires," made their report. The Western bound- 
ary was the prii^cipal question. The natives, with 
one accord, declared it must be the Ohio River. 
An address was prepared, and sent to the President, 
wherein their views were stated, and agreeing to 
abstain from all hostilities, until they could meet 
again in the spring at the rapids of the Mdumee, 
and there consult with their white brothers. They 
desired the President to send agents, "who are 
men of honesty, not proud land-jobbers, but men 
who love and desire peace." The good work of 
Penn was evidenced here, as they desired that the 
embassadors " be accompanied by soine Friend or 

The armistice they had promised was not, how- 
ever, faithfully kept. On the 6th of November, 
a detachment of Kentucky cavalry at Fort St. 
Clair, about twenty-five miles above Fort Hamil- 
ton, was attacked. The commander, Maj. Adair, 
was an excellent officer, well versed in Indian tac- 
tics, and defeated the savages. 

This infraction of their promises did not deter 
the United States from taking measures to meet 
the Indians at the rapids of the Maumee " when 
the leaves were fiiUy out." For that purpose, the 
President selected as commissioners, Charles Car- 
roll and Charles Thompson, but, as they declined 
the nomination, he appointed Benjamin Lincoln, 
Beverly Randolph and Timothy Pickering, the 1st 
of March, 179,3, to attend the convention, which. 

it was thought best, should be held at the San- 
dusky outpost. About the last of April, these 
commissioners left Philadelphia, and, late in May, 
reached Niagara, where they remained guests of 
Lieuf. Gov. Simcoe, of the British Government. 
This officer gave them all the aid he could, yet it 
was soon made plain to them that he would not 
object to the confederation, nay, even rather fav- 
ored it. They speak of his kindness to them, in 
grateful terms. Gov. Simcoe advised the Indians 
to make peace, but not to give up any of their 
lands. That was the pith of the whole matter. 
The British rather claimed land in New York, 
under the treaty of 1783, alleging the Americans 
had not fully complied with the terms of that 
treaty, hence they were .not as anxious for peace 
and a peaceful settlement of the difficult boundary 
question as they sometimes represented. 

By July, " the leaves were fully out," the con- 
ferences among the tribes were over, and, on the 
15th of that month, the commissioners met Brant 
and some fifty natives. In a strong speech, Brant 
set forth their wishes, and invited them to accom- 
pany him to the place of holding the council. The 
Indians were rather jealous of Wayne's continued 
preparations for war, hence, just before setting out 
for the' Maumee, the commissioners sent a letter to 
the Secretary of War, asking that all warlike 
demonstrations cease until the result of their mis- 
sion be known. 

On 21st of July, the embassy reached the head 
of the Detroit Biver, where their advance was 
checked by the British authorities at Detroit, com- 
pelling them to take up their abode at the house 
of Andrew Elliott, the famous renegade, then a 
British agent under Alexander McKee. McKee 
was attending the council, and the ' commissioners 
addressed him a note, borne by Elliott, to inform 
him of their arrival, and asking when they could 
be received. Elliott returned on the 29th, bring- 
ing with him a deputation of twenty chiefs from 
the council. The next day, a conference was held, 
and the ohief of the Wyandots, Sa-wagh-da-wunk, 
presented to the commissioners, in writing, their 
exphcit demand in regard to the boundary, and 
their purposes and powers. " The Ohio must be 
the boundary," said he, " or blood will flow." 

The commissioners returned an answer to the 
proposition brought by the chiefs, recapitulating 
the treaties already made, and denying the Ohio 
as the boundary line. On the 16th of August, 
the council sent them, by two Wyandot runners, 
a final answer, in which they recapitulated their 





former assertions, and exhibited great powers of 
reasoning and clear logic in defense of their po- 
sition. The commissioners reply that it is impos- 
ble to accept the Ohio as the boundary, and declare 
the negotiation at an end. 

This closed the eflForts of the Government to ne- 
gotiate with the Indians, and there remained of 
necessity no other mode of settling the dispute 
but war. Liberal terms had been oflFered them, 
but nothing but the boundary of the Ohio River 
would suffice. It was the only condition upon 
which the confederation would lay down its arms. 
" Among the rude statesmen of the wilderness, 
there was exhibited as pure patriotism and as lofty 
devotion to the good of their race, as ever won ap- 
plause among civilized men. The white man had, 
ever since he came into the country, been encroach- 
ing on their lands. He had long occupied the 
regions beyond the mountains. He had crushed 
the conspiracy formed by Pontiac, thirty years be- 
fore. He had taken possession of the common 
hunting-ground of all the tribes, on the faith of 
treaties they did not acknowledge. He was 
now laying out settlements and building forts in' 
the heart of the country to which all the tribes 
had been driven, and which now was all they could 
call their own. And now they asked that it should 
be guaranteed to them, that the boundary which 
they had so long asked for should be drawn, and 
a final end be made to the continual aggressions of 
the whites ; or, if not, they solemnly determined to 
stake their all, against fearful odds, in defense of 
their homes, their country and the inheritance of 
their children. Nothing could be more patriotic 
than the position they occupied, and nothing could 
be more noble than the declarations of their 

They did not know the strength of the whites, 
and based their success on the victories already 
gained. They hoped, nay, were promised, aid from 
the British, and even the Spanish had held out to 
them assurances of help when the hour of conflict 

The Americans were not disposed to yield even 
to the confederacy of the tribes backed by the two 
rival nations, forming, as Wayne characterized it, a 
" hydra of British, Spanish and Indian hostility." 
On the 16th of August, the commissioners re- 
ceived the final answer of the council. The 17th, 
they left the mouth of the Detroit River, and the 
23d, arrived at Fort Erie, where they immediately 

*AiuiilBof the West. 

dispatched messengers to Gen. Wayne to inform 
him of the issue of the negotiation. Wayne had 
spent the winter of 1792-93, at Legionville, in col- 
lecting and organizing his army. April 30, 1793, 
the army moved down the river and encamped at 
a point, called by the soldiers " Hobson's choice," 
because from the extreme height of the river they 
were prevented from landing elsewhere. Here 
Wayne was engaged, during the negotiations for 
peace, in drilling his soldiers, in cutting roads, and 
collecting supplies for the army. He was ready 
for an immediate campaign in case the council 
failed in its object. 

While here, he sent! a letter to the Secretary of 
War, detailing the circumstances, and suggesting 
the probable course he should follow. He re- 
mained here during the summer, and, when apprised 
of the issue, saw it was too late to attempt the 
campaign then. He sent the Kentucky militia 
home, and, with his regular soldiers, went into 
winter quarters at a fort he built on a tributary 
of the Great Miami. He called the fort Green- 
ville. The present town of Greenville is near the 
site of the fort. During the winter, he sent a de- 
tachment to visit the scene of St. Clair's defeat. 
They found more than six hundred skulls, and 
were obUged to "scrape the bones together and 
carry them out to get a place to make their beds." 
They buried all they could find. Wayne was 
steadily preparing his forces, so as to have every- 
thing ready for a sure blow when the time came. 
All his information showed the faith in the British 
which still animated the doomed red men, and 
gave them a hope that could end only in defeat. 

. The conduct of the Indians fully corroborated 
the statements received by Gen. Wayne. On the 
30th of June, an escort of ninety riflen;ien and 
fifty dragoons, under command of Maj . McMahon, 
was attacked under the walls of Fort Recovery by 
a force of more than one thousand Indians under 
charge of Little Turtle. They were repulsed and 
badly defeated, and,«the next day, driven away. 
Their mode of action, their arms and ammunition, 
all told plainly of British aid. They also ex- 
pected to find the cannon lost by St. Clair Novem- 
ber 4, 1791, but which the Americans had secured. 
The 26th of July, Gen. Scott, with 1,600 
mounted men from Kentucky, joined Gen. Wayne 
at Fort Greenville, and, two days after, the legion 
moved forward. The 8th of August, the army 
reached the junction of the Auglaize and Mau- 
mee, and at once proceeded to erect Fort Defiance, 
where the waters meet. The Indians had abandoned 

» ^ 



their towns on the approach of the army, and 
were congregating further northward. 

While engaged on Fort Defiance, Wayne 
received continual and full reports of the Indians — 
of their aid from Detroit and elsewhere ; of the 
nature of the ground, and the circumstances, 
favorable or unfavorable. From all he could 
learn, and considering the spirits of his army, 
now thoroughly disciplined, he determined to 
march forward and settle matters at once. Yet, 
true to his own instincts, and to the measures of 
peace so forcibly taught by Washington, he sent 
Christopher Miller, who had been naturalized 
among the Shawanees, and taken prisoner by 
Wayne's spies, as a messenger of peace, offering 
terms of friendship. 

Unwilling to waste time, the troops began to 
move forward the 15th of August, and the next 
day met Miller with the message that if the Amer- 
icans would wait ten days at Auglaize the Indians 
would decide for peace or war. Wayne knew too 
well the Indian character, and answered the mes- 
sage by simply marching on. The 18th, the legion 
had advanced forty-one miles from Auglaize, and, 
being near the long-looked-for foe, began to take 
some measures for protection, should they be at- 
tacked. A slight breastwork, called Fort Deposit, 
was erected, wherein most of their heavy baggage 
was placed. They remained here, building their 
Works, until the 20th, when, staring their baggage, 
the army began again its march. After advancing 
about five miles, they met a large force of the ene- 
my, two thousand strong, who fiercely attacked 
them. Wayne was, however, prepared, and in the 
short battle that ensued they were routed, and 
large numbers slain. The American loss was very 
slight. The horde of savages were put to flight, 
leaving the Americans victorious almost under 
the walls of the British garrison, under Maj. 
Campbell. This officer sent a letter to Gen. 
Wayne, asking an explanation of his conduct in 
fighting so near, and in suclf evident hostility to 
the British. Wayne replied, telling him he was 
in a country that did not belong to him, and one 
he was not authorized to hold, and also, charging 
him with aiding the Indians. A spirited corre- 
spondence followed, which ended in the American 
commander marching on, and devastating the In-, 
dian country, even burning McKee's house and 
stores under the muzzles of the English guns. 

The 14th of September, the army marched from 
Fort Defiance for the Miami village at the junc- 
tion of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph Rivers. It 

reached there on the 17th, and the next day Gren. 
Wayne selected a site for a fort. The 22d of Oc- 
tober, the fort was completed, and garrisoned by a 
detachment under Maj. Hamtramck, who gave to it 
the name of Fort Wayne. The 14th of October, 
the mounted Kentucky volunteers, who had be- 
come dissatisfied and mutinous, were started to 
Fort Washington, where they were immediately 
mustered out of service and discharged. The 28th 
of October, the legion marched from Fort Wayne 
to Fort Greenville, where Gen. Wayne at once 
established his headquarters. 

The campaign had been decisive and short, and 
had taught the Indians a severe lesson. The Brit> 
ish, too, bad failed them in their hour of need, and 
now they began to see they had a foe to contend 
whose ~ resources were exhaustless. Under these 
circumstances, losing faith in the English, and at 
last impressed with a respect for American power, 
after the defeat experienced at the hands of the 
"Black Snake," the various tribes made up their 
minds, by degrees, to ask for peace. During the 
winter and spring, they exchanged prisoners, and 
made ready to meet Gen. Wayne at Greenville, in 
June, for the purpose of forming a definite treaty, 
as it had been agreed should be done by the pre- 
liminaries of January 24. 

During the month of June, 1795, representar 
tives of the Northwestern tribes began to gather at 
Greenville, and, the 16th of the month. Gen. Wayne 
met in council the Delawares, Ottawas, Pottawato- 
mies and Eel Kiver Indians, and the conferences, 
which lasted till August 10, began. The 21st 
of June, Buckongahelas arrived ; the 23d, Little 
Turtle and other Miamis ; the 13th of July, 
Tarhe and other Wyandot chiefs ; and the 18th, 
Blue Jacket, and thirteen Shawanees and Massas 
with twenty Chippewas. 

Most of these, as it appeared by their statements, 
had been tampered with by the English, especially 
by McKee, Girty and Brant, even after the pre- 
liminaries of January 24, and while Mr. Jay was 
perfecting his treaty. They had, however, all de- 
termined to make peace with the "Thirteen Fires," 
and although some difficulty as to the ownership of 
the lands to be ceded, at one time seemed likely to 
arise, the good sense of Wayne and the leading 
chiefs prevented it, and, the 30th of July, the treaty 
was agreed to which should bury the hatchet for- 
ever. Between that day and the 3d of August, ^ 
it was engrossed, and, having been signed by the 
various nations upon the day last named, it was 
finally acted upon the 7th, and the presents from 




the United States distributed. The basis of this 
treaty was the previous one made at Fort Harmar. 
The boundaries made at that time were re-affirmed ; 
the whites were secured on the lands now occu- 
pied by them or secured by former treaties ; and 
among all the assembled nations, presents, in value 
not less than one thousand pounds, were distributed 
to each through its representatives, many thousands 
in all. The Indians were allowed to remove and 

punish intruders on their lands, and were permitted 
to hunt on the ceded lands. 

' " This great and abiding peace document was 
signed by the various tribes, and dated August 3, 
1795. It was laid before the Senate December 9, 
and ratified the 22d. So closed the old Indian 
wars in the West." * 

* Aanala of the West." 



WHILE these six years of Indian wars were 
in progress, Kentucky was admitted as a 
State, and Pinckney's treaty with Spain was com- 
pleted. This last occurrence was of vital impor- 
tance to the West, as it secured the free navigation 
of the Mississippi, charging only a fair price for 
the storage of goods at Spanish ports. This, 
though not all that the Americans wished, was a 
great gain in their favor, and did much to stop 
those agitations regarding a separation on the part 
of Kentucky. It also quieted affairs further 
south than Kentucky, in the Georgia, and South 
Carolina Territory, and put an end to French 
and Spanish intrigue for the Western Territory. 
The treaty was signed November 24, 1794. 
Another treaty was concluded by Mr. John Jay 
between the two governments. Lord Greenville 
representing the English, and Mr. Jay, the Ameri- 
cans. The negotiations lasted from April to 
November 19, 1795, when, on that day, the treaty 
was signed and duly recognized. It decided 
effectually all the questions at issue, and was the 
signal for the removal of the British troops from 
the Northwestern outposts. This was effected as 
soon as the proper transfers could be made. The 
second article of the treaty provided fliat, " His 
Majesty will withdraw all his troops and garrisons 
from all posts and places within the boundary 
lines assigned by the treaty of peace to the United 
States. This evacuation shall take place on or 
before the 1st day of June, 1796, and all the 
proper measures shall be taken, in the interval, by 
concert, between the Government of the United 
States and His Majesty's Governor General in 
America, for settHng the previous arrangements 

which may be necessary respecting the delivery 
of the said posts ; the United States, in the mean 
time, at their discretion, extending their settle- 
ments to any part within the said boundary line, 
except within the precincts or jurisdiction of any 
of the said posts. 

" All settlers and all traders within the precincts 
or jurisdiction of the said posts shall continue to 
enjoy, unmolested, all their property of every 
kind, and shall be protected therein. They shall 
be at full liberty to remain there or to remove 
with all, or any part, of their effects, or retain the 
property thereof at their discretion ; such of them 
as shall continue to reside within the said boundary 
lines, shall not be compelled to become citizens of 
the United States, or take any oath of allegiance 
to the Government thereof; but they shall be at 
full liberty so to do, if they think proper; they 
shall make or declare their election one year after 
the evacuation aforesaid. And all persons who 
shall continue therein after the expiration of the 
said year, without having declared their intention 
of remaining subjects to His Britannic Majesty, 
shall be considered as having elected to become 
citizens of the United States." 

The Indian war had settled all fears from that 
source ; the treaty with Great Britain had estab- 
lished the boundaries between the two countries 
and secured peace, and the treaty with Spain had 
secured the privilege of navigating the Mississippi, 
by paying only a nominal sum. It had also bound 
the people of the West together, and ended the 
old separation question. There was no danger 
from that now. Another difficulty arose, however, 
relating to the home rule, and the organization of 

«^ S" 

i) \ 



the home government. There were two parties in 
the country, known as Federalist and Anti-Federal- 
ist. One favored a central government, whose au- 
thority should be supreme ; the other, only a 
compact, leaving the States supreme. The worth- 
lessness of the old colonial system became, daily, 
more apparent. While it existed no one felt safe. 
There was no prospect of paying the debt, and, 
hence, no credit. When Mr.Hamilton, Secretary 
of the Treasury, offered his financial plan to the 
country, favoring centralization, it met, in many 
places, violent opposition. Washington was strong 
enough to carry it out, and gave evidence that he 
would do so. When, therefore, the excise law 
passed, and taxes on whisky were collected, an 
open revolt occurred in Pennsylvania, known as 
the "Whisky Insurrection." It was put down, 
finally, by military power, and the malcontents 
made to know that the United States was a gov- 
ernment, npt a compact liable co rupture at any 
time, and by any of its members. It taught the 
entire nation a lesson. Centralization meant pres- 
ervation . Should a " compact ' ' form of government 
prevail, then anarchy and ruin, and ultimate sub- 
jection to some foreign power, met their view. 
That they had just fought to dispel, and must it 
all go for naught ? The people saw the rulers 
were right, and gradually, over the West, spread a 
spirit antagonistic to State supremacy. It did not 
revive till Jackson's time, when he, with an iron 
hand and iron will, crushed out the evil doctrine 
of State supremacy. It revived again in the late 
war, again to be crushed. It is to be hoped that 
ever thus will be its fate. " The Union is insepa- 
rable," said the Government, and the people echoed 
the words. 

During the war, and while all these events had 
been transpiring, settlements had been taking place 
upon the Ohio, which, in their influence upon the 
Northwest, and especially upon the State, as soon 
as it was created, were deeply felt. The Virginia 
and the Connecticut Reserves were at this time 
peopled, and, also, that part of the Miami Valley 
about Dayton, which city dates its origin from that 

As early as 1787, the reserved lands of the Old 
Dominion north of the Ohio were examined, and, 
in August of that year, entries were made. As 
no good title could be obtained from Congress at 
this time, the settlement practically ceased until 
1790, when the prohibition to enter them was 
withdrawn. As soon as that was done, surveying 
began again. Nathaniel Massie was among the 

foremost men in the survey of this tract, ^nd lo- 
cating the lands, laid off a town about twelve miles 
above May^ville. The place was called Manchester, 
and yet exists. From this point, Massie continued 
through all the Indian war, despite the danger, to 
survey the surrounding country, and prepare it for 

Connecticut had, as has been stated, ceded her 
lands, save a tract extending one hundred and 
twenty miles beyond the western boundary of 
Pennsylvania. Of this Connecticut Reserve, , so 
far as the Indian title was extinguished, a survey 
was ordered in October, 1786, and an office opened 
for its disposal. Part was spon sold, and, in 1792, 
half a million of acres were given to those citizens 
of Connecticut who had lost property by the acts 
of the British troops during the Revolutionary 
war at New London, New Haven and elsewhere. 
These lands thereby became known as " Fire lands " 
and the "Sufferer's lands," and were located in the 
western part of the Reserve. In May, 1795, the 
Connepticut Legislature authorized a committee to 
dispose of the remainder of the Reserve. Before 
autumn the committee sold it to a company known 
as the Connecticut Land Company for $1,200,000, 
and about the 5th of September quit-claimed the 
land to the Company. The same day the Company 
received it, it sold 3,000,000 acres to John Mor- 
gan, John Caldwell and Jonathan Brace, in trust. 
Upon these quit^claim titles of the land all deeds 
in the Reserve are based. Surveys were com- 
menced in 1796, and, by the close of the next 
year, all the land east of the Cuyahoga was divided 
into townships five miles square. The agent of the 
Connecticut Land Company was Gen. Moses Cleve- 
land, and in his honor the leading city of the Re- 
serve was named. That township and five others 
were reserved for private sale; the balance were 
disposed of by lottery, the first drawing occurring 
in February, 1798. 

Dayton resulted from the trgaty made by Wayne. 
It came out of the boundary ascribed to Symmes, 
and for a while all such lands were not recognized 
as sold by Congress, owing to the failure of ' 
Symmes and his associates in paying for them. 
Thereby there existed, for a time, considerable un- 
easiness regarding the title to these lands. In 
1799, Congress was induced to issue patents to the 
actual settlers, and thus secure them in their pre- 

Seventeen days after Wayne's treaty, St. Clairs ' 
Wilkinson, Jonathan Dayton and Israel Ludlow 
contracted with Symmes for the seventh and eighth 

*^ « 




ranges, between Mad River and the Little Miami. 
Three settlements were to be made: one at the 
mouth of Mad River, one on the Little Miami, in 
the seventh range, and another on Mad Rivet. On 
the 21st of September, 1795, Daniel C. Cooper 
started to survey and mark out a road in the pur- 
chase, and John Dunlap to run its boundaries, 
which was completed before October 4. On No- 
vember 4, Mr. Ludlow laid off the town of Day- 
ton, which, like land in the Connecticut Reserve,, 
was sold by lottery. 

A gigantic scheme to purchase eighteen or 
twenty million acres in Michigan, and then pro- 
cure a good title from the Grovernment — who alone 
had such a right to procure land — by giving mem- 
bers of Congress an interest in the investment, 
appeared shortly after Wayne's treaty. When 
some of the members were approached, however, 
the real spirit of the scheme appeared, and, instead 
of gaining ground, led to the exposure, resulting 
iu the reprimanding severely of Robert Randall, 
the principal mover in ,the whole plan, and in its 
speedy disappearance. 

Another enterprise, equally gigantic, also ap- 
peared. It was, however, legitimate, and hence 
successful. On the 20th of February, 1795, the 
North American Land Company was formed in 
Philadelphia, under the management of such pat- 
riots as Robert Morris, John Nicholson and James 
Greenleaf. This Company purchased large tracts 
in the West, which it disposed of to actual settlers, 
and thereby aided greatly in populating that part 
of the country. 

Before the close of 1795, the Groyernor of the 
Territory, and his Judges, published sixty-four 
statutes. Thirty-four of these were adopted at 
Cincinnati during June, July and August of that 
year. They were known as the Maxwell code, 
from the name of the publisher, but were passed 
by Governor St. Clair and Judges Symmes and 
Turner. Among them was that which provided 
that the common law of England, and all it« stat- 
utes, made previous to the fourth year of James 
the First, should be in full force within the Terri- 
tory. " Of the systeto as a whole," says Mr. Case, 
" with its many imperfections, it may' be doubted 
that any colony, at so early a period after its first 
establishment, ever had one so good and applicable 
to all." 

The Union had now safely passed through its 
most critical period after the close of the war of 
independence. The danger from an irruption of 
its own members : of a war or alliance of its West- 

ern portion with France and Spain, and many 
other perplexing questions, were now effectually 
settled, and the' population of the Territory began 
rapidly to increase. Before the close of the year 
1796, the Northwest contained over five thousand 
inhabitants, the requisite number to entitle it to 
one representative in the national Congress. 

Western Pennsylvania also, despite the various 
conflicting claims regarding the land titles in that 
part of the State, began rapidly to fill with emigrants. 
The "Triangle" and the " Struck District " were 
surveyed and put upon the market under the act 
of 1792. Treaties and purchases from the various 
Indian tribes, obtained control of the remainder of 
the lands in that part of the State, and, by 1796, 
the State owned all the land within its boundaries. 
Towns were laid off, land put upon the market, so 
that by the year 1800, the western part of the 
Keystone State was divided into eight counties, viz., 
Beaver, Butler, Mercer, Crawford, Erie, Warren, 
Venango and Armstrong. 

The ordinance relative to the survey and dis- 
posal of lands in the Northwest Territory has 
already been given. It was adhered to, save in 
minor ' cases, where necessity required a slight 
change. The reservations were recognized by 
Congress, and the titles to them all confirmed to 
the grantees. Thus, Clarke and his men, the 
Connecticut Reserve, the Refugee lands, the 
French inhabitants, and all others holding patents 
to land from colonial or foreign governments, were 
all confirmed in their rights and protected in their 

Before the close of 1796, the upper North- 
western posts were all vacated by the British, 
under the terms of Mr. Jay's treaty. Wayne at 
once transferred his headquarters to Detroit, where 
a county was named for him, including the north- 
western part of Ohio, the northeast of Indiana, 
and the whole of Michigan. 

The occupation of the Territory by the Ameri- 
cans gave additional impulse to emigration, and a 
better feeling of security to emigrants, who fol- 
lowed closely upon the path of the army. Na- 
thaniel Massie, who has already been noticed as 
the founder of Manchester, laid out the town of 
Chillicothe, on the Scioto, in 1796. Before the 
close of the year, it contained several stores, 
shops, a tavern, and was well populated. With 
the increase of settlement and the security guar- 
anteed by the treaty of Greenville, the arts of 
civilized life began to appear, and their influence 
upon pioneers, especially those born on the frontier, 




began to manifest itself. Better dwellings, schools, 
churches, dress and manners prevailed. Life 
began to assume a reality, and lost much of 
that recklessness engendered by the habits of a 
frontier Ufe. 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, the Miami, the Mus- 
kingum and the Scioto Valleys were filling with 
people. Cincinnati had more than one hundred 
log cabins, twelve or fifteen, frame houses and a 
population of more than six hundred persons. In 
1796, the first house of worship for the Presby- 
terians in that city was built. 

Before the close of the same year, Manchester 
contained over thirty families ; emigrants from 
Virginia were going up all the valleys from the 
Ohio; and Ebenezer Zane had opened a bridle- 
path from the Ohio River, at Wheeling, across the 
country, by Chillicothe, to Limestone, Ky. The 
nest year, the United States mail, for the first 
time, traversed this route to the West. Zane was 
given a section of land for his path. The popu- 
lation of the Territory, estimated at from five to 
eight .thousand, was chiefly distributed in lower 
valleys, bordering on the Ohio River. The French 
still occupied the Illinois country, and were the 
principal inhabitants about Detroit. 

South of the Ohio River, Kentucky was pro- 
gressing favorably, while the '' Southwestern Ter- 
ritory," ceded to the United States by North 
Carolina in 1790, had so rapidly populated that, 
in 1793, a Territorial form of government was 
allowed. The ordinance of 1787, save the clause 
prohibiting slavery, was adopted, and the Territory 
named Tennessee. On June 6, 1796, the Terri- 
tory contained more than seventy-five thousand 
inhabitants, and was admitted into the Union as a 
State. Four years after, the census showed a 
population of 105,602 souls, including 13,584 
slaves and persons of color. The same year 
Tennessee became a State, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the Redstone Paper 
Mill, four miles east of Brownsville, it being the 
first manufactory of the kind west of the AUe- 

In the month of December, 1796, Gen. Wayne, 
who had done so much for the development of the 
West, while on his way from Detroit to Philadel- 
phia, was attacked with sickness and died in a 
cabin near Erie, in the north part of Pennsylvania. 
He was nearly fifty-one years' old, and was one of 

the bravest officers in the Revolutionary war, and 
one of America's truest patriots. In 1809, his 
remains were removed from Erie, by his son. Col. 
Isaac Wayne, to the Radnor churchyard, near the 
place of his birth, and an elegant monument erected 
on his tomb by the Pennsylvania Cincinnati So- 

After the death of Wayne, Gen. Wilkinson was 
appointed to the command of the Western army. 
While he was in command, Carondelet, the Spanish 
governor of West Florida and Louisiana, madie one 
more efibrt to separate the Union, and set up either 
an independent government in the. West, or, what 
was more in accord with his wishes, effect a 
union with the Spanish nation. In June, 1797, 
he sent Power again into the Northwest and into 
Kentucky to sound the existing feeling. Now, 
however, they were not easily won over. The 
home government was a certainty, the breaches had 
been healed, and Power was compelled to abandon 
the mission , not, however, until he had received a 
severe reprimand from many who saw through his 
plan, and openly exposed it. His mission closed 
the efforts of the Spanish authorities to attempt 
the dismemberment of the Union, and showed 
them the coming downfall of their power in Amer- 
ica. They were obliged to surrender the posts 
claimed by the United States under the treaty of 
1795, and not many years after, sold their Amer- 
ican possessions to the United States, rather than 
see a rival European power attain control over them. 

On the 7th of April, 1798, Congress passed an 
act, appointing Winthrop Sargent, Secretary of the 
Northwest Territory, Governor of the Territory of 
the Mississippi, formed the same day. In 1801, 
the boundary between America and the Spanish pos- 
sessions was definitely fixed. The Spanish retired 
from the disputed territory, and henceforward their 
attempts to dissolve the American Union ceased. 
The seat of the Mississippi Territory was fixed at 
Loftus Heights, six miles north of the thirty-first 
degree of latitude. 

The appointment of Sargent to the charge of the 
Southwest Territory, led to the choice of William 
Henry Harrison, who had been aid-de-camp to 
Gen. Wayne in 1794, and whose character stood 
very high among the people of the West, to the 
Secretaryship of the Northwest, which place he held 
until appointed to represent that Territory in Con- 


_^« s 






THE ordinance of 1787 provided that as soon 
as there were 5,000 persons in the Territory, 
it was entitled to a representative assembly. On 
October 29, 1798, Governor St. Clair gave notice 
by proclamation, that the required population ex- 
isted, and directed that an election be held on the 
third Monday in December, to choose representa- 
tives. These representatives were required, when 
assembled, to nominate ten persons, whose names 
were sent to the President of the United States, 
who selected five, and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate, appointed them for the legislative 
council. In this mode the Northwest passed into 
the second grade of a Territorial government. 

The representatives, elected under the proclama^ 
tion of St. Clair, met in Cinoiunati, January 22, 
1799, and under the provisions of the ordinance 
of 1787, nominated ten persons, whose names were 
sent to the President. On the 2d of March, he 
selected from the list of candidates, the names of 
Jacob Burnet, James Findlay, Henry Vander- 
burgh, Robert Oliver and David Vance. The 
next day the Senate confirmed their nomination, 
and the first legislative councU of the Northwest 
Territory was a reality. 

The Territorial Legislature met again at Cincin- 
nati, September 16, but, for want of a quorum, 
was not organized until the 24th of that month. 
The House of Representatives consisted of nine- 
teen members, of whom seven were from Hamilton 
County, four from Ross — erected by St. Clair in 
1798; three from Wayne — erected in 1796; two 
from Adams — erected in 1797; one from Jeffer- 
son — erected in 1797; one from Washington — • 
erected in 1788; and one from Knox — ^Indiana 
Territory. None seem to have been present from 
St. Clair County (Illinois Territory). 

After the organization of (he Legislature, Gov- 
ernor St. Clair addressed the two houses in the Rep- 
resentatives' Chamber, recommending such meas- 
ures as, in his judgment, were suited to the con- 
dition of the country and would advance the safety 
and prosperity of the people. 

The Legislature continued in session till the 19th 
of December, when, having finished their business, 
they were prorogued by the Governor, by their 
own request, till the first Monday in November, 
1800. This being the first session, there was, of 
necessity, a great deal of business to do. The 
transition from a colonial to a semi-independent 
form of government, called for a general revision 
as well as a considerable enlargement of the stat- 
ute-book. Some of the adopted laws were re- 
pealed, many others altered and amended, and a 
long list of new ones added to the code. New 
ofiices were to be created and filled, the duties at- 
tached to them prescribed, and a plan of ways and 
means devised to meet the increased expenditures, 
occasioned by the change which had now occurred. 

As Mr. Burnet was the only lawyer in the Legis- 
lature, much of the revision, and putting the laws 
into proper legal form, devolved upon him. He 
seems to have been well fitted for the place, and 
to have performed the laborious task in an excel- 
lent manner. 

The whole number of acts passed and approved 
by the Governor, was thirty-seven. The most im- 
portant related to the militia, the administration of 
justice, and to taxation. During the session, a bill 
authorizing a lottery was passed by the council, 
but rejected by the Legislature, thus interdicting 
this demoralizing feature of the disposal of lands 
or for other purposes. The example has always been 
followed by subsequent legislatures, thus honorably 
characterizing the Assembly of Ohio, in this re- 
spect, an example Kentucky and several other 
States might well emulate. 

Before the Assembly adjourned, they issued a 
congratulatory address to the people, enjoining 
them to "Inculcate the principles of humanity, 
benevolence, honesty and punctuality in dealing, 
sincerity and charity, and all the social affections." 
At the same time, they issued an address to the 
President, expressing entire confidence in the wis- 


and purity of 
attachment to 

his government, and their 
the American Constitution. 




The vote on this address proved, however, that the 
diiferences of opinion agitating the Eastern States 
had penetrated the West. Eleven Representatives 
voted for it, and five against it. 

One of the important duties that devolved on 
this Legislature, was the election of a delegate to 
Congress. As soon as the Governor's proclama- 
tion made its appearance, the election of a person 
to fill that position excited general attention. Be- 
fore the meeting of the Legislature public opinion 
had settled down on William Henry Harrison, and 
Arthur St. Clair, Jr., who eventually were the only 
candidates. On the 3d of October, the two houses 
met and' proceeded to a choice. Eleven votes were 
cast for Harrison, and ten for St. Clair. The Leg- 
islature prescribed the form of a certificate of the 
election, which was given to Harrison, who at once 
resigned his office as Secretary of the Territory, 
proceeded to Philadelphia, and took his seat. Con- 
gress being then in session. 

" Though he represented the Territory but one 
year, " says Judge Burnett, in his notes, " he ob- 
tained some important advantages for his constitu- 
■ ents. He introduced a resolution to sub-divide 
the surveys of the public, linds, and to offer them' 
for sale in smaller tracts ; he succeeded in getting 
that measure through both houses, in opposition to 
the interest of speculators, who were, and who 
wished to be, the retailers of the land to the poorer 
classes of the community. His proposition be- 
came a law, and was hailed as the most beneficent 
act that Congtess had ever done for the Territory. 
It put in the power of every industrious man, how- 
ever poor, to become a freeholder, and to lay a 
foundation for the future support and comfort of 
his family. At the' same session, he obtained a 
liberal extension of time for the pre-emptioners in 
the northern part of the Miami purchase, which 
enabled them to secure their farms, and eventually 
to become independent, and even wealthy." 

The first session, as has been noticed, closed 
December 19. Gov. St. Clair took occasion to 
enumerate in his speech at the close of the session, 
eleven acts, to which he saw fit to apply his veto. 
These he had not, however, returned to the Assem- 
bly, and thereby saved a long struggle between the 
executive and legislative branches of the Territory. 
Of the eleven acts enumerated, six related to the 
formation of new counties. These were mainly 
disproved by St Clair, as he always sturdily main- 
tained that the power to erect new counties wa^ 
vested alone in the Executive. This free exercise 
of the veto power, especially in relation to new 

counties, and his controversy with the Legislature, 
tended only to strengthen the popular discontent 
regarding the Governor, who was never fully able 
to regain the standing he held before his in- 
glorious defeat in his campaign against the Indians. 

While this was being agitated, another question 
came into prominence. Ultimately, it settled the 
powers of the two branches of the government, 
and caused the removal of St. Clair, then very 
distasteful to the people. The opening of the 
present century brought it fully befor# the 
people^ who began to agitate it in all their 

The great extent of the Territory made the 
operations of government extremely uncertain, 
and the power of the courts practically worthless. 
Its division was, therefore, deemed best, and a 
committee was appointed by Congress to inquire 
into the matter. This committee, the 3d of 
March, 1800, reported upon the subject that, "In 
the three western counties, there has been but 
one court having cognizance of crimes in five 
years. The immunity which offenders experience, 
attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and aban- 
doned criminals, and, at the same time, deters 
useful and virtuous citizens from making settle- 
ments in -such society. The extreme necessity of 
judiciary attention and assistance is experienced 
in civil as well as criminal cases. The supplying 
to vacant places such necessary officers as may be 
wanted, such as clerks, recorders and others of 
like kind, is, from the impossibility of correct 
notice and information, utterly neglected. This 
Territory is exposed as a frontier to foreign nations, 
whose agents can find sufficient interest in exciting 
or fomenting insurrection and discontent, as 
thereby they can more easily divert a valuable 
trade in furs from the United States, and also have 
a part thereof on which they border, which feels 
so little the cherishing hand of their proper gov- 
ernment, or so little dreads its energy, as to render 
their attachment perfectly uncertain and am- 

" The committee would further^ suggest, that 
the law of the 3d of March, 1791, granting land 
to certain persons in the western part of said Ter- 
ritory, and directing the laying-out of the same, 
remains unexecuted; that great discontent, in 
consequence of such neglect, is excited in those ' 
who are interested in the provisions of said laws, 
which require the immediate attention of this 
Legislature. To minister a remedy to these evils, 
it occurs to this committee, that it is expedient 

-^ i 





that a division of said Territory into two distinct 
and separate governments should be made ; and 
that such division be made by a Hne beginning at 
the mouth of the great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary 
between the United States and Canada." * 

The recommendations .of the Committee were 
favorably received by Congress, and, the 7th 
of May, an act was passed dividing the Ter- 
ritory. The main provisions of the act are as 

"That, from and after the 4th of July next, 
all that part of the territory of the United 'States 
northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the 
westward of ajine begiining at the Ohio, opposite 
to the mouth of the Kentucky River, and running 
thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north until 
it intersects the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada, shall, for the purpose of tem- 
porary government, constitute a separate Territory, 
and be called the Indiana Territory. 

" There shall be established within the said Ter- 
ritory a government, in all respects similar to that 
provided by the ordinance of Congress passed July 
13, 1797." t 

The act further provided for representatives, and 
for the establishment of an assembly, on the same 
plan as that in force in the Northwest, stipulating 
that until the number of inhabitants reached five 
thousand, the whole number of representatives to 
the General Assembly should not be less than seven, 
nor more than nine ; apportioned by the Governor 
among the several counties in the new Terri- 

The act further provided that " nothing in the 
act should be so construed, so as in any manner 
to affect the government now in force in the terri- 
tory of the United States northwest of the Ohio 
River, further than to prohibit the exercise thereof 
within the Indiana Territory, from and after the 
aforesaid 4th of July next. 

" Whenever that part of the territory of the 
United States, which lies to the eastward of a line 
beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, 
and running thence due north to the territorial 
line between the United States and Canada, shall 
be erected into an independent State, and admitted 
into the Union on an eqnal footing with the orig- 
inal States ; thenceforth said line shall become and 
remain permanently, the boundary line between 
such State and the Indiana Territory." 

* American State Papers. 
fLand LawB. 

It was further enacted, " that, until it shall be 
otherwise enacted by the legislatures of the said 
territories, respectively, Chillicothe, on the Scioto 
River, shall be the seat of government of the ter- 
ritory of -the United States northwest of the Ohio 
River; and that St. Vincent's, on the Wabash 
River, shall be the seat of government for the 
Indiana Territory." * 

St. Clair was continued as Governor of the old 
Territory, and William Henry Harrison appointed 
Governor of the new. 

Connecticut, in ceding her territory in the West 
to the General Government, reserved a portion, 
known as the Connecticut Reserve. When she 
afterward disposed of her claim in the manner 
narrated, the citizens found themselves without any 
government on which to lean for support. At that 
time, settlements had begun in thirty-five of the 
townships into which the Reserve had been divided ; 
one thousand persons had established homes there ; 
mills had been built, and over seven hundred miles 
of roads opened. In 1800, the settlers petitioned 
for acceptance into the Union, as a part of the 
Northwest; and, the mother State releasing her judi- 
ciary claims. Congress accepted the trust, and 
granted the request. In December, of that jear, 
the population had so increased that the county of 
Trumbull was erected, including the Reserve. 
Soon after, a large number of settlers came from 
Pennsylvania, from which State they had been 
driven by the dispute concerning land titles in its 
western part. UmHlling to cultivate land to 
which they could only get a doubtful deed, they 
abandoned it, and came where the titles were 

Congress having made Chillicothe the capital of 
the Northwest Territory, as it now existed, on the 
3d of November the General Assembly met at that 
place. Gov. St. Clair had been made to feel the 
odium cast upon his previous acts, and, at the open- 
ing of this session, expressed, in strong terms, his 
disapprobation of the censure cast upon him. He 
had endeavored to do his duty in all cases, he said, 
and yet held the confidence of the President and 
Congress. He still held the office, notwithstanding 
the strong dislike against him. 

At the second session of the Assembly, at Chil- 
licothe, held in the autumn of 1801, so much out- 
spoken enmity was expressed, and so much abuse 
heaped upon the Governor and the Assembly, that 
a law was passed, removing the capital to Cincinnati 

* Land Laws. 




again. It was not destined, howdver, that the 
Territorial Assembly should meet again anywhere. 
The unpopularity of the Governor caused many to 
long for a State government, where they could 
choose their own rulers. The unpopularity of St. 
Clair arose) partly from the feeling connected with 
his defeat ; in part from his being connected with 
the Federal party, fast falling into disrepute; and, 
in part, from his assuming powers which most 
thought he had no right to exercise, especially the 
power of subdividing the counties of the Terri- 

The opposition, though powerful out of the 
Assembly, was in the minority there. During the 
month of December, 1801, it was forced to protest 
against a measure brought forward in the Council, 
for changing the ordinance of 1787 in such a man- 
ner as to make the Scioto, and a line drawn from 
the intersection of that river and the Indian 
boundary to the western extremity of the Reserve, 
the limits of the most eastern State, to be formed 
from the Territory. Had this change been made, 
the formation of a State government beyond the 
Ohio would have been long delayed.' Against it. 
Representatives Worthingion,Langham, Darlington, 
Massie, Dunlavy and Morrow, recorded their pro- 
test. Not content with this, they sent Thomas 
Worthington, who obtained a leave of absence, to 
the seat of government, on behalf of the objectors, 
there to protest, before Congress, against the pro- 
posed boundary. While Worthington was on his 
way, Massie presented, the 4th of January, 1802, 
a resolution for choosing a committee to address 
Congress in respect to the proposed State govern- 
ment. This, the next day, the House refused to 
do, by a vote of twelve to five. An attempt 
was next made to procure a census of the Ter- 
ritory, and an act for that purpose passed the 
House, but the Council postponed the considera- 
tion of it until 'the next session, which would com- 
mence at Cincinnati, the fourth Monday of No- 

Meanwhile, Worthington pursued the ends of 
his mission, using his influence to efiect that organ- 
ization, "which, terminating the influence of tyr- 
anny," was to "meliorate the circumstances of thou- 
sands, by freeing them from the domination of a 
despotic chief" His efforts were successful, and, 
the 4th of March, a report was made to the 
House in favor of authorizing a State convention. 
This report was based on the assumption that there 
were now over si^ty thousand inhabitants in the 
proposed boundaries, estimating that emigration had 

increased the census of 1800, which gave the Ter- 
ritory forty-five thousand inhabitants, to that num- 
ber. The convention was to ascertain whether it 
were expedient to form such a government, and to 
prepare a constitution if such organization were 
deemed best. In the formation of the State, a 
change in the boundaries was proposed, by which 
all the territory north of a line drawn due east 
from the head of Lake Michigan to Lake Erie was 
to be excluded from the new government about to 
be called into existence. 

The committee appointed by Congress to report 
upon the feasibility of forming the State, suggested 
that Congress reserve out of every township sections 
numbered 8, 11, 26 and 29, for their own use, and 
that Section 16 be reserved for the ;maintenance 
of schools. The committee also suggested, that, 
"religion, education and morality being necessary 
to the good government and happiness of mankind, 
schools and the means of education shall be forever 

Various other recommendations were given by 
the committee, in accordance with which, Congress, 
April 30, passed the resolution authorizing the 
calling of a convention. As this accorded with 
the feelings of the majority of the inhabitants of the 
Northwest, no opposition was experienced ; even 
the Legislature giving way to this embryo gov- 
ernment, and failing to assemble according to ad- 

The convention met the 1st of November. Its 
members were generally Jeffersonian in their na- 
tional politics, and had been opposed to the change 
of boundaries proposed the year before. Before 
proceeding to business. Gov. St. Clair proposed to 
address them in his official character. This propo- 
sition was resisted by several of the members; but, 
after a motion, it was agreed to allow him to speak 
to them as a citizen. St. Clair did so, advising 
the postponement of a State government until the 
people of the original eastern division were plainly, 
entitled to demand it, and were not subject to be 
bound by conditions.. This advice^given as it was, 
caused Jefferson instantly to remove St. Clair, at 
which time his office ceased.* "When the vote 
was taken," says Judge Burnet, "upon doing what 

* After thifl, St. Clair returned to hi8 old home in the TJigonier 
Tallfy, Pennsylvania, where he lived with hie children in ahnoHt 
abject poverty. He had lost money in his public life, aw lir- gave 
closeattention to public affairs, to the detriment of his own business. 
Be presented a claim to Congress, afterward, for supplies furnished 
to the array, but the claim was outlawed. After trying in vain to 
get the claim allowed, be returned to his home. Pennsylvania, 
learning of his distress, granted him an annuity of S350, afterward 
raised to $6^10. He lived to enjoy this but a short time, his death 
occurring August 31, 1818. He was eighty-four years of age. 


-^ ® "V 


he advised tliem not to do, but one of thirty-three 
(Ephraim Cutler, of Washington County) voted 
with the Governor." 

On one point only were the proposed boundaries 
of the new State altered. 

" To every person who has attended to this sub- 
ject, and who has consulted the maps of the West- 
ern country extant at the time the ordinance of 
1787 was passed. Lake Michigan was believed to 
be, and was represented by all the maps of that 
day as being, very far north of the position which 
it has since been ascertained to occupy. I have 
seen the map in the Department of State which 
was before the committee of Congress who framed 
and reported the ordinance for the government of 
the Territory. On that map, the southern bound- 
ary of Michigan was represented as being above 
the forty-second degree of north latitude. And 
there was a pencil line, said to have been made by 
the committee, passing through the southern bend 
of the lake to the Canada line, which struck the 
strait not far below the town of Detroit. The 
line was manifestly intended by the committee 
and by Congress to be the northern boundary of 
our State; and, on the principles by which courts 
of chancery construe contracts, accompanied by 
plats, it would seem that the map, and the line 
referred to, should be conclusive evidence of our 
boundary, without reference to the real position of 
the lakes. 

"When the convention sat, in 1802, the under- 
derstanding was, that the old maps were nearly 
correct, and that the line, as defined in the ordi- 
nance, would terminate at some point on the strait 
above the Maumee Bay. While the convention 
was in session, a man who had hunted many years 
on Lake Michigan, and was well acquainted with 
its position, happened to be in Chillicothe, and, in 
conversation with* one of the members, told him 
that the lake extended much farther south than 
was generally supposed, and that a map of the 
country which he had seen, placed its southern 
bend many miles north. of its true position. This 
information excited some uneasiness, and induced 
the convention to modify the clause describing the 
north boundary of the new State, so as to guard 
against its being depressed below the most north- 
ern cape of the Maumee Bay."* 

With this change and some extension of the 
school and road donations, the convention agreed 
to the proposal of Congress, and, November 29, 

* Historical Transactions of Ohio. — Judge Buekett. 

their agreement was ratified and signed, as was 
also the constitution of the State of Ohio — so 
named from its river, called by the Shawanees Ohio, 
meaning beautiful — forming its southern bound- 
ary. Of this nothing need be said, save that it 
bore the marks of true democratic feeling — of full 
faith in the people. By them, however, it was 
never examined. It stood firm until 1852, when 
it was superseded by the present one, made neces- 
sary by the advance of time. 

The General Assembly was required to meet at 
Chillicothe, the first Tuesday of March, 1803. 
This change left the territory northwest of the 
Ohio River, not included in the new State, in the 
Territories of Indiana and Michigan. Subse- 
quently, in 1809, Indiana was made a State, and 
confined to her present limits. Illinois was made 
a Territory then, including Wisconsin. In 1818, 
it became a State, and Wisconsin a Territory at^ 
tached to Michigan. This latter was made a State 
in 1837, and Wisconsin a separate Territory, which, 
in 1847, was made a State. Minnesota was made 
a Territory the same year, and a State in 1857, 
and the five contemplated States of the territory 
were complete. 

Preceding pages have shown how the territory 
north of the Ohio River was peopled by the 
French and English, and how it came under the 
rule of the American people. The war of the 
Revolution closed in 1783, and left all America in 
the hands of a new nation. That nation brought 
a change. Before the war, various attempts had 
been made by residents in New England to people 
the country west of the AUeghanies. Land com- 
panies were formed, principal among which were 
the Ohio Company, and the company of which 
John Cleves Symmes was the agent and chief 
owner. Large tracts of land on the Scioto and 
on the Ohio were entered. The Ohio Company 
were the first to make a settlement. It was or- 
ganized in the autumn of 1787, November 27. 
They made arrangements for a party of forty-seven 
men to set out for the West under the supervision of 
Gen. Rufus Putnam, Superintendent of the Com- 
pany. Early in the winter they advanced to the 
Youghiogheny River, and there built a strong boat, 
which they named " Mayflower." It was built by 
Capt. Jonathan Devol, the first ship-builder in the 
West, and, when completed, was placed under his 
command. The boat was launched April 2, 1788, 
and the band of pioneers, like the Pilgrim Fathers, 
began their voyage. The 7th of the month, 
they arrived at the mouth of the Muskingum, 




their destination, opposite Fort Harmar,* erected 
in the autumn of 1785, by a detachment of 
United States troops, under command of Maj. 
John Doughty, and, at the date of the Mayflower's 
arrival in possession of a company of soldiers. 
Under the protection of these troops, the little band 
of men began -their labor of laying out a town, 
and commenced to erect houses for their own and 
subsequent emigrants' occupation. The] names of 
these pioneers of Ohio, as far as can now be 
learned, are as follows: 

Gen. Putnam, Return Jonathan Meigs, Win- 
throp Sargeant (Secretary of the Territory), Judges 
Parsons and Varnum, Capt. Dana, Capt. Jonathan 
Devol, Joseph Barker, Col. Battelle, Maj. Tyler, 
Dr. True, Capt. Wm. Gray, Capt. Lunt, the 
Bridges, Ebenezer and Thomas Cory, Andrew Mo- 
Clure, Wm. Mason, Thomas Lord, Wm. Gridley, 
Gilbert Devol, Moody Russels, Deavens, Cakes, 
Wright, Clough, Green, Shipman, Dorance, the 
Masons, and others, whose names are now be- 
yond recall. 

On the 19th' of July, the first boat of families 
arrived, after a nine-weeks journey on the way. 
They had traveled in their wagons as far as Wheel-, 
ing, where they built large flat-boats, into which 
they loaded their effects, including their cattle, and 
thence passed down the Ohio to their destination. 
The families were those of Gen. Tupper, Col. 
Ichabod Nye, Col. Cushing, Maj . Coburn, and 
Maj. Goodal. In these titles the reader will ob- 
serve the preponderance of military distinction. 
Many of the founders of the colony had served 
with much valor in the war for freedom, and were 
well prepared for a life in the wilderness. 

They began at once the construction of houses 
from the forests about the confluence of the rivers, 
guarding their stock by day and penning it by 
night. Wolves, bears and Indians were all about 
them, and, here in the remote wilderness, they 
were obliged to always be on their guard. From 
the ground where they obtained the timber to erect 
their houses, they soon produced a few vegetables, 
and when the families arrived in August, they 
were able to set before them food raised for the 

*The outlines of Fort Harmar formed a regular pentagon, 
embracing within the area about three-fourths of an acrp. Its 
walls were formed of large horizontal timbers, and the bastions 
of large uprighttimbersabout fjnrteen feet in height, fastened to each 
other by strips of timber, tree-nailed intu each picket. In the rear 
of the fort Maj. Doughty laid out fine gardens. It continued to be 
occupied by United States troops until September 1790, when 
they were ordered to Cincinnati, A company, nnder Capt. Haskell, 
continued to make the fort their headquarters during the Indian 
war, occasionally assisting the colonists at Marietta, Belpre and 
Waterford against the ludians. When not needed by the troops, 
the fort was used by the people of Marietta. 

first time by the hand of American citizens in the 
Ohio Valley. One of those who came in August, 
was Mr. Thomas Gulhrie, a settler in one of the 
western counties of Pennsylvania, who brought a 
bushel of wheat, which he sowed on a plat of 
ground cleared by himself, and from which that 
fall he procured a gmall crop of wheat, the first 
grown in the State of Ohio. 

The Marietta settlement was the only one made 
that summer in the Territory. From their arrival 
until October, when Governor St. Clair came, they 
were busily employed making ho.uses, and prepar- 
ing for the winter. The little colony, of which 
Washington wrote so favorably, met on the 2d day 
of July, to name their newborn city and its pub- 
lic sqares. Until now it had been known as " The 
Muskingum" simply, but on that day the. name 
Marietta was formally given to it, in honor of Ma- 
rie Antoinette. The 4th of July, an ovation was 
held, and an oration delivered by James M. Yslt- 
num, who, with S. H. Parsons and John Arm- 
strong, had been appointed Judges of the Terri- 
tory. Thus, in the heart of the wilderness, 
miles away from any kindred post, in the forests 
of the Great West, was the Tree of Liberty watered 
and given a hearty growth. 

On the morning of the 9th of July, Governor 
St. Clsiir arrived, and the colony began to assume 
form. The ordinance of 1787 had provided for 
a form of government under the Governor and 
the three Judges, and this form was at once put 
into force. The 25th, the first law relating to the 
militia was published, and the next day the Gov- 
ernor's proclamation appeared, creating all the 
country that had been ceded by the Indians, east 
of the Scioto River, into the county of Washing- 
ton, and the civil machinery was in motion. From 
that time forward, this, the pioneer settlement in 
Ohio, went on prosperously. The 2d of Septem- 
ber, the first court in the Territory was held, but 
as it related to the Territory, a narrative of 4ts pro- 
ceedings vill be found in the history of that part 
of the country, and need not be repeated here. 

The 15th of July, Gov. St. Cfeir had published 
the ordinance of 1787, and the commissions of 
himself and the three Judges. He also assembled 
the people of the settlement, and explained to 
them the ordinance in a speech of considerable 
length. Three days after, he sent a notice to the 
Judges, calling their attention to the subject of 
organizing the militia. Instead of attending to 
this important matter, and thus providing for their 
safety should trouble with the Indians arise, the 





Judges did not even reply to the Governor's letter, 
but sent him what they called a "project" of a 
law for dividing real estate. The bill was so 
loosely drawn that St. Clair immediately rejected 
it, and set about organizing the mihtia himself. 
He divided the militia into two classes, " Senior" 
and "Junior," and organized them by appointing 
their officers. 

In the Senior Class, Nathan Cushing was ap- 
pointed Captain; George Ingersol, Lieutenant, 
and James Backus, Ensign. 

In the tlunior Class, Nathan Gopdale and Charles 
Knowls were made Captains ; Watson Casey and 
Samuel Stebbins, Lieutenants, and Joseph Lincoln 
and Arnold Colt, Ensigns. 

The Governor next erected the Courts of Pro- 
bate and Quarter Sessions, and proceeded to ap- 
point civil officers. Rufiis Putnam, Benjamin 
Tupper and Winthrop Sargeant were made Jus- 
tices of the Peace. The 30th of August, the day 
the Court of Quarter Sessions was appointed, 
Archibald Cary, Isaac Pierce and Thomas Lord 
were also appointed Justices, and given power to 
hold this court. They were, in fact. Judges of a 
Court of Common Pleas. Return Jonathan Meigs 
was appointed Clerk of this Court of Quarter 
Sessions. Ebenezer Sprout was appointed SheriflF of 
Washington County, and also Colonel of the militia; 
William Callis, Clerk of the Supreme Court; 
Rufus Putnam, Judge of the Probate Court, and 
R. J. Meigs, Jr., Clerk. Following these appoint- 
ments, setting the machinery of government in 
motion, St. Clair ordered that the 25th of Decem- 
ber be kept as a day of thanksgiving by the infant 
colony for its safe and j-ropitious beginning. 

During the fall and winter, the settlement was 
daily increased by emigrants, so much so, that the 
greatest difficulty was experienced in finding them 
lodging. During the coldest part of the winter, 
when ice covered the river, and prevented navi- 
gation, a delay in arrivals was experienced, only to 
be broken as soon as the river opened to the beams 
of a spring sun. While locked in the winter's 
embrace, the colonists amused themselves in vari- 
ous ways, dancing being one of the most promi- 
nent. At Christmas, a grand ball was held, at 
which there were fifteen ladies, "trhose grace," 
says a narrator, "equaled any in the East." 
Though isolated in the wilderness, they knew a 
brilliant prospect lay before them, and lived on in 
a joyous hope for the future. 

Soon after their arrival, the settlers began the 
erection of a stockade fort ( Campus Martius ), 

which occupied their time until the winter of 
1791. During the interval, fortunately, no hos- 
tilities from the Indians were experienced, though 
they were abundant, and were frequent visitors to 
the settlement. 

From a communication in the American Pioneer, 
by Dr. S. P. Hildreth, the following description of 
Campus Martius is derived. As it will apply, in 
a measure, to many early structures for defense in 
the West, it is given entire : 
' " The fort was made in the form of a regular 
parallelogram, the sides of each being 180 feet. 
At each corner Was erected a strong block-house, 
surmounted by a tower, and a sentry box. These 
houses were twenty feet square below and twenty- 
four feet square above, and projected six feet be- 
yond the walls of the fort. The intermediate walls 
were made up with dwelling-houses, made of wood, 
whose ends were whip-sawed into timbers four 
inches thick, and of the requisite width and length. 
These were laid up similar to the structure of log 
houses, with the ends nicely dove-tailed together. 
The whole were two stories high, and covered with 
shingle roofs. Convenient chimneys were erected 
of bricks, for cooking, and warming the rooms. A 
number of the dwellings were built and owned by 
individuals who had families. In the west and 
south fronts were strong gateways ; and over the 
one in the center of the front looking to the Mus- 
kingum River, was a belfry. The chamber beneath 
was occupied, by Winthrop Sargeant, as an office, 
he being Secretary to the Governor, and perform- 
ing the duties of the office during St. Clair's ab- 
sence. This room projected over the gateway, like 
a block-house, and was intended for the protection 
of the gate beneath, in time of an assault. At 
the outer corner of each block-house was erected a 
bastion, standing on four stout timbers. The floor 
of the bastion was a little above the lower story of 
the block-house. They were square, and built up 
to the height of a man's head, so that, when he 
looked over, he stepped on a narrow platform or 
" banquet " running around thesides.of the bulwark. 
Port-holes were made, for musketry as well as for 
artillery, a single piece of which was mounted in 
the southwest and northeast bastions. In these, 
the sentries were regularly posted every night, as 
more convenient than the towers ; a door leading 
into them from the upper story .of the block-houses. 
The lower room of the southwest block-house was 
occupied as a guard-house. 

" Running from corner to corner of the block- 
houses was a row of palisades, sloping outward, 






and resting on stout rails. Twenty feet in advance 
of these, was a row of very strong and large pick- 
ets, set upright in the earth. Grateways through 
these, admitted the inmates of the garrison. A 
few feet beyond the row of outer palisades was 
placed a row of abattis, made from the tops and 
branches of trees, sharpened and pointing outward, 
so that it would have been very difficult for an 
enemy to have penetrated within their outworks. 
The dwelling-houses occupied a space from fifteen 
to thirty feet each, and were sufficient for the ac- 
commodation of forty or fifty families, and did 
actually contain from, two hundred to three hun- 
dred persons during the Indian war. 

" Before the Indians commenced hostilities, the 
block-houses were occupied as follows : The south- 
west one, by the family of Gov. St. Clair; the 
northeast one as an office for the Directors of the 
Company. The area within the walls was one 
hundred and forty-four feet square, and afibrded a 
fine parade ground. In the center, was a well 
eighty feet in depth, for the supply of water to the 
inhabitants, in case of a siege. A large sun-dial 
stood for many years in the square, placed on a 
handsome post, and gave note of the march of 

" After the war commenced, a regular military 
corps was organized, and a guard constantly kept 
night and day. The whole establishment formed 
a very strong work, and reflected great credit on 
the head that planned it. It was in a manner im- 
pregnable to the attacks of Indians, and none 
but a regular army with cannon could have reduced 
it. The Indians possessed no such an armament. 

" The garrison .stood on the verge of that beauti- 
ful plain overlooking the Muskingum, on which 
are seated those celebrated remains of antiquity, 
erected probably for a similar purpose — ^the defense 
of the inhabitants. The ground descends into shal- 
low ravines on the north and south sides ; on the 
west is an abrupt descent to the river bottoms or 
alluvium, and the east passed out to a level plain. 
On this, the ground was cleared of trees beyond 
the reach of rifle shots, so as to affiard no shelter 
to a hidden foe. Extensive fields of corn were 
grown in the midst of the standing girdled trees be- 
yond, in after years. The front wall of palisades 
was about one hundred and fifty yards from the 
Muskingum River. The appearance of the fort 
from without was imposing, at a little distance re- 
sembling the military castles of .the feudal ages. 
Between the outer palisades and the river were 
laid out neat gardens for the use of Gov. St. Clair 

and his Secretary, with the officers of the Com- 
pany. • 

"Opposite the fort, on- the shore of the river, 
was built a substantial timber wharf, at which was 
moored a fine cedar barge for twelve rowers, built 
by Capt. Jonathan Devol, for Gen. Putnam; a 
number of pirogues, and the light canoes of the 
country ; and last, not least, the Mayflower, or 
' Adventure Galley,' in which the first detach- 
ments of colonists were transported from the shores 
of the ' Yohibgany ' to the banks of the Muskingum. 
In these, especia,lly the canoes, during the war, . 
most of the communications were carried on between 
the settlements of the Company and the more re- 
mote towns above on the Ohio River. Traveling 
by land was very hazardous to any but the rangers 
or spies. There were no roads, nor bridges across 
the creeks, and, for many years after the war had 
ceased, the traveling was nearly all done by canoes 
on the river." 

Thus the first settlement of Ohio provided for 
its safety and comfort, and provided also for that 
of emigrants who came to share the toils of the 

The next spring, the influx of emigration was 
so great that other settlements were determined, 
and hence arose the colonies of Belpre, Waterford 
and Duck Creek, where they began to clear land, sow 
and plant crops, and build houses and stockades. 
At Belpre (French for "beautiful meadow"), were 
built three stockades, the upper, lower and middle, 
the last of which was called '-' Farmers' Castle," 
and stood on the banks of the Ohio, nearly oppo- 
site an island, afterward famous in Western history . 
as Blennerhasset's Island, the scene of Burr's con- 
spiracy.. Among the persons settling at the upper 
stockade, were Capts. Dana and Stone, Col. Bent, 
WilUam Browning, Judge Foster, John Rowse, 
Israel Stone and a Mr. Keppel. At the Farmers' 
Castle, were Cols. Gushing and' Fisher, Maj. Has- 
kell, Aaron Waldo Putnam, Mr. Sparhawk,' and, 
it is believed, George and Israel Putnam, Jr. At 
the lower, were Maj. Goodale, Col. Rice, Esquire 
Pierce, Judge Israel Loring, Deacon Miles, Maj. 
Bradford and Mr. Goodenow. In the summer of 
1789, Col. Ichabod Nye and some others, built a 
block -house at Newberry, below Belpre. Col. Nye 
sold his lot there to Aaron W. Clough, who, with 
Stephen Guthrie, Joseph Leavins, Joel Oakes, 
Eleazer Curtis, Mr. Denham J. Littleton and Mr. 
Brown, was located at that place. 

"Every exertion possible," says Dr. Hildreth, 
who has preserved the above tiames and incidents, 





" for men in these circumstances, waa made to se- 
cure food for future difficulties. Col. Oliver, Maj. 
Hatfield White and John Dodge, of the Water- 
ford settlement, began mills on Wolf Creek, about 
throe miles from the fort, and got thorn running; 
and these, the first mills in Ohio, were never de- 
stroyed during the subsequent Indian war, though 
the proprietors removed their familes to the fort 
at Marietta. Col. E. Sproat and Enoch Shep- 
herd began mills on Duck Creek, three miles from 
Marietta, from the completion of which they were 
driven by the, Indian war. Thomas Stanley be- 
gan mills farther up, near the Duck Creek settle- 
ment. These were likewise unfinished. The Ohio 
Company built a large horse mill near Campus 
Martius, and soon after a floating mill." 

The autumn before the settlements at Belpre, 
Duck Creek and Waterford, were made, a colony 
was planted near the mouth of the Little Miami 
River, on a tract of ten thousand acres, purchased 
fromSymmes by Maj. Benjamin Stites. Inthepre- 
ceding pages may be found a history of Symmes' 
purchase. This colony may be counted the second 
settlement in the State. Soon after the colony at 
Marietta was founded, steps were taken to occupy 
separate portions of Judge Symmes' purchase, be- 
tween the Miami Rivers. Three parties were 
formed for this purpose, but, owing to various 
delays, chiefly in getting the present colony stead- 
fast and safe from future encroachments by the 
savages, they did not get started till late in the fall. 
The first of these parties, consisting of fifteen or 
twenty men, led by Maj. Stites, landed at the 
mouth of the Little Miami in November, 1788, 
and, constructing a log fort, began to lay out a 
village, called by them Columbia. It soon grew 
into prominence, and, before winter had thoroughly 
set in, they were well prepared for a frontier life. 
In the party were Cols. Spencer and Brown, Maj. 
Gano and Kibbey, Judges Goforth and Foster, 
Revf John Smith, Francis Dunlavy, Capt. Flinn, 
Jacob White, John Riley, and Mr. Hubbell. 

All these were men of energy and enterprise, 
and, with their comrades, were more numerous 
than either of the other parties, who commenced 
their settlements below them on the Ohio. This 
village was also, at first, more flourishing; and, for 
two or three years, contained more inhabitants 
than any other in the Miami purchase. 

The second Miami party was formed at Lime- 
stone, under Matthias Denham and Robert Pat- 
terson, and consisted of twelve or fifteen persons. 
They landed on the north bank of the Ohio, oppo- 

site the mouth of the Licking River, the 24th of 
December, 1788. They intended to establish a 
station and lay out a town on a plan prepared at 
Limestone. Some statements afiirm that the town 
was to be called " L-os-auti-ville," by a romantic 
school-teacher named Filson. However, be this as 
It may, Mr. Filson was, unfortunately for himself, 
not long after, slain by the Indians, and, with him 
probably, the name disappeared. He was to have 
one-third interest in the proposed city, which, 
when his death occurred, was transferred to Israel 
Ludlow, and a new plan of a city adopted. Israel 
Ludlow surveyed the proposed town, whose lots were 
principally donated to settlers upon certain condi- 
tions as to settlement and improvement, and the 
embryo city named Cincinnati. Gov. St. Clair 
very likely had something to do with the naming 
of the village, and, by some, it is asserted that he 
changed the name from Losantiville to Cincinnati, 
when he created the county of Hamilton the en- 
suing winter! The original purchase of the city's 
site was made by Mr. Denham. It included about 
eight hundred acres, for which he paid 5 shillings 
per acre in Continental certificates, then worth, in 
specie, about 5 shillings per pound, gross weight. 
Evidently, the original site was a good investment, 
could Mr. Denham have lived long enough to see 
its present condition. 

The third party of settlers for the Miami pur- 
chase, were under the care of Judge Symmes, 
himself. They left Limestone, January 29, 1789, 
and were much delayed on their downward jour- 
ney by the ice in the river. They reached the 
" Bend," as it was then known, early in February. 
The Judge had intended to found a city here, 
which, in time, would be the rival of the Atlantic 
cities. As each of the three settlements aspired 
to the same position, no little rivalry soon mani- 
fested itself The Judge named his proposed city 
North Bend, from the fact that it was the most 
northern bend in the Ohio below the mouth of the 
Great Kanawha. These three settlements ante- 
dated, a few months, those made near Marietta, 
already described. They so soon after, partly 
from the extreme desire of Judge Symmes to settle 
his purchase, and induce emigration here instead 
of on the Ohio Company's purchase. The Judge 
labored earnestly for this purpose and to further 
secure him in his title to the land he had acquired, 
all of which he had so far been unable to retain, 
owing to his inability to meet his payments. 

All these emigrants came down the river in the 
fiat-boats of the day, rude afiairs, sometimes called 





" Arks,'' and tlien the only safe mode of travel in 
the West. 

Judge Symmes found he must provide for the 
safety of the settlers on his purchase, and, after 
earnestly soliciting Gen. Harmar, commander of 
the Western posts, succeeded in obtaining a de- 
tachment of forty-eight men, under Capt, Kearsey, 
to protect the improvements just commencing on 
thS Miami. 'This detachment reached Limestone 
in December, 1788. Part was at once sent for- 
ward to guard Maj. Stites and his pioneers. Judge 
Symmes and his party started in January, and, 
about February 2, reached Columbia, where the 
Captain expected to find a fort erected for his use 
and shelter. The flood on the river, however, de- 
feated his purpose, and, as he was unprepared to 
erect another, he determined to go on down to the 
garrison, at the falls at Louisville. Judge Symmes 
was strenuously opposed to his conduct, as it left 
the colonies unguarded, but, all to no purpose ; the 
Captain and his command, went to Louisville early 
in March, and left the Judge and his settlement 
to protect themselves. Judge Symmes immedi- 
ately sent a strong letter to Maj. Willis, command- 
ing at the Falls, complainilig of the conduct 
of Capt. Kearsey, representing the exposed situ- 
ation of the Miami settlements, stating the indi- 
cations of hostility manifested by the Indians, 
and requesting a guard to be sent to the Bend. 
This request was at once granted, and Ensign 
Luce, with seventeen or eighteen soldiers, sent. 
They were at the settlement but a .short time, 
when they were attacked by Indians, and one of 
their number killed, and four or five wounded. 
They repulsed the savages and saved the set- 

The site of Symmes City, for such he designed it 
should ultimately be called, was above the reach of 
water, and suflSciently level to admit of a conven- 
ient settlement. The city laid out by Symmes 
was truly magnificent on paper, and promised in 
the future to fulfill his most ardent hopes. The 
plat included the village, and extended across the 
peninsula between the Ohio and Miami Rivers. 
Each settler on this plat was promised a lot if he 
would improve it, and in conformity to the stipu- 
lation, -Judge Symmes soon found a large number 
of persons applying for residence. As the number 
of these adventurers increased, in consequence of 
this provision and the protection of the military, 
the Judge was induced to lay out another village 
six or seven miles up the river, which he called 
South Bend, where he disposed of some donation 

lots, but the project failing, the village site was de- 
serted, and converted into a farm. 

During all the time these various events were 
transpiring, but little trouble was experienced with 
the Indians. They were not yet disposed to evince 
hostile feelings. This would have been their time, 
but, not realizing the true intent of the whites until 
it was too late to conquer them, they allowed them 
to become prepared to withstand a warfare, and in 
the end wereobliged to suifer their hunting-grounds 
to be taken from them, and made the homes of a 
race destined to entirely supercede them in the 
New World. 

By the means sketched in the foregoing pages, 
were the three settlements on the Miami made. By 
the time those adjacent to Marietta were well estab- 
lished, these were firmly fixed, each one striving to 
become the rival city all felt sure was to arise. For 
a time it was a matter of doubt which of the rivals, 
Columbia, North Bend or Cincinnati, would event- 
ually become the chief seat of business. 

In the beginning, Columbia, the eldest of the 
three, took the lead, both in number of its in- 
habitants and the convenience and appearance of 
its dwellings. For a time it was a flourishing place, 
and many believed it would become the great busi- 
ness town of the Miami country. That apparent 
fact, however, lasted but a short time. The garri- 
son was moved to Cincinnati, Fort Washington 
built there, and in spite of all that Maj. Stites, or 
Judge Symmes could do, that place became the 
metropolis. Fort Washington, the most extensive 
garrison in the West, was built by Maj. Doughty, 
in the summer of 1789, and from that time the 
growth and future greatness of Cincinnati were 

The first house" in the city was built on Front 
street, east of and near Main street. It was 
simply a strong log cabin, and was erected of the 
forest trees cleared away, from the ground on which 
it stood. , The lower part of the town was covered 
with sycamore and maple trees, and the upper with 
beech and oak. Through this dense forest the 
streets were laid out, and their corners marked on 
the trees. 

The settlements on the Miami had become 
sufficiently numerous to warrant a separate county, 
and, in January, 1790, Gov. St. Clair and his 
Secretary arrived in Cincinnati, and organized the 
county of Hamilton, so named in honor of the 
illustrious statesman by that name. It included 
all the country north of the Ohio, between the 
Miamis, as far as a line running " due east from the 





Standing Stone forks " of Big Miami to its inter- 
section with the Little Miami. The erection of 
the new county, and the appointment of Cincin- 
nati to be the seat of justice, gave the town a fresh 
impulse, and aided greatly in' its growth. 

Through the summer, but little interruption in 
the growth of the settlements occurred. The 
Indians had permitted the erection of defensive 
works in their midst, and could not now destroy 
them. They were also engaged in traffic with the 
whites, and, though they evinced signs of discon- 
tent at their settlement and occupation of the 
country, yet did not openly attack them. The 
truth was, they saw plainly the whites WQre always 
prepared, and no opportunity was given them to 
plunder and destroy. The Indian would not 
attack unless success wka almost sure. An oppor- 
tunity, unfortunately, came, and with it the hor- 
rors of an Indian war. 

In the autumn of 1790, a company of thirty- 
six men went from Marietta to a place on the 
Muskingum known as the Big Bottom. Here 
they built a blockrhouse, on the east bank of the 
river, four miles above the mouth of Meigs Creek. 
They were chiefly young, single men, but little 
acquainted with Indian warfare or military rules. 
The savages had given signs that an attack on the 
settlement was meditated, and several of the know- 
ing ones at the strongholds strenuously opposed 
any new settlements that fall, advising their post- 
ponement until the next spring, when the question 
of peace or war would probably be settled. Even 
Gen. Putnam and the IHrectors of the Ohio Com- 
pany advised the postponement pf the settlement 
until the next spring. 

. The young men were impatient and restless, and 
declared themselves able to protect their fort 
agaidst any number of assailants. They might 
have easily done so, had they taken the necessary 
precautions ; but, after they had erected a rude 
block-house of unchinked logs, they began to pass 
the time in various pursuits; setting no guard, and 
taking no precautionary measures, they left them- 
selves an easy prey to any hostile savages that 
might choose to come and attack them. 

About twenty rods from the block-house, and a 
little bapk from the bank of the, two men, 
Francis and Isaac Choate, members of the com- 
pany, had erected a cabin, and commenced clearing 
lots. Thomas Shaw, a hired laborer, and James 
Patten, another of the associates, lived with them. 
About the same distance below the block-house 
was an old "Tomahawk Improvement" and a 

small cabin, which two men, Asa and Eleazur 
Bullard, had fitted up and occupied. The Indian 
war-path, from Sandusky to the mouth of the 
Muskingum, passed along the opposite shore of 
the river. , 

" The Indians, who, during the summer," sayp 
Dr. Hildreth,- " had been hunting and loitering 
about the Wolf Creek and Plainfield settlements, 
holding frequent and friendly intercourse with the 
settlers, selling them venison and bear's meat in ex- 
change for green corn and vegetables, had with- 
drawn and gone up the river, early in the au- 
tumn, to their towns, preparatory to going into 
winter quarters. They very seldom entered on 
any wariike expeditions during the cold weather. 
But they had watched the gradual encroach- 
ment of the whites and planned an expedition 
against them. They saw them in fancied security 
in their cabins, and thought their capture an easy 
task. It is said they were not aware of the Big 
Bottom settlement until they came in sight of it, 
on the opposite shore of the river, in the afternoon.. 
From a high hill opposite the garrison, they had a 
view of all that part of the bottom, and could see 
how the men were occupied and what was doing 
about the block-house. It was not proiected with 
palisades or pickets, and none of the men were 
aware or prepared for an attack. Having laid 
their plans, about twilight they crossed the river 
above the garrison, on the ice, and divided their 
men into two parties — the larger one to attack the 
block-house, the smaller one to capture the cabins. 
As the Indians cautiously approached the cabin 
they found the inmates at supper. Part entered, 
addressed the whites in a friendly manner, but 
soon manifesting their designs, made them all pris- 
oners, tieing them with leather thongs they found 
in the cabin." 

At the block-house the attack was far different. 
A stout Mohawk suddenly burst open the door, 
the first intimation the inmates had of the pres- 
ence of the foe, and while he held it open his 
comrades shot down those that were within. Rush- 
ing in, the deadly tomahawk completed the on- 
slaught. In the assault, one of the savages was 
struck by the vAfe of Isaac Woods, with an ax, 
but only slightly injured. The heroic won\an was 
immediately slain. All the men but two were 
slain before they had time to secure their arms, 
thereby paying for their failure to properly secure 
themselves, with their lives. The two excepted 
were John Stacy and his brother Philip, a lad six- 
teen years of age. John escaped to the roof. 







where lie was shot by the Indians, while begging 
for his life. The firing at the block-house alarmed 
the BuUards in their cabin, and hastily barrhig the 
door, and securing their arms and ammunition, they 
fled to the woods, and escaped. After the slaughter 
was over, the Indians began to collect the plunder, 
and in doing so discovered the lad • Philip Stacy. 
They were about to dispatch him, but his entrea^ 
ties softened the heart of one of the chiefs, who 
took him as a captive with the intention of adopt- 
ing him into his family. The savages then piled 
the dead bodies on the floor, covered them with 
other portions of it not needed for that purpose, 
and set fire to the whole. The building, being 
made of green logs, did not burn, the flames con- 
suming only the floors and roof, leaving the walls 

There were twelve persons killed in this attack, 
all of whom were in the prime of life, and valuable 
aid to the settlements. They were well provided 
with arms, and had they taken the necessary pre- 
cautions, always pressed upon them when visited 
by the older ones from Marietta, they need not 
have suifered so terrible a fate. 

The Indians, exultant over their horrible victory, 
went on to Wolf's mills, but here they found the 
people prepared, and; after reconnoitering the place, 
made their retreat, at early dawn, to the great re- 
lief of the inhabitants. Their number was never 
definitely known. 

The news reached Marietta aild its adjacent 
settlements soon after the massacre occurred, and 
struck terror and dismay into the hearts of all. 
Many had brothers and sons in the ill-fated party, 
and mourned their loss. Neither did they know 
what place would fall next. The Indian hostihties 
had begun, and they could only hope for peace 
when the savages were effectually conquered. 

The next day, Capt. Rogers led a party of men 
over to the Big Bottom. It was, indeed, a melan- 
choly sight to the poor borderers, as they knew not 
now how soon the same fate might befall them- 
selves. The fire had so disfigured their comrades 
that but two, Ezra Putnam and William Jones, 
were recognized. As the ground was frozen out- 
side, a hole was dug in the earth underneath the 
block-house floor, and the bodies consigned to one 
grave. No further attempt was niade to settle 
here till after the peace of 1795. 

The outbreak of Indian hostilities put a check 
on further settlements. Those that were estab- 
lished were put in a more active state of defense, 
and every preparation made that could be made 

for the impending crisis al^felt sure must come. 
Either the Indians must go, or the whites must 
retreat. A few hardy and adventurous persons 
ventured out into the woods and made settle- 
ments, but even these were at the imminent risk 
of their lives, many of them perishing in the 

The Indian war that followed is given fiilly in 
preceding pages. It may .be briefly sketched by 
stating that the first campaign, under Gen Har- 
mar, ended in the defeat of his army at the Indian 
villages on the. Miami of the lake, and the rapid 
retreat to Fort Washington. St. Clair was next 
commissioned to lead an army of nearly three thou- 
sand men, but these were furiously attacked at 
break of day, on the morning of November 4, 
1791, and utterly defeated. Indian outrages 
sprung out anew after each defeat, and the. borders 
were in a continual state of alarm. The most ter- 
rible sufferings were endured by prisoners in the 
hands of the savage foe, who thought to annihilate 
the whites. 

The army was at once re-organized. Gen. An- 
thony Wayne put in command by Washington, 
and a vigorous campaign inaugurated. Though 
the savages had been given great aid by the Brit- 
ish, in direct violation of the treaty of 1783, Gen. 
Wayne pursued them so vigorously that they could 
not withstand his army, and, the 20th of August, 
1794, defeated them, and utterly annihilated their 
forces, breaking up their camps, and laying waste 
their country, in some places under the guns of 
the British forts. The victory showed them the 
hopelessness, of contending against the whites, and 
led their chiefs to sue for peace. The British, as 
at former times, deserted them; and they were again 
alone, contending against an invincible foe. A 
grand council was held at Greenville the 3d day 
of August, 1795, where eleven of the most power- 
fill chiefs made peace with Gen. Wayne on terms 
of his own dictation. The boundary established 
by the old treaty of Fort Mcintosh was confirmed, 
and extended westward, from Loramie's to Fort 
Recovery, and thence southwest to the mouth of 
the Kentucky River. He also purchased all the 
territory not before ceded, within certain limits, 
comprehending, in all, about four-fifths of the State 
of Ohio. The line was long known as " The Green- 
ville Treaty line." Upon these, and a few other 
minor conditions, the .United States received the 
Indians under their protection, gave them a large 
number of presents, and practically closed the war 
with the savages. 

9 \ ' 




The only Brttlementof any consequence made dur- 
ing the Indian war, was that on the plat of Hamilton, 
laid out by Israel Ludlow in December, 1794. Soon 
after, Darius C. Orcutt, John G-reen, William Mc- 
Clenuan, John Sutherland, John Torrence, Benjamin 
F.Randolph, Benjamin Davis, Isaac Wiles, Andrew 
Christy and William Hubert, located here. The 
town was laid out under the name of Fairfield, but 
was known only a short time by that name. Until 
1801, all the lands on the west side of the Great 
Miami were owned by the General Government ; 
hence, until after that date, no improvements were 
made there. A single log cabin stood there until 
the sale of lands in April, 1801, when a company 
purchased the site of Rossville, and, in March, 
1804, laid out that town, and, before a year had 
passed, the town and country about it was well 

The close of the war, in 1795, insured peace, 
and, from that date, Hamilton and that part of the 
Miami Valley grew remarkably, fast. In 1803, 
Butler County was formed, and Hamilton made 
the county seat. 

On the site of Hamilton, St. Clair built Fort 
Hamilton in 1791. For some time it was under 
the command of Maj. Rudolph, a cruel, arbitrary 
man, who was displaced by Gen. Wayne, and who, 
it is said, perished ignobly on the high seas, at the 
hands of some Algerine pirates, a fitting end to a 
man who caused, more than once, the death of 
men under his control for minor offenses. 

On the return of peace, no part of Ohio grew 
more rapidly than the Miami Valley, especially 
that part comprised in Butler County. 

While the war with the Indians continued, but 
little extension of settlements was made in the 
State. It was too perilous, and the settlers pre- 
ferred the security of the block-house or to engage 
with' the army. Still, however, a few bold spirits 
ventured away from the settled parts of the Terri- 
tory, and began life in the wilderness. In tracing 
the histories of these settlements, attention will be 
paid to the order in which they were made. They 
will be given somewhat in detail until the war of 
1812, after which time they become too numerous 
to follow. 

Thy settlements made in Washington — Marietta 
and adjacent colonies — and Hamilton Counties 
have already been given. ' The settlement at Gal- 
lia is also noted, hence, the narration can be re- 
sumed where it ends prior to the Indian war of 
1795. Before this war occurred, there were three 
small, settlements made, however, in addition to 

those in Washington and Hamilton Counties, 
They were in what are now Adams, Belmont and 
MorgfJn Counties. They were block-house settle- 
ments, and were in a continual state of defense. 
The first of these, Adams, was settled in the winter 
of 1790-91 by Gen. Nathaniel Massie, near where 
Manchester now is. Gen. Massie determined to 
settle here in the Virginia Military Tract — in the 
winter of 1790, and sent notice throughout Ken- 
tucky and other Western settlements that he would 
give to each of the first twenty-five families who 
would settle in the town' he proposed laying out, 
one in-lot, one out^lot and one hundred acres of 
land. Such liberal terms were soon accepted, and 
in a short time thirty families were ready to go 
with him. After various consultations with his 
friends, the bottom on the Ohio River, opposite 
the lower of the Three Islands, was selected as 
the most eligible spot. Here Massie fixed his sta- 
tion, and laid ofi' into lots a town, now called 
Manchester. The little confederacy, with Massie 
at the helm, went to work with spirit. Cabins 
were raised, and by the middle of March, 
1791, the whole town was inclosed with strong 
pickets, with block-houses at each angle for de- 

This was the first settlement in the bounds of 
the Virginia District, and the fourth one in the 
State. Although in the midst of a savage foe, 
now inflamed with war, and in the midst of a 
cruel conflict, the settlement at Manchester suf- 
fered less than any of its cotemporaries. This 
was, no doubt, due to the watchftil care of its in- 
habitants, who were inured to the rigors of a front- 
ier life, and who well knew the danger about them. 
" These were the Beasleys, Stouts, Washburns, 
Ledoms, Edgingtons, Denings, Ellisons, Utts, 
McKenzies, Wades, and others, who were fully 
equal to the Indians in all the savage arts and 
stratagems of border war." 

As soon as they had completed preparations for 
defense, the whole population went to work and 
cleared the lowest of the Three Islands, and planted 
it in corn. The soil of the island was very rich, 
and produced abundantly. The woods supplied an 
abundance of game, while the river furnished a 
variety of excellent fish. The inhabitants thus 
found their simple wants fully supplied. Their 
nearest neighbors in the new Territory were at 
Columbia, and at the French settlement at Gallip- 
olis ; but with these, owing to the state of the 
country and the Indian war, they could hold little, 
if any, intercourse. 

9 > 





The station being established, Massie continued 
to make locations and surveys. Great precautions 
were necessary to avoid the Indians, and even the 
closest vigilance did not always avail, as the ever- 
watchftd foe was always ready to spring upon the 
settlement, could an unguarded, moment be ob- 
served. During one of the spring months, Gen. 
Massie, Israel Donalson, WUliam Ly tie and James 
Little, while out on a survey, were surprised, and 
Mr. Donalson captured, the others escaping at 
great peril. Mr. Donalson escaped during the 
march to the Indian town, and made his way to 
the town of Cincinnati, after suffering great hard- 
ships, and almost perishing from hunger. In the 
spring of 1793, the settlers at Manchester com- 
menced clearing the out-lots of the town. While 
doing so, an incident occurred, which shows the 
danger to which they were daily exposed. It is 
thus related in Howe's Collections : 

" Mr. Andrew Ellison, one of the settlers, 
cleared an out-lot immediately adjoining the fort. 
He had completed the cutting of the timber, rolled 
the logs together, and set them on fire. The next 
morning, before daybreak, Mr. Ellison opened one 
of the gates of the fort, and went out to throw his 
logs together. By the time he had finished the 
job, a number of the heaps blazed up brightly, and, 
as he was passing from one to the other, he ob- 
served, by the light of the fires, three men walking 
briskly toward him. This did not alarm him in 
the least, although, he said, they were dark-skinned 
fellows ; yet he concluded they were the Wades, 
whose complexions were very dark, going early to 
hunt. He continued to right his log-heaps, until 
one of the fellows seized him by the arms, calling 
out, in broken English, ' How do ? how do ? ' He 
instantly looked in their faces, and, to his surprise 
~ and horror, found himself in the clutches of three 
Indians. To resist was useless. 

" The Indians quickly moved off with him in 
the direction of Paint Creek. When breakfast 
was ready, Mrs. Ellison sent one of her children 
to ask its father home ; but he could not be found 
at the log-heaps. His absence created no immedi- 
ate alarm, as it was thought he might have started 
to hunt, afcer completing his work. Dinner-time 
arrived, and, Ellison not returning, the family 
bepame uneasy, and began to suspect some acci- 
dent had happened to him. His gun-rack was 
examined, and there hung his rifles and his pouch. 
Gen. Massie raised a party, made a circuit around 
the place, finding, after some search, the trails of 
four men, one of whom had on ghoes; and the 

fact that Mr. Ellison was a prisoner now became 
apparent. As it was almost night at the time the 
trail was discovered, the party returned to the 
station. Early the next morning, preparations 
were made by Gen. Massie and his friends to con- 
tinue the search. In doing this, they found great 
difficulty, as it was so eariy in the spring that the 
vegetation was not gro\fn sufficiently to show 
plainly the trail made by" the savages, who took 
the precaution to keep on high and dry ground, 
where their feet would make little or no impres- 
sion. The party were, however, as unerring as a 
pack of hounds, and followed the trail to Paint 
Creek, when they found the Indians gained so 
fast on them that pursuit was useless. 

"The Indians took their prisoner to Upper 
Sandusky, where he was compelled to run the 
gantlet. As he was a large, and not very active, 
man, he received a severe flogging. He was then 
taken to Lower Sandusky, and again compelled to 
run the gantlet. He was then taken to Detroit, 
where he was ransomed by a British officer for 
1100. The officer proved a good friend to him. 
He sent him to Montreal, whence he returned 
home before the close of the summer, much to the 
joy of his family and friends, whose feelings can 
only be imagined." 

"Another incident occurred about this time," 
says the same volume, "which so aptly illustrates 
the danger of frontier life, that it well deserves a 
place in the history of the settlements in Ohio. 
John and Asahel Edgington, with a comrade, 
started out on a hunting expeditipn toward Brush 
Creek. They camped out. six miles in a northeast 
direction from where West Union now stands, and 
near the site of Treber's tavern, on the road froni- 
Chillicothe to Maysville. They had good success 
in hunting, killing a number of deer and bears. 
Of the deer killed, they saved the skins and hams 
alone. They fleeced the bears; that is, they cut 
off all the meat which adhered to the hide, with- 
out skinning, and left the bone's as a skeleton. 
They hung up the proceeds of their hunt, on a scaf- 
fold out of the reach of wolves and other wild ani- 
mals, and returned to Manchester for pack-horses. 
No one returned to the camp with the Edgingtons. 
As it was late in Deceniber, few apprehended dan- 
ger, as the winter season was usually a time of re- 
pose from Indian incursions. When the Edgingtons 
arrived at their camp, they alighted from their 
horses and were preparing to start a fire, when a 
platoon of Indians fired upon them at a distance 
of not more than twenty paces. They had 





evidently found the results of the white men's labor, 
and expected they would return tor it, and pre- 
pared to waylay them. Asahel Edgington fell 
dead. John was more fortunate. The sharp 
crack of the rifles, and the horrible yells of the 
savages as. they leaped from their place of ambush, 
frightened the horses, who took the track for 
home at full speed. John was very active on foot, 
and now an opportunity ofi"ered which required' his 
utmost speed. The moment the Indians leaped 
from their hiding-place, they threw down their 
guns and took after him, yelling with all their 
power. Edgington- did not run a booty race. For 
about a mile, the savages stepped in his tracks al- 
most before the bending grass could rise. The 
upUfted tomahawk was frequently so near his head 
that he thought he felt its edge. He exerted 
himself to his utmost, while the Indians strove 
with all their might to catch him. Finally, he be- 
gan to gain on his pursuers, and, after a long race,- 
distanced them and made his escape, safely reach- 
ing home. This, truly, was a most fearful and 
well-contested race. The big Shawanee chief, Capt. 
John, who headed the Indians on this occasion, 
after peace was made, in n'arrating the particulars, 
said, " The white man who ran away was a smart 
fellow. The white man run ; and I run. He run 
and run ; at last, the white man run clear off from 

The settlement, despite its dangers, prospered, 
and after the close of the war continued to grow 
rapidly. In two years aft«r peace was declared, 
Adams County was erected by proclamation of 
Gov. St. Clair, the next year court was held, and 
in 1804, West Union was made the county seat. 

During the war, a settlement was commenced 
near the present town of Bridgeport, in Belmont 
County, by Capt. Joseph Belmont, a noted Dela- 
ware Revolutionary officer, who, because his State 
could ftirnish only one company, could rise no 
higher than Captain of that company, and hence 
always maintained that grade. He settled on a 
beautiful knoll near the present county seat, but 
erelong suffered from a night attack by the In- 
dians, who, though unable to drive him and his 
companions from the cabin or conquer them, 
wounded some of them badly, one or two mortally, 
and caused the Captain to leave the frontier and 
return to Newark, Del. The attack was made 
in the spring of 1791, and a short time after, 
the Captain, having provided for the safety of his 
family, accepted a commission in St. Clair's army, 
and lost his life at the defeat of the General in 

November. Shortly after the Captain settled, a 
fort, called Dillie's Fort, was built on the Ohio, 
opposite the mouth of Grave Creek. About two 
hundred and fifty yards below this fort, an old 
man, named Tato, was shot down at his cabin door 
by the Indians, just as he was in the act of entering 
the housp. His body was pulled in by his daugh- 
ter-in-law and grandson, who made an heroic de- 
fense. They were overpowered, the woman slain, 
and the boy badly wounded. He, however, man- 
aged to secrete himself' and afterward escaped to 
the fort. The Indians, twelve or thirteen in num- 
ber, went oif unmolested, though the men in the 
fort saw the whole transaction and could have 
punished them. Why they did not was never 

On Captina Creek in this same county, occurred, 
in May, 1794, the "battle of Captina," a fa- 
mous local skirmish between some Virginians from 
Fort Baker, and a party of Indians. Though the 
Indians largely outnumbered the whites, they were 
severely punished, and compelled to abandon the 
contest, losing several of their bravest warriors. 

These were the only settlements made until 
1795, the close of the war. Even these, as it will 
be observed from the foregoing pages, were tem- 
porary in all cases save one, and were maintained 
at a great risk, and the loss of many valuable lives. 
They were made in the beginning of the war,and such 
were their experiences that further attempts were 
abandoned until the treaty of Greenville was made, 
or until the prospects for peace and safety were 

No sooner, however, had the prospect of quiet 
been established, than a revival of emigration be- 
gan. Before the war it had been large, now it 
was largely increased. • 

Wayne's treaty of peace with the Indians was 
made at Greenville, in what is now Darke County, 
the 3d of August, 1795. The number of Indians 
present was estimated at 1,300, divided among the 
principal nations as follows : 180 Wyandots, 381 
Delawares, 143 Shawanees, 45 Ottawas, 46 Chip- 
pewas, 240 Pottawatomies, 73 Miamis and Eel 
River, 12 Weas and Piankeshaws, and 10 Kicka- 
poos and Kaskaskias. The principal chiefs were 
Tarhe, Buckongahelas, Black Hoof, Blue Jacket 
and Little Turtle. Most of them had been tam- 
pered with by the British agents and traders, but 
all had been so thoroughly chastised by Wayne, and 
found that the British only used them as tools, 
that they were quite anxious to make peace with 
the " Thirteen Fires," By the treaty, former ones 

® W- 




were established, the boundary lines confirmed and 
enlarged, an exchange and delivery of prisoners 
effected, and permanent peace assured. 

In the latter part of September, after the treaty 
of Greenville, Mr. Bedell, frora New Jersey, 
selected a site for a home in what is now Warren 
County, at a place since known as " Bedell's Sta- 
rion," about a mile south of Union Village. Here 
he ferected a block-house, as a defense against the 
Indians, among whom were many renegades as 
among the whites, who would not respect the 
terms of the treaty. Whether Mr. Bedell was 
alone that fall, or whether he was joined by others, 
is not now accurately known. However that may 
be, he was not long left to himself; for, ere a year 
had elapsed, quite a number of settlements were 
made in this part of the Territory. Soon after 
his settlement was made, Gen. David Sutton, 'Capt. 
Nathan Kelley and others began pioneer life at 
Deerfield, in the same locality, and, before three 
years had gone by, a large number of New Jersey 
people were established in their homes; and, in 
1803, the county was formed from Hamilton. 
Among the early settlers at Deerfield, was Capt. 
Robert Benham, who, with a companion, in 1779, 
sustained themselves many days when the Captain 
had lost the use of his legs, and his companion 
his arms, from musketr-balls fired by the hands of 
the Indians. They were with a large party com- 
manded by Maj. Rodgers, and were furiously 
attacked by an immense number of savages, and 
all but a few slain. The event happened during 
the war of ^he Revolution, before any attempt 
was made to settle the Northwest Territory. The 
party were going down the Ohio, probably to the 
falls, and were attacked when near the site of 
Cincinnati. As mentioned, these two men sus- 
tained each other many days, the one having per- 
fect legs doing the necessary walking, carrying his 
comrade to water, driving up game for him to 
shoot, and any other duties necessary ; while the 
one who had the use of his arms could dress his 
companion's and his own wounds, kill and cook 
the game, and perform his share. They were 
rescued, finally, by a flat-boat, whose occupants, 
for awhile, passed them, fearing a decoy, but, 
becoming convinced that such was not the case, 
took them on down to Louisville, where they were 
nursed into perfect health. 

A settlement was made near the present town of 
Lebanon, the county seat of Warren County, in 
the spring of 1796, by Henry Taylor, who built a 
mill one mile west of the town site, on Turtle 

Creek. Soon after, he was joined by Ichabod 
Corwin, John Osbourn, Jacob Vorhees, Samuel 
Shaw, Daniel Bonte and a Mr. Manning. When 
Lebanon was laid out, in 1803, the two-story log 
house built in 1797 by Ichabod Corwin was the 
only building on the plat. It was occupied by 
Ephraim Hathaway as a tavern. He had a black 
horse painted on an iminense board for a sign, and 
continued in business here till 1810. The same 
year the town was laid out, a store was opened by 
John Huston, and, fi-om that date, the growth of 
the county was very prosperous. Three years 
after, the Western Star was established by 
Judge John MeLain, and the current news of 
the day given in weekly editions. It was one of 
the first newspapers established in the Territory, 
outside of Cincinnati. 

As has been mentioned, the opening of naviga- 
tion in the spring of 1796 brought a great flood 
of emigration to the Territory. The little settle- 
ment made by Mr. Bedell, in the autumn of 1795, 
was about the only one made that fall ; others made 
preparations, and many selected sites, but did not 
settle till the following spring. That spring, colo- 
nies were planted in what are now Montgomery, 
Licking, Ross, Madison, Mahoning, Trumbull, 
Ashtabula and Cuyahoga Counties, while prepara- 
tions were in turn made to occupy additional terri- 
tory, that will hereafter be noticed. 

The settlement made in Montgomery County 
was begun early in the spring of 1796. As early 
as 1788, the land on which Dayton now stands was 
selected by some gentlemen, who desigfaed laying 
out a town to be named Venice. They agreed 
with Judge Sjfmmes, whose contract covered the 
place, for the purchase of the lands. The Indian 
war which broke out at this time prevented an 
extension of settlements from the immediate 
neighborhood of the parent colonies, and the proj- 
ect was abandoned by the purchasers. Soon after 
the treaty of 1795, a new company, composed of 
Gens. Jonathan Dayton, Arthur St. Clair, James 
Wilkinson, and Col. Israel Ludlow, purchased the 
land between the Miamis, around the mouth of 
Mad River, of Judge Symmes, and, the 4th of 
November, laid out the town. Arrangements were 
made for its settlement the ensuing spring, and 
donations of lots, with other privileges, were offered 
to actual settlers. Forty-six persons entered into 
engagements to remove from Cincinnati to Day- 
ton, but during the winter most of them scat- 
tered in different directions, and only nineteen ful- 
filled their contracts. The first families who 


A^ — »- 




made a permanent residence here, arrived on the 
first day of April, 1796, and at once set about 
establishing homes. Judge Symmes, however, 
becoming unable soon after to pay for his purchase, 
the land reverted to the United States, and the set- 
tlers in and about Dayton found themselves with- 
out titles to their lands. Congress, however, came 
to the aid of all such persons, wherever they had 
purchased land of Symmes, and passed a pre-emp- 
tion law, under which they could enter their lands 
at the regular government price. Some of the set- 
tlers entered their lands, and obtained titles directly 
from the United States ; others made arrangements 
with Daniel C. Cooper to receive their deeds from 
him, and he entered the residue of the town lands. 
He had been the surveyor and agent of the first 
company of proprietors, and they assigned to him 
certain of their rights of pre-emption, by which he 
became the titular owner of the land. 

When the State government was organized in 
1803, Dayton "was made the seat of justice for 
Montgomery County, erected the same year. At 
that time, owing to the title question, only five 
families resided in the place, the other settlers hav- 
ing gone to farms in the vicinity, or to other 
parts of the country. The increase of the town 
was gi-adual until the war of 1812, when its 
growth was more rapid until 1820, when it was 
again checked by the general depression of busi- 
ness. It revived in 1827, at the commencement 
of the Miami Canal, and since then its growth has 
always been prosperous. It is now one of the 
best cities in Ohio. The first canal boats from 
Cincinnati arrived at Dayton January 25, 1829, 
and the first one from Lake Erie the 24th of 
June, 1845. In 1825, a weekly line of stages 
was established between Columbus and Cincinnati, 
via Dayton. Two days were occupied in coming 
from Cincinnati to Dayton. 

On the 18th of September, 1808, the Dayton 
Repertory was established by William McClureand 
George Smith. It was printed on a foolscap sheet. 
Soon after, it was enlarged and changed from a 
weekly to a daily, and, ere long, found a number 
of competitors in the field. 

In the lower part of Miamisburg, in this county, 
are the remains of ancient works, scattered about 
over the bottom. About a mile and a quarter 
southeast of the village, on an elevation more than 
one hundred feet above the level of the Miami, 
is the largest mound in the Northern States, ex- 
cepting the mammoth mound at Grave Creek, on 
the Ohio, below Wheeling, which it nearly equals 

in dimensions. It is about eight hundred feet 
around the base, and rises to a height of nearly 
seventy feet. When first known it was covered 
with forest trees, whose size evidenced great age. 
The Indians could give no account of the mound. 
Excavations revealed bones and charred earth, 
but what was its use, will always remain a con- 

One of the most important early settlements 
was made cotemporary with that of Dayton, in 
what is now Ross County. The same spring, 
1796, quite a colony came to the banks of the 
Scioto River, and, near the mouth of Paint Creek, 
began to plant a crop of corn on the bottom. The 
site had been selected as early as 1792, by Col. 
Nathaniel Massie* and others, who were so de- 
lighted with the country, and gave such glowing 
descriptions of it on their return — which accounts 
soon circulated through Kentucky — that portions 
of the Presbyterian congregations of Caneridge and 
Concord, in Bourbon County, under Rev. Robert 
W. Finley, determined to emigrate thither in a 
body. They were, in a measure, induced to take 
this step by their dislike to slavery, and a desire 
for freedom from its baleful influances and the un- 
certainty that existed regarding the validity of the 
land titles in that State. The Rev. Finley, as a 
preliminary step, liberated his slaves, and addressed 
to Col. Massie a letter of inquiry, in December, 
1794, regarding the land on the Scioto, of which, 
he and his people had heard such glowing ac- 

"The letter induced Col. Massie to visit Mr. 
Finley in the ensuing March. A large concourse 
of people, who wished to engage in the enterprise, 
assembled on the occasion, and fixed on a day to 
meet at the Three Islands, in Manchester, and 
proceed on an exploring expedition. Mr. Finley 
also wrote to his friends in Western Pennsylvania 

* Nathaniel Massie was born in Goochland County, Va., Decem- 
ber 28, 1763. In 1780, he engaged, for a short time, in the Kevolu- 
tionary war. In 1783, he left for Kentucky, where he acted as a 
surveyor. lie was afterward made a Government surveyor, and 
labored much in that capacity for early Ohio proprietors, being paid 
in lauds, the amounts graded by the danger attached to the aurvny. 
In 1791, he established the settlement at Manchester, and a year or 
two after, continued his surveys up the Scioto, Here he was con- 
tinually in great danger from the Indians, but knew well how to 
guard against them, and thus presei-ved himself. In 1796, he estab- 
lished the Chillicothe settlement, and made bis home in the Scioto 
Valley, being now an extensive land owner by reason of his long 
surveying service. In 1807, he and Return J. Meigs were compet- 
itors for the office of Governor of Ohio. Meigs was elected, but 
Massie contested his eligibility to the iifflce, on the grounda of his 
absence from the State and insufficiency of time as a resident, as 
required isy the Constitution, Meigs was declared ineligible by the 
General Assembly, and Massie declared Governor, He, however, 
resigned the office at once, not desiring it. He was often Repre- 
sentative afterward. He died November 13, 1813, 

5 fy 




informing them of the time and place of rendez- 

"About sixty men met, according to appoint- 
ment, who were divided into three companies, 
under Massie, Finley and Falenash. They pro- 
ceeded on their route, without interruption, until 
they struck the falls of Paint Creek. Proceeding 
a short distance down that stream, they suddenly 
found themselves in the vicinity of some Indians 
who had encamped at a place, since called Reeve's 
Grossing, near the present .town of Bainbridge. 
The Indians were of those who had refused to 
attend Wayne's treaty, and it was determined to 
give them battle, it being too late to retreat with 
safety. The Indians, on being attacked, soon fled 
with the loss of two killed and several wounded. 
One of the whites only, Joshua Robinson, was 
mortally wounded, and, during the action, a Mr. 
Armstrong, a prisoner among the savages, escaped 
to his own people. The whites gathered all their 
plunder and retreated as far as Scioto Brush 
Creek, where they were, according to expectation, 
attacked early the next morning. Again the In- 
dians were defeated. Only one man among the 
whites, Allen GilfiUan, was wounded. The party 
of whites continued their retreat, the next day 
reached Manchester, and separated for their homes. 

" After Wayne's treaty, Col. Massie and several 
of the old explorers again met at the house of 
Rev. Finley, formed a company, and agreed to 
make a settlement in the ensuing spring (1796), 
and raise a crop of com at the mouth of Paint 
Creek. According to agreement, they met at Man- 
chester about the first of April, to the number of 
forty and upward, from Mason and Bourbon 
Counties. Among them were Joseph McCoy, 
Benjamin and William Rodgers, David Shelby, 
James Harrod, Henry, Bazil and Reuben Abrams, 
William Jamison, James Crawford, Samuel, An- 
thony and Robert Smith, Thomas Dick, William 
and James Kerr, George and James Kilgrove, 
John Brown, Samuel and Robert Templeton, Fer- 
guson Moore, William Nicholson and James B. 
Finley, later a prominent local Methodist minister. 
On starting, they divided into two companies, one 
of which struck across the country, while the 
other came on in pirogues. The first arrived 
earliest on the spot of their intended settlement, 
and had commenced erecting log huts above the 
mouth of Paint Creek, at the 'Prairie Station,' 
before the others had come on by water. About 
three hundred acres of the prairie were cultivated 
in corn that season. 

" In August, of this year— 1796— Chillicothe* 
was laid out by Col. Massie in a dense forest. He 
gave a lot to each of the first settlers, and, by the 
beginning of winter, about twenty cabins were 
erected. Not long after, a ferry was established 
across the Scioto, at the north end of Walnut 
street. The opening of Zane's trace produced a 
great change in travel westward, it having pre- 
viously been along the Ohio in keel-boats or canoes, 
or by land, over the Cu'mberland Mountains, 
through Crab Orchard, in Kentucky. 

" The emigrants brought corn-meal in their pi- 
rogues, and after that was gone, their principal 
meal, until the next summer, was that pounded in 
hominy mortars, which meal, when made into 
bread, and -anointed with bear's-oil, was quite pal- 

" When the settlers first came, whisky was $4.50 
per gallon; but, in the spring of 1797, when the 
keel-boats began to run, the Monongahela whisky- 
makers, having found a good market for their fire- 
water, rushed it in, in such quantities, that the 
cabins were crowded with it, and it soon fell to 50 
cents. Men, women and children, with some excep- 
tions, drank it freely, and tnany who had been 
respectable and temperate became inebriates. 
Many of Wayne's soldiers and camp-women settled 
in the town, so that, for a time, it became a town 
of drunkards and a sink of corruption. There 
was, however, a little leaven, which, in a few 
months, began to develop itself. 

" In the spring of 1797, one Brannon stole a 
great coat, handkerchief and shirt. He and his 
wife absconded, were pursued, caught and brought 
back. Samuel Smith was appointed Judge, a 
jury impanneled, one attorney appointed by the 
Judge to manage the prosecution, and another the 
defense; witnesses were examined, the case argued, 
and the evidence summed up by the Judge. The . 
jury, having retired a few moments, returned with 
a verdict of guilty, and that the culprit be sen- 
tenced according to the discretion of the Judge. 
The Judge soon announced that the criminal 
should have ten lashes on his naked back, or, that 
he should sit on a bare pack-saddle on his pony, 
and that his wife, who was supposed to have had 
some agency in the theft, should lead the pony to 
every house in the village, and proclaim, ' This is 

^f^hillicothe appeara to have been a favorite name among the 
Indians, as many localities were linown by that name. Col. John 
Johnston says : "Chillicothe is the name of one of the principal 
tribes of the Shawanees. They would say, Chil-i-coiheoicmy^ i. e., 
Chillicothe town. The Wyandots would say, for Chillicothe town, 
ro(-a-ra-ra, Do-Ha, or town at the leaning of the bank." 

!) ^ 




Brannon, wha stole the great coat, handkerchief 
and shirt ; ' and that James B. Finley, afterward 
Chaplain in the State Penitentiary, should see the 
sentence faithfully carried out. Brannon chose 
the latter sentence, and the ceremony was faith- 
fully performed by his wife in the presence of 
every cabin, under Mr. Finley 's care, after which 
the couple made off. This was rather rude, but 
effective jurisprudence. 

" Dr. Edward Tiffin and Mr. Thomas Worth- 
ington, of Berkley County, Va., were brothers-in-law, 
and being moved by abolition principles, liberated 
their slaves, intending to remove into the Ter- 
ritory. For this purpose, Mr. Worthington visited 
Chillicothe in the autumn of 1797, and purchased 
several in and out lots of the town. On one of the 
former, he erected a two-story frame house, the 
first of the kind in the village. On his return, 
having purchased a part of a farm, on which his 
family long afterward resided, and another at the 
north fork of Paint Creek, he contracted with Mr. 
Joseph Yates, a millwright, and Mr. George Haines, 
a blacksmith, to come out with him the following 
winter or spring, and erect for him a gijst and saw 
mill on his north-fork tract. The summer, fall 
and following winter of that year were marked by 
a rush of emigration, which spead over the high 
bank prairie, Pea-pea, Westfall and a few miles 
up Paint and Deer Creeks. 

" Nearly all the first settlers were either regular 
members, or had been raised in the Presbyterian 
Church. Toward the fall of 1797, the leaven of 
piety retained by a portion of the first settlers be- 
gan to difixise itself through the mass, and a large 
log meeting-house was erected near the old grave- 
yard, and Kev. William Speer, from Pennsylvania, 
took charge. The sleepers at first served as seats for 
hearers, and a split-log table was used as a pulpit. 
Mr. Speer was a gentlemanly, moral man, tall and 
cadaverous in person, and wore the cocked hat of 
the Revolutionary era. 

" Thomas Jones arrived in February, 1798, 
bringing with him the first load of bar-iron in the 
Scioto Valley, ana about the same time Maj . Elias 
Langham, an officer of the Revolution, arrived. Dr. 
Tiffin, and his brother, Joseph, arrived the same 
month from Virginia and opened a store not far 
from the log meeting-house. A store had been 
opened previously , by John McDougal. The 17th 
of April, the families of Col. Worthington and 
Dr. Tiffin arrived, at which time the first marriage 
in the Scioto Valley was celebrated. The parties 
were George Kilgore and EUzabeth Cochran. The 

ponies of the attendants were hitched to the trees 
along the streets, which were not then cleared out, 
nearly the whole town being a wilderness. Joseph 
Yates, Ge6rge Haines, and two or three others, 
arrived with the families of Tiffin and Worthing- 
ton. On their arrival there were but four shingled 
roofs in town, on one of which the shingles 
were fastened with pegs; Col. Worthington's 
house was the only one having glass windows. The 
sash of the hotel windows was filled with greased 

" Col. Worthington was appointed by Gen. Ru- 
fus Putnam, Surveyor General of the Northwest 
Territory, surveyor of a large district of Congress 
lands, on the east side of the Scioto, and Maj. 
Langham and a Mr. Matthews, were appointed to 
survey the residue of the lands which afterward 
composed the Chillicothe. land district. 

" The same season, settlements were made about 
the Walnut Plains by Samuel McCuUoh and 
others; Springer, Osbourn, Dyer, and Thomas and 
Elijah Chenowith, on Darly Creek; Lamberts and 
others on Sippo; on Foster's Bottom, the Fosters. 
Samuel Davis and others, while the following fam- 
ilies settled in and about Chillicothe: John Grouse, 
William Keys, William Lamb, John Carlisle, John 
McLanberg, William Chandless, the Stoctons, 
Greggs, Bates and some others. 

" Dr. Tiffin and his wife were the first Metho- 
dists in the Scioto Valley. He was a local preacher. 
In the fall, Worthington's grist and saw mills on 
the north fork of Paint Creek were finished, the 
first mills worthy the name in the valley. 

" ChiUicothe was the point from which the set^ 
tlements diverged. In May, 1799, a post office 
was established here, and Joseph Tiffin made Post- 
master. Mr. Tiffin and Thomas Gregg opened 
taverns; the first, under the sign of Gen. Anthony 
Wayne, was at the corner of Water and Walnut 
streets ; and the last, under the sign of the ' Green 
Tree,' was on the corner of Paint and Water 
streets. ' In 1801, Nathaniel Willis moved in and 
established the Scioto Gazette, probably, the sec- 
ond paper in the Territory."* 

In 1800, the seat of government of the North- 
west Territory was removed, by law of Congress, 
from Cincinnati to Chillicothe. The sessions of 
the Territorial Assembly for that and the next 
year were held in a small two-story, hewed-log 
house, erected in 1798, by Bazil Abrams. A wing 
was added to the main part, of two stories In 

* Recollections of Hon. Thomas Scott, of Ohillicothe — Howe's 
Annals of Ohio. 

ri "fy 



height. In the lower room of this wing, Col. 
Thomas Gibson, Auditor of the Territory, kept 
his office, and in the upper room a small family 
lived. In the upper room of the main building 
a billiard table was kept. It was also made a re- 
sort of gamblers and disreputable characters. The 
lower room was used by the Legislature, and as a 
court room, a church or a school. In the 
war of 1812, the building was a rendezvous and 
barracks for soldiers, and, in 1840, was pulled 

The old State House was commenced in 1800, 
and finished the next year for the accommodation 
of the Legislature and the courts. It is said to 
be the first public stone edifice erected in the Ter- 
ritory. Maj. William Rutledge, a Revolutionary 
soldier, did the mason work, and William Guthrie, 
the carpenter. In 1801 , the Territorial Legislature 
held their first session in it. In it was also held 
the Constitutional Convention of Ohio, which be- 
gan its sessions the first Monday in November, 
1802. ■ In April, 1803, the first .State Legislature 
met in the house, and cotitinued their sessions here 
until 1810. -The sessions of 1810-11, and 1811- 
12, were held in Zanesville, and from there re- 
moved back to CHllicothe and held in the old 
State House till 1816, when Columbus became the 
permanent capital of the State. 

Making Chillicothe the State capital did much 
to enhance its growth. It was incorporated in 
1802, and a town council elected. In 1807, the 
town had fourteen stores, six hotels, two newspa- 
pers, two churches — both brick buildings — and 
over two^ hundred dwellings. The removal of the 
capital to Columbus checked its growth a little, still, 
being in an excellent country, rapidly filling with 
settlers, the town has always remained a prominent 
trading center. 

During the war of 1812, Chillicothe was made 
a rendezvous for United States soldiers, and a 
prison established, in which many British prison- 
ers were confined. At one time, a conspiracy for 
escape was discovered just in time to prevent it. 
The plan was for the prisoners to disarm the 
guard, proceed to jail, release the officers, burn the 
town, and escape to Canada. The plot was fortu- 
nately disclosed by two senior British officers, upon 
which, as a measure of security, the officers and 
chief conspirators were sent to the penitentiary 
at Frankfort, Kentucky. 

Two or three mUes northwest of Chillicothe, on 
a beautiful elevation, commanding an extensive 
view of the valley of the Scioto, Thomas Worth- 

ington,* one of the most prominent and influential 
men of his day, afterward Governor of the State, 
in 1806, erected a I'arge stone mansion, the wonder 
of the valley in its time. It was the most elegant 
mansion in the West, crowds coming to see it 
when it was completed. Gov. Worthington named 
the 'place Adena, " Paradise " — a name not then 
considered hyperbolical. The large panes of glass, 
and the novelty of papered walls especially attracted 
attention. Its architect was the elder Latrobe, of 
Washington City, from which place most of the 
workmen came. The glass was made in Pitts- 
burgh, and the fireplace fronts in Philadelphia, the 
latter costing seven dollars per hundred pounds for 
transportation. The mansion, built as it was, cost 
nearly double the expense of such structures now. 
Adena was the home of the Governor till his death, 
in 1827. 

Near Adena, in a beautiful situation, is Fruit 
Hill, the seat of Gen. Duncan McArthur,f and 
later of ex-Gov. WilUam Allen. Like Adena, Fruit 
Hill is one of the noted places in the Scioto Val- 
ley. Many of Ohio's best men dwelt in the valley ; 
men who have been an honor and ornament to the 
State and nation. 

Another settlement, begun soon aft«r the treaty 
of peace in 1795, was that made on the Licking 
River, about four miles below the present city of 
Newark, in Licking County. In the fall of 1796, 
John RatcliiF and Blias Hughes, while prospecting 
on this stream, found some old Indian cornfields, 
and determined to locate. They were from West- 
ern Virginia, and were true pioneers, living mainly 
by hunting, leaving the cultivation of their small 
cornfields to their wives, much after the style of 

* Gov. Worthington was bom in JeffeiBon County, Va., about the 
year 1769. . He settled in Ohio in 17^8. He was a firm believer in 
liberty and came to the Territory after liberating his slaves. Hp was 
otie of the moiji: efficient men of bis day; was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention, and was sent on an important mission 
to Congress relative to the admission of Ohio to the Union. He 
was afterward a Senator to Congress, and then Governor. On 
the expiration of hiij gubernatorial term, ho was appointed a mem- 
ber of the Board of Public Worlts, in which capacity he did much 
tu advance the canals and railroads, and other public improve- 
ments. He remained in this ofiice till his death. 
~ t Gen. McArlhur was born in Dutchess County, N. T., in 1772, 
When eight years of age, his father removed to Western Pennsyl- 
vania. When eighteen years of age,' he served in Harmar's 
campaign. In 1792, he was a very efiicientsoldier amongthe front- 
iersmen, and gained their approbation by his bravery. In 1793, he 
was connected with Gen. Massie, and afierward was engaged in 
land speculations and became very wealthy. He was made a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, in 1805 ; in 1806, a Colonel, and in 1808, a 
Major General of the militia. In this capacity he was in Hull's 
surr.^nder at Detroit. On his return he was elected to Coneress, 
and in 1813 commissioned Brigadier General. He was one of the 
most efficient officers in the war of 1812, and held many important 
posts. After the war, he was again sent to the Legislature ; in 1822 
to Congress, and in 183t) elected Governor of the State. By an un- 
fortnnate accident in 1836, he was maimed for life, and gradually 
declined till death came a few years after. 

«^ a 




their dusky neighbors. They were both inveterate 
Indian-haters, and never allowed an opportunity to 
pass without carrying out their hatred. For this, 
they were apprehended after the treaty; but, 
though it was clearly proven they had murdered 
some inofifensive Indians, the state of feeling was 
such that they were allowed to go unpunished. 

A short time after their settlement, others joined 
them, and, in a few years, quite a colony had 
gathered on the banks of the Licking. In 1802, 
Newark was laid out, and, in three or four years, 
there were twenty or thirty families, several stores 
and one or two hotels. 

The settlement of Granville Township, in this 
county, is rather an important epoch in the history 
of this part of the State. From a sketch pub- 
lished by Rev. Jacob Little in 1848, in Howe's 
Collections, the subjoined statements are taken: 

" In 1801, a company was formed at Granville, 
Mass., with the intention of making a settlement 
in Ohio. This, called the Scioto Company, was 
the third of that name which eflFected settlements 
in Ohio. The project met with great favor, and 
much enthusiasm was elicited, in illustration of 
which a song was composed and sung to the 
tune of ' Pleasant Ohio ' by the young people in 
the house and at labor in the field. We annex 
two stanzas, which are more curious than poetical: 

"'When rambling o'er these mountains 

And rooks where ivies grow 
Thick as the hairs upon your head, 

'Mongst which you cannot go — 
Great storms of snow, cold winds that blow, 

We scarce can undergo — 
Says I, my boys, we'll leave this place 

For the pleasant Ohio. 

"'Our precious friends that stay behind, 

We're sorry now to leave; 
But if they'll stay and break their shins, 

For them we'll never grieve. 
Adieu, my friends! — Come on, my dears, 

This journey we'll forego, 
And settle Licking Creek, 

In yonder Ohio.' " 

" The Scioto Company consisted of one hundred 
and fourteen proprietors, who made a purchase of 
twenty-eight thousand acres. In the autumn of 
1805, two hundred and thirty-four persons, mostly 
from Bast Granville, Mass., came on to the pur- 
chase. Although they had been forty-two days on 
the road, their first business, on their arrival, hav- 
ing organized a church before they left the East, 
was to hear a sermon. The first tree out was that 

by which public worship was held, which stood 
just in front of the Presbyterian church. 

On the first Sabbath, November 16, although 
only about a dozen trees had been felled, they held 
divine service, both forenoon and afternoon, on 
that spot. The novelty of worshiping in ' the 
woods, the forest extending hundreds of miles each 
way ; the hardships of the journey, the winter set- 
ting in, the thoughts of home, with all the frifends 
and privileges left behind, and the impression J;hat 
such must be the accommodations of anew country, 
all rushed on their minds, and made this a day of 
varied interest. When they began to sing, the 
echo of their voices among the trees was so differ- 
ent from what it was in the beautiful meeting- 
house they had left, that they could no longer 
restrain their tears. Thei/ wept when they remem- 
bered Ziorp. The voices of part of the choir were, 
for a season, suppressed with emotion. 

"An incident occurred, which many said Mrs. 
Sigourney should have put into, verse. Deacon 
Theophilus Reese, a Welsh Baptist, had, two or 
three years before, built a cabin, a mile and a half 
north, and lived all this time without public wor- 
ship. He had lost his cattle, and, hearing a low- 
ing of the oxen belonging to the Company, set out 
toward them. As he ascended the hills overlook- 
ing the town plot, he heard the singing of the 
choir. The reverberation of the sound from hill- 
tops and trees, threw the good man into a serious 
dilemma. The music at first seemed to be behind, 
then in the tree-tops, or in the clouds. He stopped, 
till, by accurate listening, he caught the direction 
of the sound ; went on and passing the brow of 
the hill, he saw the audience sitting on the 
level below. He went home and told his wife that 
' the promise of God is a bond ' ; a Welsh proverb, 
signifying that we have security, equal to a bond, 
that religion will prevail everywhere. He said : 
' These must be good people. I am not afraid to 
go among them.' Though he could not under- 
stand English, he constantly attended the reading 
meeting. Hearing the music on that occasion 
made such an impression on his mind that, when 
he became old and met the first settlers, he would 
always tell over this story. The first cabin built 
was that in which they worshiped succeeding 
Sabbaths, and, before the close of the winter, they 
had a schoolhouse and a school. That church, in 
forty years, received more than one thousand per- 
sons into its membership. 

"Elder Jones, in 1806, preached the first ser- 
mon in the log church. The Welsh Baptist 


\> \ 




Church was organized in the cabin of David 
Thomas, September 4, 1808. April 21, 1827, 
the G-ranville members were organized into the 
Granville Church, and the corner-stone of their 
house of worship laid September 21, 1829. In 
the fall of 1810, the first Methodist sermon was 
preached here, and, soon after, a class organized. 
In 1824, a church was built. > An Episcopal 
church was organized in May, 1827, and a 
church consecrated in 1838. In 1849, there 
were in this township 405 families, of whom 214 
sustain family worship ; 1431 persons over four- 
teen years of age, of whom over 800 belong to 
church. The town had 150 families, of whom 80 
have family worship. In 1846, the township 
furnished 70 school teachers, of whom 62 prayed 
in school. In 1846, the township took 621 peri- 
odical papers, besides three small monthlies. The 
first temperance society west of the mountains was 
organized July 15, 1828, in this township; and, 
in 1831, the Congregational Church passed a by- 
law to accept no member who trafficked in or used 
ardent spirits." 

It is said, not a settlement in the entire West 
could present so moral and upright a view as that 
of Granville Township; and nowhere could so 
perfect and orderly a set of people be found. 
Surely, the fact is argument enough in favor of 
the religion of Jesus. 

The narrative of Mr. Little also states that, 
when Granville was first settled, it was supposed 
that Worthington would be the capital of Ohio, 
between which and Zanesville, Granville would 
make a great half-way town. At this time, wild 
animals, snakes and Indians abounded, and many 
are the marvelous stories preserved regarding the 
destruction of the animals and reptiles — the 
Indians being bound by their treaty to remain 
peaceful. Space forbids their repetition here. 
Suffice it to say that, as the whites increased, the 
Indians, animals and snakes disappeared, until 
now one is as much a curiosity as the other. 

The remaining settlement in the southwest- 
ern parts of Ohio, made immediately after the 
treaty— fall of 1795 or year of 1796 — was in 
what is now Madison County, about a mile north 
of where the village of Amity now stands, on the 
banks of the Big Darby. This stream received itS; 
name from the Indians, from a Wyandot chief, 
named Darby, who for a long time resided upon itj, 
near the Union County line. In the fall of 1795, 
Benjamin Springer came from Kentucky and selected 
some land on the banks of the Big Darby, cleared 

the ground, built a cabin, and returned for his 
family. The next spring, he brought them out, 
and began his life here. The same summer he was 
joined by William Lapin, Joshua and James Ew- 
ing and one or two others. 

When Springer came, he found a white man 
named Jonathan Alder, who for fifteen years had 
been a captive among the Indians, and who could 
not speak a word of English, living with an Indian 
woman on the banks of Big Darby. He had been 
exchanged at Wayne's treaty, and, neglecting to 
profit by the treaty, was still living in the Indian 
style. When the whites became numerous about 
him his -desire to find his relatives, and adopt the 
ways of the whites, led him to discard his squaw — 
giving her an unusual allowance — learn the English 
language, engage in agricultural pursuits, and be- 
come again civilized. Fortunately, he could remem- 
ber enough of the names of some of his parents' 
neighbors, so that the identity of his relatives and 
friends was easily established, and Alder became a 
most useful citizen. He was very influential with 
the Indians, and induced many of them to remain 
neutral during the war of 1812. It is stated that 
in 1800, Mr. Ewing brought four sheep into the com- 
munity. They, were strange animals to the Indians. 
One day when an Indian hunter and his dog were 
passing, the latter caught a sheep, and was shot by 
Mr. Ewing. The Indian would have shot Ewing in 
retaliation, had not Alder, who was fortunately 
present, with much difficulty prevailed upon him 
to refrain. 

While the southern and southwestern parts of 
the State were filling with settlers, assured of safety 
by Wayne's victories, the northern and eastern 
parts became likewise the theater of activities. 
Ever since the French had explored the southern 
shores of the lake, and English traders had car- 
ried goods thither, it was expected one day to be 
a valuable part of the West. It will be remem- 
bered that Connecticut had ceded a large tract of 
land to the General Government, and as soon as 
the cession was confirmed, and land titles became 
assured, settlers fiocked thither. Even before that 
time, hardy adventurers had explored some of the 
country, and pronounced it a "goodly land," 
ready for the hand of enterprise. 

The first settlement in the Western Reserve, 
and, indeed, in the northern part of the State, was 
made at the mouth of Gonneaut* Creek, in Ash- 
tabula County, op the 4th of July, 1796. That 

♦Conneaut, in the Seneca language, signifioB "many fish.' 

D "V 





day, the first surveying party landed at the mouth 
of this creek, and, on its eastern bank, near the 
lake shore, in tin cups, pledged — as they drank the 
limpid waters of the lake — their country's welfare, 
with the ordnance accompaniment of two or three 
fowling-pieces, discharging the required national 

The whole party, on this occasion, numbered 
fifty-two persons, of whom two were females (Mrs. 
Stiles and Mrs. Gunn) and a child, and all deserve 
a lasting place in the history of the State. 

The next day, they began the erection of a large 
log building on the sandy beach on the east side 
of the stream. When done, it was named " Stow 
Castle," after one of the party. It was the dwell- 
ing, storehouse and general habitation of all the 
pioneers. The party made this their headquar- 
ters part of the summer, and continued busily 
engaged in the survey of the Eeserve. James 
Kingsbury, afterward Judge, arrived soon utter 
the party began work, and, with his family, was 
the first to remain here during the winter follow- 
ing, the rest returning to the Bast, or going south- 
ward. Through the winter, Mr. Kingsbury's 
family suifered greatly for provisions, so much so, 
that, during the absence of the head of the family 
in New York for provisions, one child, born in his 
absence, died, and the mother, reduced by her suf- 
ferings and solitude, was only saved' by the timely 
arrival of the husband and father with a sack of 
flour he had carried, many weary miles, 'on his 
back. He remained here but a short time, re- 
moving to Cleveland, which was laid out that same 
fall. In the spring of 1798, Alexander Harper, 
William McFarland and Ezra Gregory, with their 
families, started from Harpersfield, Delaware Co., 
N. Y., and arrived the last of June, at their new 
homes in the Far West. The whole population on 
the Reserve then amounted to less than one hun- 
dred and fifty persons. These were at Cleveland, 
Youngstown and at Mentor. During the summer, 
three families came to Burton, and Judge Hudson 
settled at Hudson. All these pioneers sufiiered 
severely for food, and from the fever induced by 
chills. It took several years to become accli- 
mated. Sometimes the entire neighborhood 
would be down, and only one or two, who could 
wait on the rest "between chills," were able to do 
anything. Time and courage overcame, finally. 

It was not until 1798, that a permanent settle- 
ment was made at the mouth of Conneaut Creek. 
Those who came there in 1796 went on with their 
surveys, part remaining in Cleveland, laid out that 

summer. Judge Kingsbury could not remain at 
Conneaut, and went nearer the settlements made 
about the Cuyahoga. Inthespring of 1798, Thomas 
Montgomery and Aaron Wright settled here and 
remained. Up the stream they found some thirty 
Indian cabins, or huts, in a good state of preserva^ 
tion, which they occupied until they could erect 
their own. Soon after, they were joined by others, 
and, in a year or two, the settlement was permanent 
and prosperous. 

The site of the present town of Austinburg in 
Ashtabula County was settled in the year 1799, 
by two families from Connecticut, who were in- 
duced to come thither, by Judge Austin. The 
Judge preceded them a short time, driving, in 
company with a hired man, some cattle about one 
hundred and fifty miles through the woods, follow- 
ing an old Indian trail, while the rest of the party 
came in a boat across the lake. When they ar- 
rived, there were a few families at Harpersburg ; 
one or two families at Windsor, tw,enty miles 
southwest ; also a few families at Elk Creek, forty 
miles northeast, and at Vernon, the same distance 
southeast. All these were in a destitute condition 
for provisions. In 1800, another family moved 
from Norfolk, Conn. In the spring of 1801^ sev- 
eral families came from the same place. Part came 
by land, and part by water. During that season, 
wheat was carried to an old mill on Elk Creek, 
forty miles away, and in some instances, half was 
given for carrying it to mill and returning it in 

Wednesday, October 21, 1801, a church of six- 
teen members was constituted in Austinburg. 
This was the first church on the Reserve, and was 
founded by Rev. Joseph Badger,' the first mission- 
ary there. * It is a fact worthy of note, that in 
1802, Mr. Badger moved his family from Bufialo 
to this town, in the first wagon that ever came 
from that place to the Reserve. In 1803, noted 
revivals occurred in this part of the West, attended 
by the peculiar bodily phenomenon known as the 
" shakes " or " jejjks." 

The survejdng party which landed at the mouth 
of Conneaut Creek, July 4, 1796, soon completed 
their labors in this part of the Reserve, and ex- 
tended them westward. By the first of September, 
they had explored the lake coast as far west as the 
outlet of the Cuyahoga* River, then considered 

* Cuyahoga, in the Indian language, signifies "croolied." — 
Howe^fi CoUeGtiont. 

" The Indians called the river 'Cuyahoghan-uk,' *Lake River' 
It is, emphatically, a Lake river. It rises in lakes and empties into 
a lake/' — Atwater^a Hi.lary of Ohio, 





by all an important Western place, and one des- 
tined to be a great commercial mart. Time has 
verified tbe prophecies, as now the city of Cleve- 
land covers the site. 

As early as 1755, the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
Kiver was laid down on the maps, and the French 
had a station here. It was also considered an im- 
portant post during the war of the Revolution, 
and later, of 1812. The British, who, after the 
Revolution, refused to abandon the lake country 
west of the Cuyahoga, occupied its shores until 
1790. Their traders had a house in Ohio City, 
north of the Detroit road, on the point of the hill 
near the river, when the surveyors arrived in 
1796. Washington, Jeffergon, and all statesmen 
of that day, regarded the outlet of the Cuyahoga 
as an important place, and hence the early at- 
tempt of the surveyors to reach and lay out a town 

The corps of surveyors arrived early in Septem- 
ber, 1796, and at once proceeded to lay out a town. 
It was named Cleveland, in honor of Gen. Moses 
Cleveland, the Land X!ompany's agent, and for 
years a very prominent man in Connecticut, where 
he lived and died. By the 18th of October, the 
survey^ors had completed the survey and left the 
place, leaving only Job V. Stiles and family, and 
Edward Paine, who were the only persons that 
passed the succeeding winter in this place. Their 
residence was a log cabin that stood on a spot of 
ground long afterward occupied by the Commercial 
Bank. Their nearest neighbors were at Conne- 
aut, where Judge Kingsbury lived; at Port 
Mcintosh, on the south or east, at the mouth of 
Big Beaver, and at the mouth of the river Raisin, 
on the west. 

The next season, the surveying party*came again 
to Cleveland, which they made their headquarters. 
Early in the spring, Judge Kingsbury came over 
ft'om Conneaut, bringing with him Elijah Gunn, 
who had a short time before joined him. Soon 
after, Maj. Lorenzo Carter and Ezekiel Hawley 
came with their families. These were about all 
who are known to have settled in this place that 
summer. The next year, 1798, Rodolphus Ed- 
wards and Nathaniel Doane and their families set- 
tled in Cleveland. Mr. Doane had been ninety- 
two days on his journey from Chatham, Conn. In 
the latter part of the summer and fall, nearly every 
person in the settlement was down with the bil- 
ious fever or with the ague. Mr. Doane's family 
consisted of nine persons, of whom Seth, a lad six- 
teen years of age, was the only one able to care for 

them. Such was the severity of the fever, that 
any one having only the ague was deemed quite 
fortunate. Much suflFering for proper food and 
medicines followed. The only way the Doane 
family was supplied for two months or more, was 
through the exertions of this boy, who went daily, 
after having had one attack of the chills, to Judge 
Kingsbury's in Newburg — ^five miles away, where 
the Judge now lived — got a peck of corn, mashed it 
in a hand-mill, waited until a second attack of the 
chills passed over, and then returned. At one time,- 
for several days, he was too ill to make the trip, 
during which turnips comprised the chief article 
of diet. Fortunately, Maj. Carter, having only 
the ague, was enabled with his trusty rifle and dogs 
to procure an abundance of venison and other wild 
game. His family, being somewhat acclimated, 
suffered less than many others. Their situation can 
hardly now be realized. " Destitute of a physician, 
and with few medicines, necessity taught them to 
use such means as nature had placed within their 
reach. They substituted pills from the extract of 
the bitternut bark for calomel, and dogwood and 
cherry bark for quinine." 

In November, four men, who had so far recov- 
ered as to have ague attacks no oftener than once 
in two or three days, started in the only boat for 
Walnut Creek, Penn., to obtain a winter's supply 
of flour. When below Euclid Creek, a storm 
drove them ashore, broke their boat, and compelled 
their return. During the winter and summer fol- 
lowing, the settlers had no flour, except that 
ground in hand and coffee mills, which was, how- 
ever, considered very good. Not all had even that. 
During the summer, the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany opened the first road on the Reserve, which 
commenced about ten miles south of the lake 
shore, on the Pennsylvania State line, and extended 
to Cleveland. In January, 1799, Mr. Doane 
moved to Doane's Corners, leaving only Maj. Car- 
ter's family in Cleveland, all the rest leaving as 
soon as they were well enough. For fifteen months, 
the Major and his family were the only white per- 
sons left on the town site. During the spring, 
Wheeler W. Williams and Maj. Wyatt built the 
first grist-mill on the Reserve, on the site of New- 
burg. It was looked upon as a very valuable acces- 
sion to the neighborhood. Prior to this, each fam- 
ily had its own hand-mill in one of the corners of 
the cabin. The old mill is thus described by a 
pioneer : 

" The stones were of the common grindstone 
grit, about four inches thick, and twenty in diame- 





ter. The runner, or upper, was turned by hand, 
by a pole set in the top of it, near the outer edge. 
The upper end of the pole was inserted into a hole 
in a board fastened above to the joists, immedi- 
ately over the hole in the verge of the runner. 
One person fed the corn into the eye — a hole in 
the center of the runner — while another turned. 
It was very hard work to grind, and the operators 
alternately exchanged places." 

In 1800, several settlers came to the town and 
a more active life was the result. From this time, 
Cleveland began to progress. The 4th of July, 
1801, the first ball in town was held at Major 
Carter's log cabin, on the hill-side. John and 
Benjamin Wood, and R. H. Blinn were managers; 
and Maj. Samuel Jones, musician and master of 
ceremonies. The company numbered aboutthirty, 
very evenly divided, for the times, between the 
sexes. " Notwithstanding the dancers had a rough 
puncheon floor, gnd no better beverage to enliven 
their spirits than sweetened whisky, yet it is doubt- 
ful if the anniversary of American independence 
was ever celebrated in Cleveland by a more joyful 
and harmonious company than those who danced 
the scamper-down, double-shuiBe, western-swing 
and half-moon, that day, in Maj. Carter's cabin." 
The growth of the town, from this period on, re- 
mained prosperous. The usual visits of the Indi- 
ans were made, ending in their drunken carousals 
and fights. Deer and other wild animals ftirnished 
abundant meat. The settlement was constantly 
augmented by new arrivals, so that, by 1814, Cleve- 
land was incorporated as a town, and, in 1836, as 
a city. Its harbor is one of the best on the lakes, 
and hence the merchandise of the lakes has always 
been attracted thither. Like Cincinnati and Chil- 
licothe, it became the nucleus of settlements in this 
part of the State, and now is the largest city in 
Northern Ohio. 

One of the earliest settlements made in the 
Western Reserve, and by some claimed as the first 
therein, was made on the site of Youngstown, Ma- 
honing County, by a Mr. Young, afterward a Judge, 
in the summer of 1796. During this summer, 
before the settlements at Cuyahoga and Conneaut 
were made, Mr. Young and Mr. Wilcott, proprie- 
tors of a township of land in Northeastern Ohio, 
came to their possessions and began the' survey of 
their land. Just when they came is not known. 
They were found here by Col. James Hillman, 
then a trader in the employ of Duncan & Wilson, 
of Pittsburgh, " who had been forwarding goods 
across the country by pack-saddle horses since 

1786, to the mouth of the Cuyahoga, thence to be 
shipped on the schooner Mackinaw to Detroit. 
Col. Hillman generally had charge of all these 
caravans, consisting sometimes of ninety horses 
and ten men. They commonly crossed the Big 
Beaver four miles below the mouth of the She- 
nango, thence up the left bank of the Mahoning — 
called by the Indians " Mahoni" or " Mahonick." 
signifying the "lick" or " at the hck " — crossing 
it about three miles below the site of Youngstown, 
thence by way of the Salt Springs, over the sites 
of Milton and Ravenna, crossing the Cuyahoga at 
the mouth of Breakneck and again at the mouth 
of Tinker's Creek, thence down the river to its ' 
mouth, where they had a log hut in which to 
store their goods. This hut was there when the 
surveyors came, but at the time unoccupied. At 
the mouth of Tinker's Creek were a few log huts 
built by Moravian Missionaries. These were used 
only one year, as the Indians had gone to the Tus- 
carawas River. These and three or four cabins at 
the Salt Springs were the only buildings erected 
by the whites prior to 1796, in Northeastern Ohio. 
Those at the Salt Springs were built at an early 
day for the accommodation of whites who came 
from Western Pennsylvania to make salt. The 
tenants were dispossessed in 1785 by Gen. Harmar. 
A short time after, one or two white men were 
killed by the Indians here. In 1788, Col. Hill- 
man settled at Beavertown, where Duncan & 
Wilson had a store for the purpose of trading 
with the Indians. He went back to Pittsburgh 
soon after, however, owing to the Indian war, and 
remained there till its close, continuing in his busi- 
ness whenever opportunity oiFered. In 1796, 
when returning from one of his trading expeditions 
alone in his canoe down the Mahoning River, he 
discovered a smoke on the bank near the present 
town of Youngstown, and on going to the spot 
found Mr. Young and Mr. Wolcott, as before men- 
tioned. A part of Col. Hillman's cargo consisted 
of whisky, a gallon or so of which he still had. 
The price of " fire-water " then was $1 per quart 
in the currency of the country, a deerskin being 
legal tender for f 1, and a doeskin for 50 cents. 
Mr. Young proposed purchasing a quart, and 
having a frolic on its contents during the "even- 
ing, and insisted on paying Hillman his cus- 
tomary price. Hillman urged that inasmuch as 
they were strangers in the country, civility re- 
quired him to furnish the means for the entertain- 
ment. Young, however, insisted, and taking the 
deerskin used for his bed — the only one he had — 





paid for his quart of whisky, and an evening's 
- frohc was the result. 

■" Hillman remained a few days, when they ac- 
companied him to Beaver Town to celebrate the 
4th, and then all returned, and Hillman erected a 
cabin on the site of Youngstown. It is not cer- 
tain that they remained here at this time, and 
hence the priority of actual settlement is generally 
conceded to Conneaut and Cleveland. The next 
year, in the fall, a Mr. Brown and one other per- 
son came to the banks of the Mahoning and made 
a permanent settlement. The same season Uriah 
Holmes and Titus Hayes came to the same locahty, 
and before winter quite a settlement was to be seen 
here. It proceeded quite prosperously until the 
wanton murder of two Indians occurred, which, 
for a time, greatly excited the whites, lest the In- 
dians should retaliate. Through the eflForts of 
Col. Hillman, who had great influence with the 
natives, they agreed to let the murderers stand a 
trial. They were acquitted upon some technicality.' 
The trial, however, pacified the Indians, and no 
trouble came from the unwarranted and unfortu- 
nate circumstance, and no check in the emigration 
or prosperity of the colony occurred."* 

4.S soon as an effective settlement had been es- 
tablished at Youngstown, others were made in the 
surrounding country. One of these was begun by 
William Fenton in 1798, on the site of the pres- 
ent town of Warren, in Trumbull County. He 
remained here alone one year, when he was joined 
by Capt. Ephraim Quimby. By the last of Sep- 
tember, the next year, the colony had increased to 
sixteen, and from that date on continued prosper- 
ously. Once or twice they stood in fear of the 
Indians, as the result of quarrels induced by 
whisky. Sagacious persons generally saved any 
serious outbreak and pacified the natives. Mr. 
Badger, the first missionary on the Reserve, came 
to the settlement here and on the Mahoning, as 
soon as each was made, and, by his earnest labors, 
succeeded in forming churches and schools at an 
early day. He was one of the most efiicient men 
on the Reserve, and throughout his long and busy 
life, was well known and greatly respected. He 
died in 1846, aged eighty-nine years. 

The settlements given are about all that were 
made before the close of 1*797. In following the 
narrative of these settlements, attention is paid to 
the chronological order, as far as this can be done. 
Like those settlements already made, many which 

* Becoliectlons of Col. Hillman. — Howe's Annah. 

are given as occurring in the next year, 1798, 
were actually begun earlier, but were only tem- 
porary preparations, and were not considered as 
made until the next year. 

Turning again to the southern portion of Ohio, 
the Scioto, Muskingum and Miami Valleys come 
prominently into notice. Throughout the entire 
Eastern States they were still attracting attention, 
and an increased emigration, busily occupying their 
verdant fields, was the result. All about Chilli- 
cothe was now well settled, and, up the banks of 
that stream, prospectors were selecting sites for 
their future homes. 

In 1797, Robert Armstrong, George Skidmore, 
Lucas SuUivant, William Domigan, James Mar- 
shall, John Dill, Jacob Grubb, Jacob Overdier, 
Arthur O'Hara, John Brickell, Col. Culbertson, 
the Deardorfs, McElvains, Selles and others, came 
to what is now Franklin County, and, in August, 
Mr. SuUivant and some others laid out the town of 
Pranklinton, on the west bank of the Scioto, oppo- 
site the site of Columbus. The country about this 
locality had long been the residence of the Wyan- 
dots, who had a large town on the city's site, and 
cultivated extensive fields of corn on the river bot- 
toms. The locality had been visited by the whites 
as early as 1780, in some of their expeditions, and 
the fertility of the land noticed. , As soon as peace 
was assured, the whites came and began a settle- 
ment, as has been noted. Soon after Franklinton 
was established, a Mr. Springer, and his son-in-law, 
Osborn, settled on the Big Darby, and, in the sum- 
mer of 1798, a scattering settlement was made on 
Alum Creek. About the same time settlers came 
to the ijaouth of the Gahannah, and along other 
water-courses. Franklinton was the point to which 
emigrants came, and from which they always made 
their permanent location. For several years there 
was no mill, nor any such commodity, nearer than 
Chillicothe. A hand-mill was constructed in 
Franklinton, which was commonly used, unless the 
settlers made a trip to Chillicothe in a canoe. 
Next, a horse-mill was tried ; but not till 1805, 
when Col. Kilbourne built a mill at Worthington, 
settled in 1803, could any efficient grinding be 
done. In 1789, a small store was openedin Frank- 
linton, by James Scott, but, for seven or eight 
years, Chillicothe was the nearest post office. 
Often, when the . neighbors wanted mail, one of 
their number was furnished money to pay the 
postage on any letters that might be waiting, and 
sent for the mail. At first, as in all new localities, 
a great deal of sickness, fever and ague, prevailed. 



As the people became acclimated, this, however, 

The township of Sharon in this county has a 
history similar to that of Granville Township in 
Licking County. It was settled by a " Scioto 
Company," formed in Granby, Conn., in the winter 
of 1801-02, consisting at first of eight associates. 
They drew up articles of association, among which 
was one limiting their number to forty, each of 
whom must be unanimously chosen by ballot, a 
single negative beingsufiicienttopreventan election. 
Col. James Kilbourne was sent out the succeeding 
spring to explore the country and select and pur- 
chase a township for settlement. He returned in 
the fall without making any purchase, through 
fear that the State Constitution, then about to be 
formed, would tolerate slavery, in which case the 
project would have been abandoned. While on 
this visit, Col. Kilbourne compiled from a variety 
of sources the first map made of Ohio. Although 
much of it was conjectured, and hence inaccurate, 
it was very valuable, being correct as far as the 
State was then known. 

"As soon as information was received that the 
constitution of Ohio prohibited slavery. Col. Kil- 
bourne purchased the township he had previously 
selected, within the United States military land 
district, and, in the spring of 1803, returned to 
Ohio, and began improvements. By the succeed- 
ing December, one hundred settlers, mainly from 
Hartford County, Conn., and Hampshire County, 
Mass., arrived at their new home. Obeying to the 
letter the agreement made in the East, the first 
cabin erected was used for a schoolhouse and a 
church of the Protestant Episcopal denomination ; 
the first Sabbath after the arrival of the colony, 
divine service was held therein, and on the arrival 
of the eleventh family a school was opened. This 
early attention to education and religion has left 
its favorable impress upon the people until this day. 
The first 4th of July was uniquely and appropri- 
ately celebrated; Seventeen gigantic trees, em- 
blematical of the seventeen States forming the 
Union, were cut, so that a few blows of the ax, at 
sunrise on the 4th, prostrated each successively 
with a tremendous crash, forming a national salute 
novel in the world's history."* 

The growth of this part of Ohio continued 
without interruption until the establishment of the 
State capital at Columbus, in 1816. The town was 
laid out in 1812, but, as that date is considered re- 

*Howe'B Oollectiona. 

mote in the early American settlements, its history 
will be left to succeeding pages, and there traced 
when the history of the State capital and State 
government is given. 

The site of Zanesville, in Muskingum County, 
was early looked upon as an excellent place to form 
a settlement, and, had not hostilities opened in 
1791, with the Indians, the place would have been 
one of the earliest settled in Ohio. As it was, the 
war so disarranged matters, that it was not till 
1797 that a permanent settlement was effected. . 

The Muskingum country was principally occu- 
pied, in aboriginal times,- by the Wyandots, Dela-/ 
wares, and a few Senecas and Shawanees. An In- 
dian town once stood, years before the settlement 
of the country, in the vicinity of Duncan's Falls, 
in Muskingum County, from which circumstance 
the place is often called " Old Town." Near Dres- 
den, was a large Shawanee town, called Wakato- 
maca. The graveyard was, quite large, and, when 
'the whites first settled here, remains of the town 
were abundant. It was in this vicinity that the 
venerable Maj. Cass, father of Lewis Cass, lived 
and died. He owned 4,000 acres, given him for 
his military services. , 

The first settlers on the site of Zanesville were 
William McCuUoh and Henry Crooks. The lo- 
cality was given to Ebenezer Zane, who had been 
allowed three sections of land on the Scioto, Mus- 
kingum and Hockhocking, wherever the road 
crossed these rivers, provided other prior claims 
did not interfere, for opening "Zane's trace." 
When he located the road across the Muskingum, 
he selected the place where Zanesville now stands, 
being attracted there by the excellent water privi- 
leges. He gave the se'ction of land here to his 
brother Jonathan Zane, and J. Molntire, who 
leased the ferry, established on the road over the 
Muskingum, to William McCuUoh and Henry 
Crooks, who became thereby the first settlers. The 
ferry was kept about where the old upper bridge 
was afterward placed. The ferry-boat was made 
by fastening two canoes together with a stick. 
Soon after a flat-boat was used. It was brought 
from Wheeling, by Mr. Mclntire, in 1779, the 
year after the ferry was established. The road cut 
out through Ohio, ran from Wheeling, Va., to 
Maysville, Ky. Over this road the mail was car- 
ried, and, in 1798, the first mail ever carried 
wholly in Ohio was brought up from Marietta to 
McCuUoh's cabin by Daniel Convers, where, by 
arrangement of the Postmaster General, it met 
a mail from Wheeling and one from Maysville. 

) fy 



McCulloh, who could hardly read, was authorized 
to assort the mails and send each package in its 
» proper direction. For this service he received 
$30 per annum ; but owing to his inability to read 
well, Mr. Convers generally performed the duty. 
At that time, the mails met here once a week. 
Four years after, the settlement had so increased 
that a regular post office was opened, and Thomas 
Dowden appointed Postmaster. He kept his office 
in a wooden building near the river bank. 

Messrs. Zane and Mclntire laid out a town in 
1799, which they called Westbourn. When the 
post office was established, it was named Zanesville, 
and in a short time the village took the same name. 
A few families settled on the west side of the river, 
soon after McCulloh arrived, and as this locality 
grew well, not long after a store and tavern was 
opened here. Mr. Mclntire built a double log 
cabin, which was used as a hotel, and in which 
Louis Philippe, King of Prance, was once enter-; 
tained. Although the' fare and accommodations 
were of the pioneer period, the honorable guest seems 
to have enjoyed his visit, if the statements of Lewis 
Cass in his " Camp and Court of Louis Philippe" 
may l»e believed. 

In 1804, Muskingum County was formed by the 
Legislature, and, for a while, strenuous efforts made 
to secure the State capital by the citizens of Zanes- 
ville. They even erected buildings for the use of 
the Legislature and Governor, and during the ses- 
sions of 1810-11, the temporary seat of govern- 
ment was fixed here. When the permanent State 
capital was chosen in 1816, Zanesville was passed 
by, and gave up the hope. It is now one of the 
most enterprising towns ip the Muskingum Valley. 

During the summer of 1797, John Knoop, then 
living four miles above Cincinnati, made several 
expeditions up the Miami Valley and selected the 
land on which he afterward located. The next 
spring Mr. Knoop, his brother Benjamin, Henry 
Garard, Benjamin Hamlet and John Tildus estab- 
lished a station in what is now Miami County, near 
the present town of Staunton Village. That sum- 
mer, Mrs. Knoop planted the first apple-tree in 
the Miami * country. They all lived together for 
greater safety for two years, during which time 
they were occupied clearing their farms and erect- 
ing dwellings. During the summer, the site of 
Piqua was settled, and three young men located at a 
place known as " Freeman's Prairie." Those who 

* The word Miami in the Indian tongue flignified mother. The 
Miamis were the original owners of the valley by that name, and 
affirmed they were created there. 

settled at Piqua were Samuel Hilliard, Job Garard, 
Shadrac Hudson, Jonab- KoUins, Daniel Cox, 
Thomas Rich, and a Mr. Hunter. The last named 
came to the site of Piqua first in 1797, and 
selected his home. Until 1799, these named were 
the only ones in this locality ; but that year emi- 
gration set in, and very shortly occupied almost all 
the bottom land in Miami County. With the 
increase of emigration, came the comforts of life, 
and mills, stores and other necessary aids to civil- 
ization, were ere long to be seen. 

The site of Piqua is quite historic, being the 
theater of many important Indian occurrences, 
and the old home of the Shawanees, of which 
tribe Tecumseh was a chief. During the Indian 
war, a fort called Fort Piqua was built, near the 
residence of Col. John Johnston, so long the faith- 
ful Indian Agent. The fort was abandoned at the 
close of hostilities. 

When the Miami Canal was opened through this 
part of the State, the country began rapidly to 
improve, and is now probably one of the best por- 
tions of Ohio. 

About the same time the Miami was settled, a 
company of people from Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia, who were principally of German and Irish 
descent, located in Lawrence County, near the iron 
region. As soon as that ore was made available, 
that part of the State rapidly filled with settlers, 
most of whom engaged in the mining and working 
of iron ore. Now it is very prosperous. 

Another settlement was made the same season, 
1797, on the Ohio side of the river, in Columbia 
County. The settlement progressed slowly for a 
while, owing to a few difficulties with the Indians. 
The celebrated Adam Poe had been here as early 
as 1782, and several localities are -made locally 
famous by his and his brother's adventures. 

In this county, on Little Beaver Creek, near its 
mouth, the second paper-mill west of the AUe- 
ghanies was erected in 1805-6. It was the pioneer 
enterprise of the kind in Ohio, and was named the 
Ohio Paper-Mill. Its proprietors were John 
Bever and John Coulter. 

One of the most noted localities in the State is 
comprised in Greene County. The Shawanee 
town, " Old Chillicothe," was on the Little Miami, 
in this county, about three miles north of the site 
of Xenia. This old Indian town was, in the an- 
nals of the West, a noted place, and is frequently 
noticed. It is first mentioned in 1773, by Capt. 
Thomas Bullitt, of Virginia, who boldly advanced 
alone into the town and obtained the consent of 




the Indians to go on to Kentucky and make his 
settlement at the falls of the Ohio. His audacious 
bravery gained his request. Daniel Boone was 
taken prisoner early in 1778, with twenty-seven 
others, and kept for a time at Old Chillicothe. 
Tlirough the influence of the British Governor, 
Hamilton, who had taken a great fancy to Boone, 
he and ten others were seat to Detroit. The In- 
dians, however, had an equal fancy for the brave 
frontiersman, and took him back to ChiUicothe, 
and adopted him into their tribe. About'the 1st 
of June he escaped from them, and made his way 
back to Kentucky, in time to prevent a universal 
massacre of the whites. In July, 1779, the town 
was destroyed by Col. John Bowman and one 
hundred and sixty Kentuckians, and the Indians 

The Americans made a permanent settlement in 
this county in 1797 or 1798. This latter year, a 
mill was erected in the confines of the county, 
which implies the settlement was made a short 
time previously. A short distance east of the 
mill two block-houses were erected, and it was in- 
tended, should it become necessary, to surround 
them and the mill with pickets. The mill was, 
used by the settlers at " Dutch Station," in Miami 
County, fully thirty miles distant. The richness 
of the country in this part of the State attracted a 
great number of settlers, so that by 1803 the 
county was established, and Xenia laid out, and des- 
ignated as the county seat. Its first court house, 
a primitive log structure, was long preserved as a 
curiosity. It would indeed be a curiosity now. 

Zane's trace, passing from Wheeling to Mays- 
ville, crossed the Hockhocking* River, in Fairfield 
County, where Lancaster is now built. Mr. Zane 
located one of his three sections on this river, 
covering the site of Zanesville. Following this 
trace in 1797, many individuals noted the desira- 
bleness of the locality, some of whom determined 
to return and settle. " The site of the city had 
in former times been the home of the Wyandots, 
who had a town here, that, in 1790, contained 
over 500 wigwams and more than one l,OliO souls. 
Their town was called Tarhee, or, in English, the 
Crane-town, and derived its name from the princi- 

* The word Hock-hock-ing in the Delaware language signifiee 
a bottle : the Shawanees have it Wea-tka-kagh-qua sepe, ie ; bottle 
river. John White in the Amsripan Pioneer says; "About seven 
miles nort west of Lancaster, there is a fall In the Hockhocking of 
about twi Illy feet. Above the fall for a short distance, the creek 
18 v*»ry narrow and straight forming a neck, while at the falls it 
suddenly widens on each side and swells into the appearance of the 
body of a bottle. The whole, when seen from above, appears exactly 
in the shape of a hottle, and from this fact the Indians called the 
river Hock-hock-ing.*' — Howe's Gollectiona. 

pal chief of that tribe. Another portion of the 
tribe then lived at Toby-town, nine miles west of 
Tarhe-town (now Royaltown), and was governed 
by an inferior chief called Toby. The chief's wig- 
wam in Tarhe stood on the bank of the prairie, 
near a beautiful and abundant spring of water, 
whose outlet was the river. The wigwams of the 
Indians ,were built of the bark of trees, set on 
poles, in the form of a sugar camp, with one square 
open, fronting a fire, and about the height of a 
man. The Wyandot tribe that day numbered 
about 500 warriors. By the treaty of Greenville, 
they ceded all their territory, and the majority, un- 
der their chief, removed to Upper Sandusky. The 
remainder lingered awhile, loath to leave the home 
of their ancestors, but as game became scarce, they, 
too, left for better hunting-grounds."* 

In April, 1798, Capt. Joseph Hunter, a bold, 
enterprising man, settled on Zane's trace, on the 
bank of the prairie, west of the crossings, at a 
place since known as "Hunter's settlement." For 
a time, he had no neighbors nearer than the set- 
tlers on the Muskingum and Scioto Rivers. He 
lived to see the country he had found a wilderness, 
full of the homes of industry. His wife was the 
first white woman that settled in the vjilley, and 
shared with him all the privations of a pioneer 

Mr. Hunter had not been long in the valley till 
he was joined by Nathaniel Wilson, John and Al- 
len Green, John and Joseph McMullen, Robert 
Cooper, Isaac Shaefer, and a few others, who 
erected cabins and planted corn. The next year, 
the tide of emigration came in with great force. 
In the spring, two settlements were made in Green- 
field Township, each settlement containing twenty 
or more families. One was called the Forks of 
the Hockhocking, the other, Yankeetown. Set> 
tlements were also made along the river below 
Hunter's, on Rush Creek, Raccoon and Indian 
Creeks, Pleasant Run, Felter's Run, at Tobeytown, 
Muddy Prairie, and on Clear Creek. In the fall, 
— 1799 — Joseph Loveland and Hezekiah Smith 
built a log grist-mill at the Upper Falls of the 
Hockhocking, afterward known as Rock Mill. 
This was the first mill on this river. In the latter 
part of the year, a mail route was established over 
the trace. The mail was carried through on horse- 
back, and, in the settlements in this locality, was 
left at the cabin of Samuel Coates, who lived on 
the prairie at the crossings of the river. 

*Lecture of George Anderson. — Howie's Collections. 




In the fall of the next year, Ebenezer Zane laid 
out Lancaster, which, until 1805, was known as 
New Lancaster. The lots sold very rapidly, at 
$50 eac]i, and, in less than one year, quite a vil- 
lage appeared. December 9, the Grovernor and 
Judges of the Northwest Territory organized 
Fairfield County, and made Lancaster the county 
seat. The next year. Rev. John Wright, of the 
Presbyterian Church, and Revs. Asa Shinn and 
James Quinn, of the Methodist Chdrch, came, and 
from that time on schools and churches were main- 

Not far from Lancaster are immense mural es- 
carpments of sandstone formation. They were 
noted among the aborigines, and were, probably, 
used by them as places of outlook and defense. 

The same summer Fairfield County was settled, 
the towns of Bethel and Williamsburg, in Cler- 
mont County, were settled and laid out, and in 
1800, the county was erected. 

A settlement was also made immediately south 
of Fairfield County, in Hocking County, by Chris- 
tian Westenhaver, a German, from near Hagers- 
town, Md. He came in the spring of 1798, and 
was soon joined by several families, who formed 
quite a settlement. The territory included in the 
county remained a part of Ross, Holmes, Athens 
and Fairfield, until 1818, when Hocking County 
was erected, and Logan, which had been laid out 
in 1816, was made the county seat. 

The country comprised in the county is rather 
broken, especially along the Hockhocking River. 
This broken country was a favorite resort of the 
Wyandot Indians, who could easily hide in the 
numerous grottoes and ravines made by the river 
and its affluents as the water cut its way through 
the sandstone rocks. 

In 1798, soon after Zane's trace was cut through 
the country, a Mr. Grraham located on the site of 
Cambridge, in G-uernsey County. His was then 
the only dwelling between Wheeling and Zanes- 
ville, on the trace. He remained here alone about 
two years, when he was succeeded by George Bey- 
mer, from Somerset, Penn. Both these persons 
kept a tavern and ferry over Will's Creek. In 
April, 1803, Mr. Beymer was succeeded by John 
Beatty, who came from Loudon, Va. His family 
consisted of eleven persons. The Indians hunted 
in this vicinity, and were frequent visitors at the 
tavern. In June, 1806, Cambridge was laid out, 
and on the day the lots were offered for sale, sev- 
eral families from the British Isle of Guernsey, 
near the coast of France, stopped here on their 

way to the West. They were satisfied with the 
location and purchased many of the lots, and some 
land in the vicinity. They were soon followed by 
other families from the same place, all of whom 
settling in this locality gave the name to the' county 
when it was erected in 1810. 

A settlement was made in the central part of the 
State, on Darby Creek, in Union .County, in the 
summer of 1798, by James and Joshua Ewing. 
The next year, they were joined by Samuel and 
David • Mitchell, Samuel Mitchell, Jr., Samuel 
Kirkpatrick and Samuel McCullough,and, in 1800, 
by George and Samuel Reed, Robert Snodgrass 
and Paul Hodgson. 

"James Ewing's farm was the site of an an- 
cient and noted Mingo town, which was deserted 
at the time the Mingo towns, in what is now Logan 
County, were destroyed by Gen. Logan, of Ken- 
tucky, in 1786. When Mr. Ewing took posses- 
sion of his farm, the cabins were still standihg, 
and, among others, the remains of a blacksmith's 
shop, with coal, cinders, iron-dross, etc. Jonathan 
Alden, formerly a prisoner among the Indians, 
says the shop was carried on by a renegade white 
ipan, named Butler, who lived among the Mingoes. 
Extensive fields had formerly been cultivated in 
the vicinity of the town."* 

Soon after the settlement was established. Col. 
James Curry located here. He was quite an influ- 
ential man, and, in 1820, succeeded in getting the 
county formed from portions of Delaware, Frank- 
lin, Madison and Logan, and a part of the old In- 
dian Territory. Marysville was made the county 

During the year 1789, a fort, called Fort Steu- 
ben, was built on the site of Steubenville, but was 
dismantled at the conclusion of hostilities in 1795. 
Three years after. Bezaleel Williams and Hon. 
James Ross, for whom Ross County was named, 
located the town of Steubenville about the old 
fort, and, by liberal offers of lots, soon attracted 
quite a number of settlers. In 1805, the town 
was incorporated, and then had a population of 
several hundred persons. Jefferson County was 
created by Gov. St. Clair, July 29, 1797, the year 
before Steubenville was laid out. It then included 
the large scope of country west of Pennsylvania ; 
east and north of a line from the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga ; southwardly to the Muskingum, and 
east to the Ohio ; including, in its territories, the 
cities of Cleveland, Canton, Steubenville and War- 

=^ Howe's Collections. 





ren. Only a short time, however, was it allowed 
to retain this size, as the increase in emigration 
rendered it necessary to erect new counties, which 
was rgj)idly done, especially on the adoption of the 
State government. 

The county is rich in early history, prior to its 
settlement by the Americans. It was the home of 
the celebrated Mingo chief, Logan, who resided 
awhile at an old Mingo town, a few miles below the 
site of Steubenville, the place where the troops 
under Col. WilUamson rendezvoused on their in- 
famous raid against the Moravian Indiana ; and 
also where Col. Crawford and his men met, when 
stai'ting on their unfortunate expedition. 

In the Reserve, settlements were often made 
remote from populous localities, in accordance with 
the wish of a proprietor, who might own a tract of 
country twenty or thirty miles in the interior. In 
thepresentcounty of Geauga, three families located 
at Burton in 1798. They lived at a considerable 
distance from any other settlement for some time, 
and were greatly inconvenienced for the want of 
mills or shops. As time progressed, however, 
these were brought nearer, or built in their midst, 
and, ere long, almost all parts of the Reserve could 
show some settlement, even if isolated. 

The next year, 1799, settlements were made at 
Ravenna, Deerfield and Palmyra, in Portage 
County. Hon. Benjamin Tappan came to the site 
of Ravenna in June, at which time he found one 
white man, aMr. Honey, living there. Atthis date, 
a solitary log cabin occupied the sites of BuiFalo and 
Cleveland. On his journey from New England, 
Mr. Tappan fell in with David Hudson, the founder 
of the Hudson settlement in Summit County. 
After many days of travel, they landed at a prairie in 
Summit County. Mr. Tappan left his goods in a 
cabin, built for the purpose, under the care of a hired 
man, and went on his way, cutting a road to the 
site of Ravenna, where his land lay. On his return 
for a second load of goods, they found the cabin 
deserted, and evidences of its plunder by the In- 
dians. Not long after, it was learned that the man 
left in charge had gone to Mr. Hudson's settle- 
ment, he having set out immediately on his arrival, 
for his own land. Mr. Tappan gathered the re- 
mainder of his goods, and started back for Ravenna. 
On his way one of his oxen died, and he found 
himself irt a vast forest, away from any habitation, 
and with one dollar in money. He did not faker 
a moment, but sent his hired man, a faithful fellow, 
to Erie, Penn., a distance of one hundred miles 
•through the wilderness, with the compass for his 

guide, requesting from Capt. Lyman, the com- 
mander at the fort there, a loan of money. At 
the same tiAe, he followed the township lines to 
Youngstown, where he became acquainted with 
Col. James Hijlman, who did not hesitate to sell • 
him an ox on credit, at a faiir price. He returned 
to his load in a few days, found his ox all right, 
hitched the two together and went on. He was 
soon joined by his hired man, with the money, and 
together they spent the winter in a log cabin. He 
gave his man one hundred acres of land as a reward, 
and paid Col. Hillman for the ox. In a year or 
two he had a prosperous settlement, and when the 
county was erected in 1807, Ravenna was made 
the seat of justice. 

About the same time Mr. Tappan began his 
settlement, others were commenced in other locali- 
ties in this county. Early in May, 1799, Lewis 
Day and his son Horatio, of Granby, Conn., and 
Moses Tibbals and Green Frost, of Granville, 
Mass., left their homes in a one-horse wagon, and, 
the 29th of May, arrived in what is now Deerfield 
Township. Theirs was the first wagon that had 
ever penetrated farther westward in this region 
than Canfield. The country west of that place 
had been an unbroken wilderness until within a 
few days. Capt. Caleb Atwater, of Wallingford, 
Conn., had hired some men to open a road to 
Township No. 1, in the Seventh Range, of which 
he was the owner. This road passed through 
Deerfield, and was completed to that place when 
the party arrived at the point of their destination. 
These emigrants selected sites, and commenced 
clearing the land. In July, Lewis Ely arrived 
from Granville, and wintered here, while those 
who came first, and had made their improvements, 
returned East. The 4th of March, 1800, Alva 
Day (son of Lewis Day), John Campbell and- 
Joel Thrall arrived. In April, George and Rob- 
ert Taylor and James Laughlin, from Pennsylvania, 
with their families, came. Mr. Laughlin built a 
grist-mill, which was of great convenience to the 
settlers. July 29, Lewis Day returned with 
his family and his brother-in-law, Maj. Rogers, 
who, the next year, also brought his family. 

" Much suffering was experienced at first on 
account of the scarcity of provisions. They were 
chiefly supplied from the settlements east of the 
Ohio River, the nearest of which was Georgetown, 
forty miles away. The provisions were brought 
on pack-horses through the wilderness. August 
22, Mrs. Alva Day gave birth to a child — a fe- 
male — the first child born in the township. 




November 7, the first wedding took place. John 
Campbell and Sarah Ely were joined in wedlock 
by Calvin Austin, Esq., of Warreft. He was 
accompanied from Warren, a distance of twenty- 
seven miles, by Mr. Pease, then ^ lawyer, after- 
ward a well-known Judge. They came on foot, 
there being no road; and, as they threaded their 
way through the woods, young Pease taught the 
Justice the marriage ceremony by oft repetition. 

" In 1802, Franklin Township was organized, em- 
bracing all of Portage and parts of Trumbull and 
Summit Counties. About this time the settlement 
received accessions from all parts of the East. In 
February, 1801, Rev. Badger came and began his 
labors, and two years later Dr. Shadrac Bostwick 
organized a Methodist Episcopal church.* The 
remaining settlement in this county, Palmyra, was 
begun about the same time as the others, by David 
Daniels, from Salisbury, Conn. The next year he 
brought out his family. Soon after he was joined 
by E. N. and W. Bacon, E. Cutler, A. Thurber, 
A. Preston, N. Bois, J. T. Baldwin, T. and C. 
Gilbert, D. A. and S. Waller, N. Smith, Joseph 
Fisher, J. Tuttle and others. 

" When-this region was first settled, there was 
an Indian trail commencing at Fort Mcintosh 
(Beaver, Penn.), and extending westward to San- 
dusky and Detroit. The trail followed the highest 
ground. Along the trail, parties of Indians were 
frequently seen passing, for several years after the 
whites came. It seemed to be the great aboriginal 
thoroughfare from Sandusky to the Ohio River. 
There were several large piles of stones on the 
trail in this locality, under which human skeletons 
have been discovered. These are supposed to be 
the remains of Indians slain in war, or murdered 
by their enemies, as tradition says it is an Indian 
custom for each one to cast a stone on the grave 
of an enemy, whenever he passes by. These stones 
appear to have been picked up along the trail, and 
cast upon the heaps at difierent times. 

"At the point where this trail crosses Silver 
Creek, Fredrick Daniels and others, in 1814, dis- 
covered, painted on several trees, various devices, 
evidently the work of Indians. The bark was 
carefully shaved ofi" two-thirds of the way around, 
and figures cut upon the wood. On one cff these 
was'deUneated seven Indians, equipped in a par- 
ticular manner, one of whom was without a head. 
This was supposed to have been made by a party 
on their return westward, to give intelligence to 

* Howe*8 Collections. 

their friends behind, of the loss of one of their 
party at this place ; and, on making search, a hu- 
man skeleton was discovered near by." * 

The celebrated Indian hunter, Brady, made his 
remarkable leap across the Cuyahoga, in this 
county: The county also contains Brady's Pond, 
a large sheet of water, in which he once made his 
escape from the Indians, from which circumstance 
it received its name. 

The locality cpmprised in Clark County was 
settled the same summer as those in Summit County. 
John Humphries came to this part of the State 
with G-en. Simon Kenton, in 1799. With them 
came six families from Kentucky, who settled 
north of the site of Springfield. A fort was 
erected on Mad River, for security against the In- 
dians. Fourteen cabins were soon built near it, 
all being surrounded by a strong picket fence. 
David Lowery, one of the pioneers here, built the 
first flat-boat, to operate on the Great Miami, and, 
in 1800, made the first trip on that river, coining 
down from Dayton. He took his boat and cargo 
on down to New Orleans, where he disposed of his- 
load of " five hundred venison hams and bacon." 

Springfield was laid out in March, 1801. Griflith 
Foos, who came that spring, built a tavern, which 
he completed and opened in June, remaining in 
this place till 1814. He often stated that when 
emigrating West, his party were four days and a 
half getting from Pranklinton, on the Scioto, to 
Springfield, a distance of forty-two miles. When 
crossing the Big Darby, they were obliged to carry 
all their goods over on horseback, and then drag 
their wagons across with ropes, while some of the 
party swam by the side of the wagon, to prevent 
its upsetting. The site of the town was of such 
practical beauty and utility, that it soon attracted 
a large number of settlers, and, in a few years, 
Springfield was incorporated. In 1811, a church 
was built by the residents for the use of all denom- 

Clark County is made famous in aboriginal 
history, as the birthplace and childhood home of 
the noted Indian, Tecumseh.f He was born in 

* Howe's CollectioDB, 

■j-TecumBeh, or Tecumshe,'was a tfon of Puckeshinwa, a member 
of the Kiscopoke tribe, and Hethoatafike, of the Turtle tribe of the 
Shawanee nation. They removed from Florida to Ohio Boon after 
their marriage. The father, PuckeshiDwa, rose to the rank of a chief, 
and fell at the battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774, Aft^his deatb, 
the mother, Methoata-ke, returned to ttie south, where^he died at 
an advanced age. Tecum^eh was born about the year 1768. He 
early showed a passion for war, and, when only 27 years of age, was 
made a chief. The next year he removed to Deer Creek, in the 
vicinity of Urbana, and from there to the site of Piqua; on tlie 
Great Miami, In 1798 he accepted the invitation of the Delawares 
in the vicinity of White Biver, Indiana, and from that time made 





the old Indian town of Piqua, the ancient Piqua 
of the Shawanees, on the north side of Mad River, 
about five miles west of Springfield. The .town 
was destroyed by the Kentucky Rangers under 
Gen. George Rogers Clarke in 1780, at the same 
time he destroyed " Did Chillicothe." Immense 
fields of standing corn about both towns were cut 
down, compelling the Indians to resort to the hunt 
with more than ordinary vigor, to sustain them- 
selves and tlieir wives and children. This search 
insured safety for some time on the borders. The 
site of Cadiz, in Harrison County, was settled in 
April, 1799, by Alexander Henderson and his 
family, from Washington County, Penn. When 
they arrived, they found neighbors in the persons 
of Daniel Peterson and his family, who lived near 
the forks of Short Creek, and who had preceded 
them but a very short time. The next year, emi- 
grants began to cross the Ohio in great numbers, 
and in five or six years large settlements could be 
s jcn in this part of the State. The county was 
erected in 1814, and Cadiz, laid out in 1803, made 
the county seat. 

While the settlers were locating in and about 
Cadiz, a few families came to what is now Monroe 
County, and settled near the present town of 
Beallsville. Shortly after, a few persons settled on 
the Clear Pork of the Little Muskingum, and a 
few others on the east fork of Duck Creek. The 

next season all these settlements received addi- 
tions and a few other localities were also occupied. 
Before long the town of Beallsville was laid 
out, and in time became quite populous. The 
county was not erected until 1813, and in 1815 
Woodsfield was laid out and made the seat of 
justice. ' 

The opening of the season of 1800 — the dawn 
of a new century — saw a vast emigration west 
ward. Old settjements in Ohio received immense 
increase of emigrants, while, branching out in all 
directions like the radii of a circle, other settle- 
ilients were constantly formed until, in a few years, 
all parts of the State knew the presence of the 
white man. 

Towns sprang into existence here and there ; 
mills and factories were erected; post ofiices and 
post-routes were established, arid the comforts and 
conveniences of life began to appear. 

With this came the desire, so potent to the mind 
of all American citizens, to rule themselves through 
representatives chosen by their own votes. Hith- 
erto,4hey had been ruled by a Governor and Judges 
appointed by the President, who, in turn, appointed 
county and judicial ofiioers. The arbitrary rulings 
of the Governor, St. Clair, had arrayed the mass 
of the people against him, and made the desire for 
the second grade of government stronger, and 
finally led to its creation. 



SETTLEMENTS increased so rapidly in that j 
part of the Northwest Territory included in 
Ohio, during the decade from 1788 to 1798, 
despite the Indian war, that the demand for an 
election of a Territorial Assembly could not be 
ignored by Gov. St. Clair, who, having ascertained 
that 5,000 free males resided within the limits of 
the Territory, issued his proclamation October 29, 
1798, directing the electors to elect representatives 
to a General Assembly. He ordered the election 

hia hnme with them. He was most active in the war of 1812 
agairiattheAinericaDS, and from the time he began his worl£ to 
unite the tribes, his history is so closely identified therewith that 
the readpr is referred to the history of that war in succeeding pages. 
It may notbe amiss to say that all stories regarding the manner 
of his death are considered erroneous. He was undoubtedly killed 
in the outset of the battle uf the Thames in Canada in 1814, and his 
body secretly buried by the Indians. 

to be held on the third Monday in December, and 
directed the representatives to meet in Cincinnati 
January 22, 1799. 

On the day designated, the representatives * 
assembled at Cincinnati, nominated ten persons, 
whose names were sent to the President, who 
selected five to constitute the Legislative Council, 

* Those elected were: from Washington County, Return Jona- 
than Meigs and Paul Fearing; from Hamilton County, William 
Goforth, William McMillan, John Smith, John Ludlow, Robert 
Benham, Aaron Ca1dw?ll and Isaac Martin; from St. Clair County 
(Illinois), Shadrach Bond; from Knox County (Indiana), John 
Small; from llandolph County (Illinois), John Edgar; from Wayne 
County, So'omon Sibley, Jacob Visgar and Charles F, Chabart de 
Joncavie ; from Adams County, Joseph Darlington and Nathaniel 
Massie; from Jefferson County, James Pritchard ; from Boss County, 
Thomas Woi thington, Elias Langham, Samuel Findley and Edward 
Tiffin. The five gentlemen chosen as the Upper House were all 
from counties afterward included in'Ohio. 




or Upper House. These five were- Jacob Burnet, 
■ James Findley, Henry Vanderburgh, Robert 
Oliver and David Vance. On the 3d of March, 
the Senate confirmed their nomination, and the 
Territorial Government of Ohio* — or, more prop- 
erly, the Northwest — was complete. As this 
comprised the essential business of this body, it 
was prorogued by the Governor, and the Assembly 
■directed to meet at the same place September 16, 
1799, and proceed to the enactment of laws for 
the Territory. 

That day, the Territorial Legislature met again 
at Cincinnati, but, for want of a quorum, did no* 
organize until the 24th. The House consisted of 
nineteen members, seven of whom were from Ham- 
ilton County, four from Ross, three from Wayne, 
two from Adams, one from Jefferson, one from 
Washington and One from Knox. Assembling 
both branches of the Legislature, Gov. St. Clair 
addressed them, recommending such measures to 
their consideration as, in his judgment, were suited 
to the condition of the country. The Council 
then organized, electing Henry Vanderburgh, Presi- 
dent ; William C. Schenck, Secretary; George 
Howard, Doorkeeper, and Abraham Carey, Ser- 

The House also organized, electing Edward Tif- 
fin, Speaker; John Reilly,. Clerk; Joshua Row- 
land, Doorkeeper, and Abraham Carey, Sergeant- 

This was the first legislature elected in the old 
Northwestern Territory. During its first session, 
it passed thirty bills, of which the Governor vetoed 
eleven. They also elected William Henry Harri- 
son, then Secretary of the Territory, delegate to 
Congress. The Legislature continued in session 
till December 19, having much to do in forming 
new laws, when they were prorogued by the Gov- 
ernor, until the first Monday in November, 1800. 
The second session was held in ChiUicothe, which 
had been designated as the seat of government by 
Congress, until a permanent capital should be 

May 7, 1800, Congress passed an act establish- 
ing Indiana Territory, including all the country 
west of the Great Miami River to the Mississippi, 
and appointed William Henry Harrison its Gov- 
ernor. At the autumn session of the Legislature 

* Ohio never existed as a Territory proper. It was known, both 
before and after the division of the Northwest Territory, as the 
"Territory northwest of the Ohio Biver." Still, as the country 
comprised in its Jimits was the principal theater of action, the short 
resume given here is made necessary in the logical course of events. 
Ohio, a« Ohio, never existed until the creation of the State in 
March, 1803. 

of the eastern, or old part of the Territory, Will- 
iam McMillan and Paul Fearing were elected to 
the vacancies caused by this act. By the organ- 
ization of this Territory, the counties of Knox, St., 
Clair and Randolph, were taken out of the juris- 
diction of the old Territory, and with them the 
representatives, Henry Vandenburgh, Shadrach 
Bond, John Small and John Edgar. 

Before the time for the next Assembly came, a 
new election had occurred, and a few changes were 
the result. Robert Oliver, of Marietta, was cho- 
sen Speaker in the place of Henry Vanderburgh. 
There was considerable business at this session ; 
several new counties were to be erected ; the coun- 
try was rapidly filling with people, and where the 
scruples of the Governor could be overcome, some 
organization was made. He was very tenacious of 
his power, and arbitrary in his rulings, affirming 
that he, alone, had the power to create new coun- 
ties. This dogmatic exercise of his veto power, 
his rights as ruler, and his defeat by the Indians, 
all tended against him, resulting in his displace- 
ment by the President. This was done, however, 
just at the time the Territory came from the second 
grade of government, and the State was created. 

The third session of the Territorial Legislature 
continued from November 24, 1801, to January 
23, 1802,' when it adjourned to meet in Cincin- 
nati, the fourth Monday in November, but 
owing to reasons made obvious "hj subsequent 
events, was never held, and the third session 
marks the decline of the Territorial government. 

April 30, 1802, Congress passed an act "to 
enable the people of the eastern division of the 
territory northwest of the Ohio River, to form a 
constitution and State government, and for the 
admission of such States into the Union on 
an equal footing with the original States, and for 
other purposes." In pursuance of this act, an 
election had been held in this part of the Territory, 
and members of a constitutional convention cho- 
sen, who were to meet at ChiUicothe, November 
1, to perform the duty assigned them. 

The people throughout the country contemplat- 
ed in the new State were anxious for the adoption 
of a State government. The arbitrary acts of the 
Territorial Governor had heightened this feeling ; 
the census of the Territory gave it the lawfiil 
number of inhabitants, and nothing stood in its 

The convention met the day designated and 
proceeded at once to its duties. When the time 
arrived for the opening of the Fourth Territorial 




Legislature, the convention was in session and had 
evidently about completed its labors. The mem- 
bers of the Legislature (eight of whom were mem- 
bers of the convention) seeing that a speedy 
termination of the Territorial government was inev- 
itable, wisely concluded it was inexpedient and 
unnecessary to hold the proposed session. 

The convention concluded its labors the ,29th of 
November. The Constitution adopted at that time, 
though rather .crude in some of its details, was an 
excellent organic instrument, and remained almost 
entire until 1851, when the present one was 
adopted. Either is too long for insertion here, 
but either will well pay a perusal. The one adopted 
by the convention in 1802 was never submitted 
to the people, owing to the circumstances of the 
times ; but it was submitted to Congress February 
19, 1803, and by that body accepted, and an act 
passed admitting Ohio, to the Union. 

The Territorial government ended March 3, 
1803, by the organization, that day, of the State 
government, which organization defined the pres- 
ent limits of the State. 

" We, the people of the Eastern Division of the Ter- 
ritory 01 the United States, Northwest of the River 
Ohio, having the right of admission into the General 
Governmeut'as a member of the Union, consistent with 
the Constitution of the United States, the Ordinance 
of Congress of one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
seven, and of the law of Congress, entitled ' An act to 
enable the people of the Eastern Division of the Terri- 
tory of the United States Northwest of the River Ohio', 
to form a Constitution and a State Government, and for 
the admission of such State into the Union on an equal 
footing with the original States, and for other purpo- 
ses ;' in order to establish justice, promote the well- 
fare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves 
and our posterity, do ordain and establish the follow- 
ing Constitution or form of government; and do mu- 
tually agree with each other to form ourselves into a 
free and independent State, by the name of the State 
of Ohio."* — Preamble, Constitution of 1802. 

When the convention forming the Constitution, 
completed its labors and presented the results to 
Congress, and that body passed the act forming 

* The name of the State is derived from the river forming its 
sonthern boundai'y. Its origin is somewhat obscure, hut is com- 
monly ascribed to the Indians. On this point, Col. Johnston says; 
"The Shawanoese called the Ohio Kiver'Sw-fce-pi-k, Bepe, i. e., ^Eagle 
Biver,^ The WyantJors were in the country generations betore the 
Shawanoese, and, consequently, their nameof the river is the prim- 
itive one and should stand in preference to all others. Ohio may 
be called an improvement on the expression, ^0-he-zuhf* and was, lio 
doubt, adopted by the early French voyagers in their boat-songs, 
and is substantially the same wora as used by the Wyandots: the 
meaning iipplied by the French, fair and beautiful ^ la heUe river * 
being the same precisely as that meant by the Indians — 'great, 
grand and fair to look upon.' " — Sowers Collections, 

Webster's r>ictionar.v gives the word as of Indian. origin, and it* 
meaning to be, ** Beautiful." 

the State, the territory included therein was di- 
vided into nine counties, whose names and dates of 
erection were as follows: 

Washington, July 27, 1788 ; Hamilton, Janu- 
ary 2, 1790; (owing to the Indian war no other 
counties were erected till peace was restored); Ad- 
ams, July 10, 1797; Jefferson, July 29, 1797; 
Ross, August 20, 1798; Clermont, Fairfield and 
Trumbull, December 9, 1800; Belmont, Septem- 
ber 7, 1801. These counties were the thickest- 
settled part of the State, yet many other localities 
needed organization and were clamoring for it, but 
owing to St. Clair's views, he refused to grant 
their requests. One of the firfet acts on the as- 
sembling of the State Legislature, March 1, 1803, 
was the creation of seven new counties, viz., Gal- 
lia, Scioto, Geauga, Butler, Warren, Greene and 

Section Sixth of the "Schedule'' of the Consti- 
tution required an election for the various officers 
and Representatives necessary under the new gov- 
ernment, to be held the second Tuesday of Janu- 
ary, 1803, these officers to take their seats and as- 
sume their duties March 3. The Second Article 
provided for the regular elections, to be held on 
the second Tuesday of October, in each year. The 
Governor elected at first was to hold his office 
until the first regular election could be held, and 
thereafter to continue in office two years. 

The January elections placed Edward Tiffin in 
the Governor's office, sent Jeremiah Morrow to 
Congress, and chose an Assembly, who met on the 
day designated, at Chillicothe. Michael Baldwin 
was chosen Speaker of the House, and Nathaniel 
Massie, of the Senate. The Assembly appointed 
William Creighton, Jr., Secretary of State ; Col. 
Thomas Gibson, Auditor ; William McFarland, 
Treasurer; Return J. Meigs, Jr., Samuel Hun- 
tington and William Sprigg, Judges of the Su- 
preme Court; Francis Dunlevy, Wyllys Silliman 
and Calvin Pease, President Judges of the First, 
Second and Third Districts, and Thomas Worth- 
ington and John Smith, United States Senators. 
Charles Willing Byrd was made the United States 
District Judge. 

The act of Congress forming the State, con- 
tained certain requisitions regarding public schools, 
the " salt springs," public lands, taxation of Gov- 
ernment lands, Symmes' purchase, etc., which the 
constitutional convention agreed to with a few 
minor considerations. These Congress accepted, 
and passed the act in accordance thereto. The 
First General Assembly found abundance of work 

) >y 



to do regarding these various items, and, at once, 
set themselves to the task. Laws were passed re- 
garding all these ; new counties created ; officers 
appointed for the same, until they could be elected, 
and courts and machinery of government put in 
motion. President Judges and lawyers traveled 
their circuits holding courts, often in the open air 
or in a log shanty; a constable doing duty as 
guard over a jury, probably seated on a log under 
a tree, or in the bushes. The President Judge in- 
structed the officers of new counties in their duties, 
and though the whole keeping of matters accorded 
with the times, an honest feeling generally pre- 
vailed, inducing each one . to perform his part as 
eiFectuaUy as his knowledge permitted. 

The State continually filled with people. New 
towns arose all over the country. Excepting the 
occasional sicknesses caused by the new climate and 
fresh soil, the general health of the people im- 
proved as time went on. They were fiiUy in ac- 
cord with the President, Jefferson, and careliilly 
nurtured those principles of personal liberty en- 
grafted in the fundamental law'of 1787, and later, 
in the Constitution of the State. 

Little if any change occurred in the natural 
course of events, following the change of govern- 
ment until Burr's expedition and plan of secession 
in 1805 and 1806 appeared. What his plans 
were, have never been definitely ascertained. His 
action related more to the General Government, 
yet Ohio was called upon to aid in putting down 
his insurrection — for such it was thought to be — 
and defeated his purposes, whatever they were. 
His plans ended only in ignominious defeat ; the 
breaking-up of one of the finest homes in the 
Western country, and the expulsion of himself and 
all those who were actively engaged in his scheme, 
whatever its imports were. 

Again, for a period of four or five years, no 
exciting events occurred. Settlements continued ; 
mills and factories increased ; towns and cities 
grew ; counties were created ; trade enlarged, and 
naught save the common course of events trans- 
pired to mark the course of time. Other States 
were made from the old Northwest Territory, all 
parts of which were rapidly being occupied by 
settlers. The danger from Indian hostilities was 
little, and the adventurous whites were rapidly 
occupying their country. One thing, however, 
was yet a continual source of annoyance to the 
Americans, viz., the British interference with the 
Indians. Their traders did not scruple, nor fail 
on every opportunity, to aid these sons of the 

forest , with arms and ammunition as occasion 
offered, endeavoring to stir them up against the 
Americans, until events here and on the high seas 
culminated in a declaration of hostilities, and the 
war of 1812 was the result. The deluded red 
men found then, as they found in 1795, that .they 
were made tools by a stronger power, and dropped 
when the time came that they were no longer 

Before the opening of hostilities occurred, how- 
ever, a series of acts passed the General Assembly, 
causing considerable excitement. These were the 
famous " Sweeping Resolutions," passed in 1810. 
For a few years prior to their passage, considera- 
ble disQontent prevailed among many of the legis- 
lators regarding the rulings of the courts, and by 
many of these enibryo law-makers, the legislative 
power was considered omnipotent. They could 
change existing laws and contracts did they desire 
to, thought many of them, 'even if such acts con- 
flicted with the State and National Constitutions. 
The " Sweeping Resolutions " were, brought about 
mainly by the action of the judges in declaring 
that justices of the peace could, in the collection 
of debts, hold jurisdiction in amounts not exceed- 
ing fifty dollars without the aid of a jury. The 
Constitution of the United States gave the jury 
control in all such cases where the amount did not 
exceed twenty dollars. There was a direct con- 
tradiction against the organic law of the land — to 
which every other law and act is subversive, and 
when the judges declared the legislative act uncon- 
stitutional and hence null and void, the Legisla^ 
ture became suddenly inflamed at their independ- 
ence, and proceeded at once to punish the admin- 
istrators of justice. The legislature was one of 
the worst that ever controlled the State, and wa.s 
composed of many men who were not only igno- 
rant of common law, the necessities of a State, and 
the dignity and true import of their office, but 
were demagogues in every respect. Having the 
power to impeach officers, that body at once did 
so, having enough to carry a two-thirds majority, 
and removed several judges. Further maturing 
their plans, the " Sweepers," as they were known, 
construed the law appointing certain judges and 
civil officers for seven years, to mean seven years 
from the organization of the State, whether they 
had been officers that length of time or not. All 
officers, whether of new or old counties, were con- 
strued as included in the act, and, utterly ignoring 
the Constitution, an act was passed in January, 
1810, removing every civil officer in the State. 




February 10, they proceeded to fill all these va- 
cant offices, from State oncers dowji to the' lowest 
county office, either by appointment or by ordering 
an election in the manner prescribed by law. 

The Constitution provided that the office of 
judges should continue for seven years, evidently 
seven years from the time they were elected, and 
not from the date of the admission of the State, 
which latter construction this headlong Legisla- 
ture had construed as the meaning. Many of the 
counties had been organized but a year or two, 
others three or four years ; hence an indescribable 
confusion arose as soon as the new set of officers 
were appointed or elected. The new order of 
things could not be made to work, and finally, so 
utterly impossible did the justness of the proceed- 
ings become, that it was dropped. The decisions 
of the courts were upheld, and the invidious doc- 
trine of supremacy in State legislation received 
such a cheek that it is not likely ever to be repeated. 

Another act of the Assembly, during this pe- 
riod, shows its construction. Congress had granted 
a township of land for the use of a university, and 
located the township in Symmes' purchase. This 
Assembly located the university on land outside 
of this purchase, ignoring the act of Congress, as 
they had done before, showing not only ignorance 
of the true scope of law, but a lack of respect un- 
becoming such bodies. 

The seat of government was also moved from 
ChiUicothe to Zanesville, which vainly hoped to be 
made the permanent State capital, but the next 
session it was again taken to ChiUicothe, and com- 
missioners appointed to locate a permanent capital 

These commissioners were James Findley, Jo- 
seph Darlington, Wyllys Silliman, Reason Beall, 
and William McFarland. It is stated that they 
reported at first in favor of Dublin, a small town 
on the Scioto about fourteen miles above Colum- 
bus. At the session of 1812-13, the Assembly 
accepted the proposals of Col. James Johnston, 
Alexander McLaughlin, John Kerr, and Lyne 
Starling, who owned the site of Columbus. T)ie 
Assembly also decreed that the temporary seat of 
government should remain at ChiUicothe until the 
buildings necessary for the State officers should be 

erected, when it would be taken there, forever to 
remain. This was done in 1816, in December of 
that year the first meeting of the Assembly being 
held there. 

The site Selected for the capital was on the east 
bank o£the Scioto, about a mile below its junction 
with the Olentangy. Wide streets were laid out, 
and preparations for a city made. The expecta- 
tions of the founders have been, in this respect, re- 
alized. The town was laid out in the spring of 1812, 
under the direction of Moses Wright. A short 
time after, the contract for making it the capital was 
signed. June 18, the same day war was declared 
against Great Britain, the sale of lots took place. 
Among the early settlers were George McCor- 
mick, George B. Harvey, John Shields, Michael 
Patton, Alexander Patton, William Altman, John 
CoUett, William McElvain, Daniel Kooser, Peter 
Putnam, Jacob Hare, Christian Heyl, Jarvis, George 
and Benjamin Pike, William Long, and Dr. John 
M. Edminson. In 1814, a house of worship was 
built, a school opened, a newspaper — The Wtstern 
Intelligencer and Columbus Gazette, now the 
Ohio State Journal — was started, and the old 
State House erected. In 1816, the "Borough of 
Columbus" was incorporated, and a mail route once 
a week between ChiUicothe and Columbus started. 
In 1819, the old United States Court House was 
erected, and the seat of justice removed from 
Franklinton to Columbus. UntU 1826, times were 
exceedingly " slow " in the new capital, and but lit- . 
tie growth experienced. The improvement period 
revived the capital, and enlivened its trade and 
growth so that in 1834, a city charter was granted. 
The city is now about third in size in the State, 
and contains many of the most prominent public 
institutions. The present capitol buOding, one of 
the best in the West, is patterned somewhat after 
the national Capitol at Washington City. 

Prom the close of the agitation of the " Sweeping 
Resolutions," until the opening of the war of 1812, 
but a short time elapsed. In fact, scarcely had 
one subsided, ere the other was upon the country. 
Though the war was national, its theater of opera- 
tions was partly in Ohio, that State taking an act- 
ive part in its operations. Indeed, its Uberty 
depended on the war. 

^? c 

D \ 

-J! S 





From the organization of the first dvil government in the Northwest Territory (1788 to \?,02), of which the State of 

Ohio was apart, until the year 1880. 


(a) Arthur St. Clair 

*Charles Willing Byrd 

(b-\ Edward Tif&n 

(c) f Thomas Kirker 

Samuel Huntington 

(rf) Return Jonathan Meigs.. 

fOthniel Looker 

Thomas Worthington 

(e) Ethan Allen Brown 

f Allen Trimble 

Jeremiah Morrow 

Allen Trimble 

Duncan McArthur 

Robert Lucas 

Joseph Vance 

Wilson Shannon 

Thomas Corwin 

(/) Wilson Shannon 

JThomas W. Hartley 

Mordecai Bartley 

William Bebb 

(g) Seabury Ford 

(A) Reuben Wood 

(y)1f William Medill 

Salmon P. Chase 

WiUiam Dennison 

David Tod 

(ft) John Brough 

^Charles Anderson 

Jacob D. Cox 

Rutherford B. Hayes 

Edward F. Noyes 

William Allen 

11) Rutherford B. Hayes 

(m) Thomas L. Young 

Richard M. Bishop 

Charles Foster 














Champaign ... 




























































13, 1788 

3, 1803 

4, 1807 

12, 1808 
8, 1810 

14, 1814 

8, 1814 
14, 1818 

7, 1822 
28, 1822 
19, 1826 
18, 1830 

7, 1832 
33, 1836 
^3, 1838 
16, 1840 

14, 1842 

13, 1844 
3, 1844 

12, 1846 
22, 1849 

12, 1850 

15, 1853 

14, 1856 

9, 1860 

13, 1862 

12, 1864 
30, 1865 

9, 1866 

13, 1868 

8, 1872 
12, 1874 

14, 1876 
2, 1877 

14, 1878 
14, 1880 

Term Ended. 





































3, 1803 

4, 1807 

12, 1808 
8, 1810 

25, 1814, 

8, 1814 
14, 1818 

4, 1822 

28, 1822 
19, 1826 
18, 1830 

7, 1832 

13, 1836 

13, 1838 
16, 1840 

14, 1842 

13, 1844 
3, 1844 

12, 1846 
22, 1849 

12, 1850 

15, 1853 

14, 1856 

9, 1860 

13, 1862 

12, 1864 

29, 1865 
9, 1866 

13, 1868 

8, 1872 
12, 1874 

14, 1876 
2, 1877 

14, 1878 
14, 1880 

(a) Arthur St. Clair, of PeQnHylTania,,'ffa8 Governor of the North- 
west Territory, of which Ohio waa a part, from July 13, 1788, when the 
first civil government was established in the Territory, until about 
the close of the year 1802, when he was removed by the President. 

* Secretary of the Territory, and waa acting Governor of the 
Territory after the removal of Gov. St. Clair. 

(6) Resigned March 3, 1807, to accept the office of U. S. Senator. 

(c) Return Jonathan Meigs was elected Governor on the second 
Tuesday of October, 1807, over Nathaniel Maasie, who contested the 
election of Moiga, on the ground that "he had not been a resident of 
this State for four years next preceding the election, as required by 
the Constitution,'^ and the General Assembly, in joint convention, 
declared that he waa not eligible. The office waa not given to 
Maasie, nor does it appear, from the records that he claimed it, but 
Thomas Kirker, acting Governor, continued to discharge the duties 
of the office until December 12,1808, when Samuel Huntington was 
inaugurated, be having been, elected on the second Tuesday of 
October in that year. 

(d) Resigned March 25, 1814, to accept the office of Postmaster. 
General of the United States. 

(e) Resigned January 4, 1822. to accept the office of United 
States Senator. 

(.f ) Resigned April 13, 1844, to accept the office of Minister to 

(^) The result of the election in 1848 was not finally determined in 
joint convention of the two houses of the General Assembly until 
January 19, 1849, and the inauguration did not take place until the 
22d of that month. 

(A) Resigned July 15, 1853 to accept the office of Consul to Tal- ■ 

0) Elected in October, 1853, for the regular term, to commence 
on the second Monday of January, 1854. 

(k) Died August 29, 1865. 

+ Acting Governor. 

t Acting Governor, vice Wilson Shannon, resigned. 

\ Acting Governor, vice Reuben Wood, resigned. 

g Acting Governor, vice John Brough, deceased. 

(0 Resigned March 2, 1877, to accept the olfice of President of 
the United States. 

(m) Vice Rutherford B. Hayes, resigned. 

V Q 


@ !L^ 







IN June, 1812, war was declared against Great 
Britain. Before this, an act was passed by Con- 
gress, authorizing the increase of the regular army 
to thirty-five thousand troops, and a large force of 
volunteers, to serve twelve months. Under this 
act, Return J. Meigs, then Governor of Ohio, in 
April and May, 1812, raised three regiments of 
troops to serve twelve months. They rendez- 
voused at Dayton, elected their officers, and pre- 
pared for the campaign. These regiments were 
numbered First, Second and Third. Duncan Mc- 
Arthur was Colonel of the First ; James Findlay, 
of the Second, and Lewis Caes, of the Third. 
Early in June these troops marched to Urbana, 
where they were joined by Boyd's Fourth Regiment 
of regular troops, under command of Col. Miller, 
who had been in the battle of Tippecanoe. Near 
the middle of June, this little army of about 
twenty-five hundred men, under command of Gov. 
William Hull, of Michigan, who had been author- 
ized by Congress to raise the troops, started on 
its northern march. By the end of June, the 
army had reached the Maumee, after a very severe 
march, erecting, on the way, Forts McArthur, Ne- 
cessity and Findlay. By soij^e carelessness on the 
part of the American Government, no official word 
had been sent to the frontiers regarding the war, 
while the British had taken an early precaution to 
prepare for the crisis. Gov. Hull was very care- 
ful in military etiquette, and refused to march, or 
do any offensive acts, unless commanded by his 
superior officers at Washington. While at the 
Maumee, by a careless move, all his personal 
effects, including all his plans, number and strength 
of his army, etc., fell into the hands of the enemy. 
His campaign ended only in ignominious defeat, 
and well-nigh paralyzed future efforts. All Mich- 
igan fell into the hands of the British; The com- 
mander, though a good man, lacked bravery and 
promptness. Had Gen. Harrison been in corn- 
mand no such results would have been the case, 
and the war would have probably ended at the 

Before Hull had surrendered, Charles Scott, 
Governor of Kentucky, invited Gen. Harrison, 

Governor of Indiana Territory, to visit Frankfort, 
to consult on the subject of defending the North- 
west. Gov. Harrison had visited Gov. Scott, and 
in August, 1812, accepted the appointment of 
Major General in the Kentucky militia, and, by 
hasty traveling, on the receipt of the news of the 
surrender of Detroit, reached Cincinnati on the 
morning of the 27th of that month. On the 30th 
he left Cincinnati, and the next day overtook the 
army he was to command, on its way to Dayton. 
After leaving Dayton, he was overtaken by an ex- ' 
press, informing him of his appointment by the 
Government as Commander-in-Chief of the armies 
of the Indiana and Illinois Territories. The army 
reached Piqua, September 3. From this place 
Harrison sent a body of troops to aid in the de- 
fense of Fort Wayne, threatened by the enemy. 
On the 6th he ordered all the troops forward, and 
while on the march, on September 17, he was 
informed of his appointment as commander of the 
entire Northwestern troops. He found the army 
poorly clothed for a winter campaign, now ap- 
proaching, and at once issued a stirring address to 
the people, asking for food and comfortable cloth- 
ing. The address was not in vain. • After his 
appointment, Gen. Harrisoh pushed on to Au- 
glaize, where, leaving the army under command of 
Gen. Winchester, he returned to the interior of the 
State, and establishing his headquarters at Frank- 
linton, began active measures for the campaign. 

Early in March, 1812, Col. John Miller raised, 
under orders, a regiment of infantry in- Ohio, and 
in July assembled his enlisted men at Chillicothe, 
where, placing them — ^only one hundred and forty 
in nuniber — under command of Captain Angus 
Lewis, he sent them on to the frontier. They erect- 
ed a block-house at Piqua and then went on to 
Defiance, to the main body of the armv. 

In July, 1812, Gen. Edward W."Tupper, of 
Gallia County, raised one thousand nien for six 
months' duty. Under orders from Gen. Winches- 
ter, they marched through Chillicothe and Urbana, 
on to the Maumee, where, near the lower end of 
the rapids, they made an ineffectual attempt to 
drive off the enemy. Failing in this, the enemy 





attacked Tupper and his troops, who, though worn 
down with the inarch and not a littk disorganized 
through the jealousies of the officers, withstood 
the attack, and repulsed the British and their red 
allies, who returned to Detroit, and the Americans 
to Fort MoArthur. 

In the fall of 1812, Gen. Harrison ordered a 
detachment of six hundred men, mostly mounted, 
to destroy the Indian towns on the Missisineway 
River, one of the head-waters of the Wabash. 
The winter set in early and with unusual severity. 
At the same time this expedition was carried on, 
Bonaparte was retreating from Moscow. The expe- 
dition accomplished its design, though the troops 
suffered greatly from the cold, no less than two 
hundred men being more or less frost bitten. 

Gen. Harrison determined at once to retake 
Michigan and establish a line of defense along the 
southern shores of the lakes. Winchester was 
sent to occupy Eorts Wayne and Defiance ;• Perkins' 
brigade to Lower Sandusky, to fortify an old 
stockade, and some Pennsylvania troops and artil- 
lery sent there at the same time. As soon as 
Gen. Harrison heard the results of the Missis- 
ineway expedition, he went to Chillicothe to con- 
sult with Gov. Meigs about further movements, 
and thebest methods to keep the way between the 
Upper Miami and the Maumee continually open. 
He also sent Gen. Winchester word to move for- 
ward to the rapids of the Maumee and prepare for 
winter quarters. This Winchester did by the 
middle of January, 1813, establishing himself on 
the northern bank of the river, just above Wayne's 
old battle-ground. He was well fixed here, and 
was enabled to give his troops good bread, made from 
corn gathered in Indian corn-fields in this vicinity. 

While here, the inhabitants of Frenchtown, on 
the Raisin River, about twenty miles from Detroit, 
sent Winchester word claiming protection from the 
threatened British and Indian invasion, avowing 
themselves in sympathy with the Americans. A 
council of war decided in favor of their request, 
and Col. Lewis, with 550 men, sent to their relief. 
Soon after. Col. Allen was sent with more troops, 
and the enemy easily driven away from about 
Frenchtown. Word was sent to Gen. Winchester, 
who determined to march with all the men he 
could spare to aid in holding the post gained. He 
left, the 19th of January, with 250 men, and ar- 
rived on the evening of the 20th. Failing to 
take the necessary precaution, from some unex- 
plained reason, the enemy came up in the night, 
established his batteries, and, the next day, sur- 

prised and defeated the American Army with a 
terrible loss. Gen. Winchester was made a pris- 
oner, and, finally, those who were intrenched in 
the town surrendered, under promise of Proctor, 
the British commander, of protection from the 
Indians. This promise was grossly violated the 
next day. The savages were allowed to enter the 
town and enact a massacre as cruel and bloody as 
any in the annals of the war, to the everlastiag 
ignominy of the British General and his troops. 

Those of the American Army that escaped, ar- 
rived at the rapids on the evening of the 22d of 
January, and soon the sorrowful news spread 
throughout the army and nations. Gen. Harrison 
set about retrieving the disaster at once. Delay 
could do no good. A fort was built at the rapids, 
named Fort Meigs, and troops from the south and 
west hurriedly advanced to the scene of action. 
The investment and capture of Detroit was aban- 
doned, that winter, owing to the defeat at French- 
town, and expiration of the terms of service of 
many of the troops. Others took their places, 
all parts of Ohio and bordering States sending 

The erection of Fort Meigs was an obstacle in 
the path of the British they determined to remove, 
and, on the 28th of February, 1813, a large band 
of British and Indians, under cornmand of Proc- 
tor, Tecumseh, Walk-in-the-water, and other In-' 
dian chiefs, appeared in the Maumee in boats, and 
prepared for the attack. Without entering into 
details regarding the investment of the fort, it is 
only necessary to add, that after a prolonged siege, 
lasting to the early part of May, the British were 
obliged to abandon the fort,-having been severely 
defeated, and sailed for the Canadian shores. 

Next followed the attacks on Fort Stephenson, 
at Lower Sandusky, and other predatory excur- 
sions, by the British. All of these failed of their 
design; the defense of Maj. Croghan and his men 
constituting one of the most brilliant actions of the 
war. For the gallant defense of Fort Stephenson by 
Maj. Croghan, then a young man, the army merited 
the highest honors. The ladies of Chillicothe voted 
the heroic Major a fine sword, while the whole 
land rejoiced at the exploits of him and his band. 

The decisive efforts of the army, the great num- 
bers of men offered — ^many of whom Gen. Harrison , 
was obliged to send home, much to their disgust — 
Perry's victory on Lake Erie,. September 10, 
1813 — all presaged the triumph of the American 
arms, soon to ensue. As soon as the battle on 
the lake was over, the British at Maiden burned 






their stores, and fled, while the Americtos, -under 
their gallant commander, followed them in Perry's 
vessel to the Canada shore, overtaking them on 
the River Thames, October 5. In the battle that 
ensued, Tecumseh was slain, and the British Army 

The war was now practically closed in.the West. 
Ohio troops had done nobly in defending their 
northern frontier, and in regaining the Northwest- 
ern country. Gen. Hai'rison was soon after elected 
to Congress by ' the Cincinnati district, and Gen. 
Duncan McArthur was appointed a Brigadier 
General in the regular army, and assigned to the 
command in his place. Gen. McArthur made an 
expedition into Upper Canada in the spring of 
1814, destroying considerable property, and driv- 
ing the British farther into their own dominions. 
Peace was declared early in 1815, and that spring, 
the troops were mustered out of service at Chilli- 
cothe, and peace with England reigned supreme. 

The results of. the war in Ohio were, for awhile, 
similar to the Indian war of 1795. It brought 
many people into the State, and opened new por- 
tions, before unknown. Many of the soldiers im- 
mediately invested their money in lands, and became 
citizens. The war drove many people from the 
Atlantic Coast west, and as a result much money, 
for awhile, circulated. Labor and provisions rose, 
which enabled both workmen and tradesmen to 
enter tracts of land, and aided emigration. At the 
conclusion of Wayne's war in 1795, probably 
not more than five thousand people dwelt in the 
limits of the State ; at the close of the war of 1812, 
that number was largely increased, even with the 
odds of war against them. After the last war, the 
emigration was constant and gradual, building up 
the State in a manner that betokened a healthful 

As soon as the effects of the war had worn off, 
a period of depression set in, as a result of too 
free speculation indulged in at its close. Gradu- 
ally a stagnation of business ensued, and many 
who found themselves unable to meet contracts 
made in " flush " times, found no alternative but 
to fail. To relieve the pressure in all parts of 
the- West, Congress, about 1815, reduced the 
price of public lands from |2 to 11.25 
per acre. This measure worked no little 
hardship on those who owned large tracts of 
lands, for portions of which they had not fully 
paid, and as a consequence, these lands, as well 
as all others of this class, reverted to the 
Government. The general market was in New 

Orleans, whither goods were transported in flat- 
boats built especially for this pupose. This com- 
merce, though small and poorly repaid, was the 
main avenue of trade, and did much for the slow 
prosperity prevalent. The few banks in the State 
found their bills at a discount abroad, and gradu- 
ally becoming drained of their specie, "either closed 
business or failed, the major part of them adopt- 
ing the latter course. 

The steamboat began to be an important factor 
in the river navigation of the West about this 
period. The first boat to descend the Ohio .was 
the Orleans, built at Pittsburg in 1812, and in 
I)ecember of that year, while the fortunes of war 
hung over the land, she made her first trip from the 
Iron City to New Orleans, being just twelve days 
on the way. The second, built by Samuel Smith, 
was called the Comet, and made a trip as far 
south as Louisville, in the summer of 1813. The 
third, the Vesuvius, was built by Fulton, and went 
to New Orleans in 1814. The fourth, built by 
Daniel French at Brownsville, Penn,, made two 
trips to Louisville in the summer of 1814. The 
next vessel, tlife ^tna, was built by Fulton & 
Company in 1815. So fast did the business 
increase, that, four years after, more than 
forty steamers floated on the Western waters. 
Improvements in machinery kept pace with the 
building, until, in 1838, .a competent writer stated 
there w-ere no less than four hundred steamers in 
the West. Since then, the erection of railways 
has greatly retarded ship-building, and it is alto- 
gether probable the number has increased but 

The question of canals began to agitate the 
Western country during the decade succeeding the 
war. They had been and were being constructed 
in older countries, and presaged good and prosper- 
ous times. If only the waters of the lakes and 
the Ohio River could be united by a canal run- 
ning through the midst of the State, thought the 
people, prosperous cities and towns would arise on 
its banks, and commerce flow through the land. 
One of the firmest friends of such improvements 
was De Witt Clinton, who had been the chief man 
in forwarding the " Clinton Canal," in New York. 
He was among the first to advocate the feasibility 
of a canal connecting Lake Erie and the Ohio 
River, and, by the success of the New York canals, 
did much to bring it about. Popular writers of the 
day all urged the scheme, so that when the Assem- 
bly met, early in December, 1821, the resolution, 
offered by Micajah T. Williams, of Cincinnati, 




for the appointment of a committee of five mem- 
bers to take into consideration s6 much of the 
Governor's message as related to canals, and see if 
some feasible plan could not be adopted whereby a 
beginning could be made, was quickly adopted. 

The report of the committee, advising a survey 
and examination of routes, met with the approval 
of the Assembly, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed who were to employ an engineer, examine 
the country and report on the practicability of a 
canal between the lakes and the rivers. The com- 
missioners employed James Greddes, of Onondaga 
County, N. Y., as an engineer. He arrived in 
Columbus in June, 1822, and, before eight months, 
the corps of engineers, under his direction, had 
examined one route. During the next two sum- 
mers, the examinations continued. A number of 
routes were examined and surveyed, and one, from 
Cleveland on the lake, to Portsmouth on the Ohio, 
was recommended. Another canal, from Cincin- 
nati to Dayton, on the ' Miami, was determined on, 
and preparations to commence work made. A 
Board of Canal Fund Commissioners was created, 
money was borrowed, and the morning of July 
4, 1825, the first shovelful of earth was dug near 
Newark, with imposing ceremonies, in the presence 
of De Witt Clinton, Grovernor of New York, and 
a mighty concourse of peoplg assembled to witness 
the auspicious event, i 

Gov. Clinton was escorted all over the State to 
aid in developing the energy everywhere apparent. 
The events were important ones in the history of 
the State, and, though they led to the creation of 
a vast debt, yet, in the end, the canals were a 

The main canal — ^the Ohio and Erie Canal — 
was not completed till 1832. The Maumee Canal, 
from Dayton to Cincinnati, was finishfed in 1834. 
They cost the State about $6,000,000. Each of 
the main canals had branches leading to important 
towns, where their construction could be made 
without too much expense. The Miami and Mau- 
mee Canal, fr'om Cincinnati northward along the 
Miami River to Piqua, thence to the Maumee 
and on to the lake, was the largest canal made, 
and, for many years, was one of the most important 
in the State. It joined the Wabash Canal on the 
eastern boundary of Indiana, and thereby saved 
the construction of many miles by joining this 
great canal from Toledo to Evansville. 

The largest artificial lake in the world, it is said, 
was built to supply water to the Miami Canal. It 
exists yet, though the canal is not much used. It 

is in the eastern part of Mercer County, and is 
about nine miles long by from two to four wide. 
It was formed by raising two walls of earth from 
ten to thirty feet high, called respectively the east 
and west embankments ; the first of which is about 
two miles in length ; the second, about four. These 
walls, with the elevation of the ground to the 
north and south, formed a huge basin, to retain 
the water. The reservoir was commenced in 1837, 
and finished in 1845, at an expense of several 
hundred thousand dollars. When first built, dur- 
ing the accumulation of water, much malarial 
disease prevailed in the surrounding country, owing 
to the stagnant condition of the water. The citi- 
zens, enraged at what they considered an innova- 
tion of thair rights, met, and, during a dark night, 
tore out a portion of the lower wall, letting the 
water flow out. The damage cost thousands of 
dollars to repair. All who participated in the 
proceedings were liable to a severe imprisonment, 
but the state of feeling was such, in Mercer County, 
where the ofiense was committed, that no jury 
could be found that would try them, and the afiair 
gradually died out. 

The canals, so efficacious in their day, were, 
however, superseded by the railroads rapidly find- 
ing their way into the West. From England, 
where they were early used in the collieries, the 
transition to America was easy. 

The first railroad in the United States was built 
in the summer of 1826, from the granite quarry 
belonging to the Bunker Hill Monument Associa- 
tion to the wharf landing, three miles distant. The 
road was a slight decline from the quarry to 
the wharf, hence the loaded cars were pro- 
pelled by their own gravity. On their return,' 
when empty, they were drawn up by a single 
horse. Other roads, or tramways, quickly followed 
this. They were built at the Pennsylvania coal 
mines, in South Carolina, at New Orleans, and at 
Baltimore. Steam motive power was used in 1831 
or 1832, first in America on the Baltipiore & Ohio 
Eailroad, and in Charlestown, on a railroad there. 

To transfer these highways to the West#was the 
question of but a few years' time. The prairies of 
Illinois and Indiana ofiiered superior inducements 
to such enterprises, and, early in 1835, they began 
to be agitated there. In 1838, the first rail was 
laid in Illinois, at Meredosia, a little town on the 
Illinois River, on what is now the Wabash Railway. 

"The first railroad made in Ohio," writes Caleb 
Atwater, in his "History of Ohio," in 1838, "was 
finished in 1836 by the people of Toledo, a town 





some two years old then, situated near the mouth 
of Maumee River. The road extends westward in- 
to Michigan and is sorne thirty miles in length. 
There is a road about to be made from Cincinnati 
to Springfield. This road follows the Ohio River 
up to the Little Miami River, and there turns 
northwardly up its valley to Xenia, and, passing 
the Yellow Springs, reaches Springfield. Its length 
must be about ninety miles. The State will own 
one-half of the road, individuals and the city of 
Cincinnati the other half. This road will, no 
doubt, be extended to Lake Erie, at Sandusky 
City, within a few short years." 

"There is a railroad." continues Mr. Atwater, 
" about to be made from Painesville to the Ohio 
River. There are many charters for other roads, 
which will never be made." 

Mr. Atwater notes also, the various turnpikes as 
well as the famous National road from Baltimore 
westward, then completed only to the mountains. 
This latter did as much as any enterprise ever en- 
acted in building up and populating the West. 
It gave a national thoroughfare, which, for many 
years, was the principal wagon-way from the At- 
lantic to the Mississippi Valley. 

The railroad to which Mr. Atwater refers as 
about to be built from Cincinnati to Springfield, 
was what was known as the Mad River Railroad. 
It is commonly conceded to be the first one built 
in Ohio.* Its history shows that it was chartered 
March 11, 1836, that work began in 1837; that 
it was completed and opened for business from 
Cincinnati to Milford, in DecemWer, 1842; to Xe- 
nia, in August, 1845, and to Springfield, in Au- 
gust, 1846. It was laid with strap rails until 
about 1848, when the present form of rail was 

One of the earliest roads in Ohio was what was 
known as the Sandusky, M ansfield & Newark Rail- 
road. It was chartered at €rst as the Monroeville 
& Sandusky City Railroad, March 9, 1835. March 
12, 1836, the Mansfield & New Haven road was 
chartered; the Columbus & Lake Erie, March 12, 

1845, &nd the Huron & Oxford, February 27, 

1846. At first it ran only from Sandusky to 
Monroeville, then from Mansfield to Huron. These 

* Hod, E D. Mansfield states, in 1873, that the " first artui^l piece 
of railroad laid in Ohio, was made on the Cincinnati & Sandnslcy 
Bailroad; hut, ahout the same time wc have the Little Miami Rail- 
road, which was surveyed in 1836 and 1837. If this, the generally 
accepted opinion, is correct, then Mr. Atwater's statement as given, 
is wrong. His history is, howpver, generally conceded to be correct. 
Written in 1838, he surely ought to know whereof he was writing, 
as the railroads were then only in construction ; but few, if any, 
in oneratioD. 

two were connected and consolidated, and then ex- 
tended to Newark, and finally, by connections, to 

It is unnecessary to follow closely the history of 
these improvements through the years succeeding 
their introduction. At first the State owned a 
share in nearly all railroads and canals, but finally 
finding itself in debt about $15,000,000 for such 
improvements, and l^arning by its own and neigh- 
bors' experiences, that such policy was detrimental 
to the best interests of the people, abandoned the 
plan, and allowed private parties entire control of 
all such works. After the close of the Mexican 
war, and the return to solid values in 1 854 or there- 
abouts, the increase of railroads in all parts of Ohio, 
as well as all parts of the West, was simply marvel- 
ous. At this date there are more than ten thou- 
sand miles of railroads in Ohio, alongside of which 
stretch innumerable lines of telegraph, a system of 
swift messages invented by Prof. Morse, and adopted 
in the United States about 1851. 

About the time railroad building began to as- 
sume a tangible shape, in 1840, occurred the cele- 
brated political campaign known in history as the 
" Hard Cider Campaign." The gradual encroach- 
ments of the slave power in the West, its arrogant 
attitude in the Congress of the United States and 
in several State legislatures : its forcible seizure of 
slaves in the free States, and the enactment and 
attempted enforcement of the " ftigitive slave" law 
all tended to awaken in the minds of the Northern 
people an antagonism, terminating only in the late 
war and the abolishment of that hideous system in 
the United States. 

The "Whig Party*' strenuously urged the 
abridgment or confiflement of slavery . in the 
Southern States, and in the contest the party took 
a most active part, and elected William Henry 
Harrison President of the United States. As he 
had been one of the foremost leaders in the war of 
1812, a resident of Ohio, and one of its most pop- 
ular citizens, a log cabin and a barrel of cider were 
adopted as his exponents of popular opinion, a,g 
expressive of the rule of the common people repre- 
sented in the cabin and cider, in turn representing 
their primitive and simple habits of life. Though 
a rugged man when elected, he lived but thirty 
days after his inauguration, dying April 9, 1841, 
John Tyler, the Vice President, succeeded him in 
the office. 

The building of railroads ; the extension of com- 
merce ; the settlement of all parts of the State ; 
its growth in commerce, education, religion and 




population, are the ctief events from 1841 to the 
Mexican war. Hard times occurred about as often 
as they do now, preceded by " flush " times, when 
speculation ran rife, the people all infatuated with 

an insane idea that something could be had -for 
nothing. The bubble burst as oft^n as inflated, 
ruining many people, but seemingly teaching few 




THE Mexican War grew out of the question of 
the annexation of Texas, then a province of 
Mexico, whose territory extended to the Indian 
Territory on the north, and on up to the Oregon 
Territory on the Pacific Coast. Texas had been 
settled largely by Americans, who saw the condi- 
tion of affairs that would inevitably ensue did the 
country remain under Mexican rule. They first 
took steps to secede from Mexico, and then asked 
the aid of America to sustain them, and annex the 
country to itself. , » 

The Whig party and many others opposed this, 
chiefly on the grounds of the extension of slave 
territory. But to no avail. The war came on, 
Mexico was conquered, the war lasting from April 
20, 1846, to May 30, 1848. Fifty thousand vol- 
unteers were called ' for the war by the Congress, 
and $10,000,000 placed at the. disposal of the 
President, James K. Polk, to sustain the army and 
prosecute the war. 

The part that Ohio took in the war may be 
briefly summed up as follows : She had five vol- 
unteer regiments, five companies in the Fifteenth 
Infantry, and several independent companies, with 
her fill] proportion among the regulars. When' 
war was declared, it was something of a crusade to 
many; full of romance to 9thers; hence, many 
more were offered than could be received. , It was 
a campaign of romance to some, yet one of reality, 
ending in death, to many. 

When the first call for troops came, the First, 
Second and Third Regiments C)f infantry responded 
at once. Alexander Mitchd^ was made Colonel of 
the First; John D. Wellerits Lieutenant Colonel ; 

and Giddings, of Dayton, its Major. Thomas 

Hanna, one of the ablest lawyers in Ohio, started 
with the First as its Major, but, before the regi- 
ment left the State, he- was made a Brigadier 
General of Volunteers, and, at the battle of Mon- 
terey, distinguished himself ; and there contracted 

disease and laid down his life. The regiment's 
Colonel, who had been wounded at Monterey, came 
home, removed to Minnesota, and there died. 
Lieut. Col. Weller went to California after the 
close of the war. He was a representative from 
that State in the halls of Congress, and, at last, 
died in New Orleans. 

The Second Regiment was commanded by Col. 
George W. Morgan, now of Mount Vernon ; Lieut. 
Col. William Irwin, of Lancaster, and Maj. Will- 
iam Wall. After the war closed, Irwin settled in 
Texas, and remained there till he died. Wail lived 
out his days in Ohio. The regiment was never in 
active field service, but was a credit to the State. 

The officers of the Third Regiment were. Col. 
Samuel Curtis; Lieut. Col. G. W. McCook and 
Maj. John Love. The first two are now dead ; 
the Major lives in Connellsville. 

At the close of the first year of the war, these 
regiments (First,* Second and Third) were mustered 
out of service, as their term of enlistment had 

When the second year of the war began, the 
call for more troops on the part of the Government 
induced the Second Ohio Infantry to re-organize, 
and again enter the service. William Irwin, of the 
former organization, was chosen Colonel; WilUam 
Latham, of Columbus, Lieutenant Colonel, and 

Link, of Circleville, Major. All of them 

are now dead. 

The regular army was increased by, eight Ohio 
regiments of infantry, the Third Dragoons, and 
the Voltigeurs — light-armed soldiers. In the Fif- 
teenth Regiment of the United States Army, there 
were five Ohio companies. The others were three 
from Michigan, and two from Wisconsin. Col. 
Morgan, of the old Second, was made Colonel of 
the Fifteenth, and John Howard, of Detroit, an 
old artillery officer in the regular army. Lieutenant 
Colonel. Samuel Wood, a captain in the Sixth 






United States Infantry, was made Major ; but was 

afterward succeeded by Mill, of Vermont. 

The Fifteenth was in a number of skirmishes at first, 
and later in the battles of Contreras, Cherubusco 
and Chapultepec. At the battle of Cherubusco, 
the Colonel was severely wounded, and Maj. Mill, 
with several officers, and a large number of men, 
killed. For gallant service at Contreras, Col. Mor- 
gan, though only twenty-seven years old, was made 
a Brevet Brigadier G-eneral in the United States 
Army. Since the war he has delivered a number 
of addresses in Ohio, on the campaigns in Mex- 

The survivors of the war are now few. Though 
seventy-five thousand men from the United States 
went into that confiict, less than ten thousand now 
survive. They are now veterans, and as such de- 
light to recount their reminiscences on the fields of 
Mexico. They are all in the decline of life, and 
ere a generation passes away, few, if any, will be 

After the war, the continual growth of Ohio, 
the change in all its relations, necessitated a new 
organic law. The Constitution of 1852 was the 
result. It re-affirmed the political principles of 
the "ordinance of 1787 " and the Constitution of 
1802, and made a few changes necessitated by the 
advance made in the interim. It created the 
office of Lieutenant Grovernor, fixing the term of 
service at two years. This Constitution yet stands 
notwithstanding the prolonged attempt in 1873-74 
to create a new one. It is now the organic law of 

From this time on to the opening of the late war, 
the prosperity of the State received no check. 
Towns and cities grew ; railroads multiplied ; com- 
merce was extended ; the vacant lands were rapidly 
filled by settlers, and everything tending to the 
advancement of the people was well prosecuted. 
Banks, after much tribulation, had become in a 
measure somewhat secure, their only and serious 
drawback being their isolation or the confinement 
of their circulation to their immediate localities. 
But signs of a mighty contest were apparent. A 
contest almost without a parallel in the annals of 
history ; a contest between ft'eedom and slavery ; 
between wrong and right ; a contest that could 
only end in defeat to the wrong. The Republican 
party came into existence at the close of President 
Pierce's term, in 1855. Its object then was, prin- 
cipally, the restriction of the slave power ; ultimately 
its extinction. One of the chief exponents and sup- 
porters of this growing party in Ohio, was Salmon P. 

Chase ; one who never faltered nor lost faith ; and 
who was at the helm of State ; in the halls of Con 
gress; chief of one the most important bureaus of 
the Government, and, finally, Chief Justice of the 
United States. When war came, after the election 
of Abraham Lincoln by the Republican party, Ohio 
was one of the first to answer to the call for troops. 
Mr. Chase, while Grovernor, had re-organized the 
militia on a sensible basis, and rescued it from the 
ignominy into which it had fallen. When Mr. 
Lincoln asked for seventy-five thousand men, 
Ohio's quota was thirteen regiments. The various 
chaotic regiments and militia troops in the State 
did not exceed 1,500 men. The call was issued 
April 15, 1861 ; by the 18th, two regiments were 
organized in Columbus, whither these companies 
had gathered; before sunrise of the 19th the first 
and second regiments were on their way to Wash- 
ington City. The President had only asked for 
thirteen regiments; thirty were gathering; the 
Government, not yet fully comprehending the 
nature of the rebellion, refused the surplus troops, 
but Gov. Dennison was authorized to put ten 
additional regiments in the field, as a defensive 
measure, and was also authorized to act on the 
defensive as well as on the ofiensive. The immense 
extent of southern border made this necessary, 
as all the loyal people in West Virginia and Ken- 
tucky asked for help. 

In the limits of this history, it is impossible to 
trace - all the steps Ohio took in the war. One of 
her most talented sons, now at the head of one of 
the greatest newspapers of the world, says, regard- 
ing the action of the people and their Legislature : 

" In one part of the nation there existed a grad- 
ual growth of sentiment against the Union, ending 
in open hostility against its integrity and its Con- 
stitutional law; on the other side stood a resolute, 
and determined people, though divided in minor 
matters, firmly united on the question of national 
supremacy. The people of Ohio stood squarely 
on this side. Before this her people had been di- 
vided up to the hour when — 

" ' That fierce and sudden flash across the rugged black- 
ness broke, 

And, with a voice that skook the land, the guns of Sum- 
ter spoke; 

And whereso'er the summons came, there rose the 

angry din, 
As when, upon a rocky coast, a stormy tide sets in.' 

" All waverings then ceased among the people 
and in the Ohio Legislature. The Union must be 

^ir* — a 



i> 2^ 



preserved. The white heat of patriotism and fe- 
alty to the flag that had been victorious in three 
wars, and had never met but temporary defeat 
then melted all parties, and dissolved all hesitation, 
and, April 18, 1861, by a unanimous vote of 
ninety-nine Representatives in its favor, there was 
passed a bill appropriating $500,000 to carry into 
eiFect the requisition of the President, to protect 
the National Goverfiment, of which sum $450,000 
were to purchase arms and equipments for the 
troops required by that requisition as the quota of 
Ohio, and $50,000 as an extraordinary contingent 
fund for the Governor. The commissioners of the 
State Sinking Fund were authorized, by the same 
bill, to borrow this money, on the 6 per cent bonds 
of the State, and to issue for the same certificates, 
freeing such bonds from taxation. Then followed 
other such legislation that declared the property of 
volunteers free from execution for debt during 
their term of service; that declared any resident 
of the State, who gave aid and comfort to the 
enemies of the Union, guilty of treason against 
the State, to be punished by imprisonment at hard 
labor for life ; and, as it had become already evi- 
dent that thousands of militia, beyond Ohio's 
quota of the President's call, would volunteer, the 
Legislature, adopting the sagacious suggestion of 
Gov. Dennison, resolved that all excess of volunteers 
should be retained and paid for service, under 
direction of the Governor. Thereupon a bill 
was passed, authorizing the acceptance of volunteers 
to form ten regiments, and providing $500,000 
for their arms and equipments, and $1,500,000 
more to be disbursed for troops in case of an in- 
vasion of the State. Then other legislation was 
enacted, looking to and providing against the ship- 
ment from or through the State of arms or mu- 
nitionsof war, to States either assuming to be 
neutral or in open rebellion; organizing the whole 
body of the State militia; providing suitable offi- 
cers for duty on the staff of the Governor ; re- 
quiring contracts for subsistence of volunteers to 
be let to the lowest bidder, and authorizing the 
appointment of additional general officers. 

" Before the adjournment of that Legislature, 
tke Speaker of the House had resigned to take 
command of one 'of the regiments then about to 
start for Washington City ; two leading Senators 
had been appointed Brigadier Generals, and many, 
in fact nearly all, of the other members of both 
houses had, in one capacity or another, entered the 
military service. It was the first war legislature 
ever elected in Ohio, and, under sudden pressure, 

nobly met the first shock, and enacted the first 
measures of law for war. Laboring under difficul- 
ties inseparable from ■ a condition so unexpected, 
and in the performance of duties so novel, it may 
be historically stated that for patriotism, zeal and 
ability, the Ohio Legislature of 1861 was the 
equal of any of its successors ; while in that exu- 
berance of patriotism which obliterated party lines 
and united all in a common effort to meet the 
threatened integrity of the United States as a 
nation, it surpassed them both. 

" The war was fought, the slave power forever 
destroyed, and under additional amendments to her 
organic law, t^e United States wiped the stain of 
human slavery from her escutcheon, liberating over 
four million human beings, nineteen-twentieths of 
whom were native-born residents. 

" When Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court 
House, Ohio had two hundred regiments of all 
arms in the National service. In the course of 
the war, she had furnished two hundred and thirty 
regiments, besides twenty-six independent batteries 
of artillery, five independent companies of cavalry, 
several companies of sharpshooters, large parts of 
five regiments credited to the West Virginia con- 
tingent, two regiments credited to the Kentucky 
contingent, two transferred to the United States 
colored troops, and a large proportion of the rank 
and file of the Fifty-fourth and Sixty-fifth Massa^ 
chusetts Regiments, also colored men. Of these or- 
ganizations, twenty-three were infantry regiments 
fiirnished on the first call of the President, an ex- 
cess of nearly one-half over the State's quota ; one 
hundred and ninety-one were infantry regiments, 
furnished on subsequent calls of the President — 
one hundred and seventeen for three years, twenty- 
seven for one year, two for six months, two for 
three months, and forty-two for one hundred days. 
Thirteen were cavalry, and three artillery for three 
years. Of these three-years troops, over twenty 
thousand re-enlisted, as veterans, at the end of 
their long term of service, to fight till the war 
would end." 

As original members of these organizations, Ohio 
furnished to the National service the magnificent 
army of 310,654 actual soldiers, omitting from 
the above number all those who paid commutar 
tion money, veteran enlistments, and citizens who 
enlisted as soldiers or sailors in other States. The 
count is made from the reports of the Provost 
Marshal General to the War Department. Penn- 
sylvania gave not quite 28,000 more, while lUinois 
fell 48,000 behind; Indiana, 116,000 less; 

5) "V 





Kentucky, 235,000, and Massachusetts, 164,000. 
Thus Ohio more than maintained, in the National 
army, the rank among her sisters which her popu- 
lation supported. Ohio furnished more troops than 
the President ever required of her ; and at the 
end of the war, with more than a thousand men in 
the camp of the State who were never mustered 
into the service, she still had a credit on the rolls 
of the War Department for 4,332 soldiers, beyond 
the aggregate of all quotas ever assigned to her ; 
and, besides all these, 6,479 citizens had, in lieu of 
personal service, paid the commutation ; while In- 
diana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania and New York 
were all from five to one hundred thousand behind 
their quotas. So ably, through all those years of 
trial and death, did she keep the promise of the 
memorable dispatch from her first war Governor ; 
" If Kentucky refuses to fill her quota, Ohio will 
fill it for her." 

"Of these troops 11,237 were killed or mor- 
tally wounded in action, and of these 6,563 were 
left dead on the field of battle. They fought on 
well-nigh every battle-field of the war. Within 
forty-eight hours after the first sail was made for 
troops, two regiments were on the way to Wash- 
ington. An Ohio brigade covered the retreat from 
the first battle of Bull Run. Ohio troops formed 
the bulk of army that saved to the Union the 
territory afterward erected into West Virginia ; 
the bulk of the army that kept Kentucky from 
seceding ; a large part of the army that captured 
Fort Donelson and Island No. 10 ; ^ great part of 
the army that from Stone River and Chickamauga, 
and Mission Ridge and Atlanta, swept to the sea 
and captured Tort McAllister, and north through 
the Carolinas to Virginia." 

When Sherman started on his famous march to 
the sea,someone said to President Lincoln, "T hey 
will never get through ; they will all be captured, 
and the Union will be lost." " It is impossible," 
replied the President ; "it cannot be done. There 
is a mighty sight of fight in one hundred thou- 
sand Western men." 

Ohio troops fought at Pea Ridge. They charged 
at Wagner. They helped redeem North Carolina. 
They were in the sieges of Vicksburg, Charleston, 
Mobile and Richmond. At Pittsburg Landing, 
at Antietam, Gettysburg and Corinth, in the 
Wilderness, at Five Forks, before Nashville and 
Appomattox Court House ; " their bones, reposing 
on the fields they won and in the graves they fill, are 
a perpetual pledge that no flag shall ever wave over 
their graves but that flag they died to maintain." 

Ohio's soil gave birth to, or furnished, a Grant, 
a Sherman, a Sheridan, a McPherson, a Rosecrans, 
a McClellan, a McDowell, a Mitchell, a Gilmore, a 
Hazen, a Sill, a Stanley, a Steadman, and others — all 
but one, children of the country, reared at West Point 
for such emergencies. Ohio's war record shows 
one General, one Lieutenant General, twenty Major 
Generals, twenty-seven Brevet Major Generals, and 
thirty Brigadier Generals, and one hundred and 
fifty Brevet Brigadier Generals. Her three war 
Governors were William Dennison, David Todd, and 
John Brough. She furnished, at the same time, 
one Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton,- and 
one Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase. 
Her Senators were Benjamin F. Wade and John 
Sherman. At least three out of five of Ohio's 
able-bodied men stood in the line of battle. On 
the head stone of one of these soldiers, who gave 
his life for the country, and who now lies in a 
National Cemetery, is inscribed these words: 

" We charge the living to preserve that Constitution we 
have died to defend." 

The close of the war and return of p«ace brought 
a period of fictitious values on the country, occa- 
sioned by the immense amount of currency afloat. 
Property rose to unheard-of values, and everything 
with it. Ere long, however, the decline came, and 
with it " hard times." The climax broke over the 
country in 187?, and for awhile it seemed as if 
the country was on the verge of ruin. People 
found again, as preceding generations had found, 
that real value was the only basis of true prosper- 
ity, and gradually began to work to the fact. The 
Government established the specie basis by 
gradual means, and on the 1st day of January, 
1879, began to redeem its outstanding obligations 
in coin. The effect was felt everywhere. Busi- 
ness of all kinds sprang anew into life. A feeling 
of confidence grew as the times went on, and now, 
on the threshold of the year 1880, the State is en- 
tering on an era of steadfast prosperity ; one which 
has a sure and certain foundation. 

Nearly four years have elaped since the great 
Centennial Exhibition was held in Philadelphia ; 
an exhibition that brought from every State in the 
Union the best products of her soil, factories, and 
all industries. In that exhibit Ohio made an ex- 
cellent display. Her stone, iron, coal, cereals, 
woods and everything pertaining to her welfare were 
all represented. Ohio, occupying the middle ground 
of the Union, was expected to show to foreign na- 
tions what the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio 





could produce. The State nobly stood the test 
and ranked foremost among all others. Her cen- 
tennial building was among the first completed 
and among the neatest and best on the grounds. 
During the summer, |the Centennial Commission 
extended invitations to the Governors of the several 
States to appoint an orator and name a day for his 

delivery of an address on the history, progress and 
resources of his State. Gov. Hayes named the 
Hon. Edward D. Mansfield for this purpose,- and 
August 9th, that gentleman delivered an address 
so valuable for the matter which it contains, "that 
we here give a synopsis of it. 



AUGUST 9, 1876. 

ONE hundred years ago, the whole territory, 
from the Alleghany to the Rocky Mountains 
was a wilderness, inhabited only by wild beasts and 
Indians. The Jesuit and Moravian missionaries 
were £he only white men who had penetrated the 
wilderness or beheld its mighty lakes and rivers. 
While the thirteen old colonies were declaring 
their independence, the thirteen new States, which 
now lie in the western interior, had no existence, 
and gave no sign of the future. The solitude of 
nature was unbroken by the steps of civilization. 
The wisest statesman had not contemplated the 
probability of the coming States, and the boldest 
patriot did not dream that this interior wilderness 
should soon contain a greater population than the 
thirteen old States, with all the added growth of 
one hundred years. 

Ten years after that, the old States had ceded 
their Western lands to the General Government, 
and the Congress of the United States had passed 
the ordinance of 1785, for the survey of the pub- 
lic territory, and, in 1787,the celebrated ordinance 
which organized the Northwestern Territory, and 
dedicated it to freedom and intelligence. 

Fifteen years after that, and more than a quarter 
of a century after the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, the State of Ohio was admitted into the 
Union, being the seventeenth which accepted the 
Constitution of the United State's. It has since 
grown up to be great, populous and prosperous 
under the influence of those ordinances. At her 
admittance, in 1803, the tide of emigration had 
N?egun to flow over the AUeghanies into the Valley 
of the Mississippi, and, although no steamboat, no 
railroad then existed, nor even a stage coach helped 
the immigrant, yet the wooden " ark " on the 
Ohio, and the heavy wagon, slowly winding over 

the mountains, bore these tens of thousands to the 
wilds of Kentucky and the plains of Ohio. In 
the spring of 1788^the first year of settlement — 
four thousand five hundred persons passed the 
mouth of the Muskingum in three months, and 
the tide continued to pour on for half a century in 
a widening stream, mingled with all the races of 
Europe and America, until now, in the hundredth 
yearof Amerioa'sindependence, the five States of the 
Northwestern Territory, in the wilderness of 1776, 
contain ten millions of people, enjoying all the 
blessings which peace and prosperity, freedom and 
Christianity, can confer upon any people. Of these 
five States, born under the ordinance of 1787, Ohio 
is the first, oldest, and, in many things, the greatest. 
In some things it is the greatest State in the Union. 
Let us, then, attempt, in the briefest terms, to 
draw an outline portrait of this great and remark- 
able commonwealth. 

Let us observe its physical aspects. Ohio is 
just one-sixth part of the Northwestern Territory 
— 40,000 square miles. It lies between Lake Erie 
and the Ohio River, having 200 miles of navigable 
waters, on one side fiowing into the Atlantic Ocean, 
and on the other into the Gulf of Mexico. Through 
the lakes, its vessels touch on 6,000 miles of 
interior coast, and, through the Mississippi, on 
36,000 miles of river coast; so that a citizen of 
Ohio may pursue his navigation through 42,000 
miles, all in his own country, and all within naviga^ 
ble reach of his own State. He who has circumnavi- 
gated the globe, has gone but little more than 
half the distance which the citizen of Ohio finds 
within his natural reach in this vast interior. 

Looking upon the surface of this State, we find 
no mountains, no barren sands, no marshy wastes, 
no lava^covered plains, but one broad, compact 





body of arable land, intersected with rivers and 
streams and running waters, while the beautiful 
0hio flows tranquilly by its side. More than three 
times the surface of Belgium, and one-third of tha 
whole of Ita;ly, it has more natural resources in 
proportion than either, and is capable of ultimately 
supporting a larger population than any equal sur- 
face in Europe. Looking from this great arable 
surface, where upon the very hills the grass and 
the forest trees now grow exuberant and abundant, 
we find that underneath this surface, and easily 
accessible, lie 10,000 square miles of coal, and 
4,000 square miles of iron — coal and iron enough 
to supply the basis of manufacture for a world ! 
All this vast deposit of metal and fuel does not in- 
teiTupt or take from that arable surface at all. 
There you may find in one place the same machine 
bringing up coal and salt water from below, while 
the wheat and the corn grow upon the surface 
above. The immense masses of coal, iron, salt and 
freestone deposited below have not in any way 
diminished the fertility and production of the soil. 

It has been said by some writer that the char- 
acter of a people is shaped or modified by the 
cl'aracter of the country in which they live. If 
the people of Switzerland have acquired a certain 
air of liberty and independence from the rugged 
mountains around which they live; if the people 
of Southern Italy, or beautiftil France, have ac- 
quired a tone of ease and politeness from their 
mild and genial clime, so the people of Ohio, 
placed amidst such a wealth of nature, in the tem- 
perate zone, should show the best fruits of peace- 
ful industry and the best culture of Christian 
civilization. Have they done so? Have their 
own labor and arts and culture come up to the ad- 
vantages of their natural situation? Let us exam- 
ine this growth and their product. 

The first settlefaent of Ohio was made by a 
colony from New England, at the mouth of the 
Muskingum. It was literally a remnant of the 
officers of the Revolution. Of this fcolony no 
praise of the historian can be as competent, or as 
strong, as the language of Washington. He says, 
in answer to inquiries addressed to him: "No col- 
ony in America was ever settled u^der such favor- 
able auspices as that which has just commenced at 
the Muskingum. Information, prosperity and 
strength will be its characteristics. I know many 
of the settlers personally, and there never were 
men better calculated to promote the welfare of 
such a community ;" and he adds that if he were 
a yowng man, he knows no country in which he 

would sooner settle than in this Western region." 
This colony, left alone for a time, made its own 
government and nailed its laws to a tree in the vil- 
lage, an early indication of that law-abiding and 
peaceful spirit which has since made Ohio a just 
and well-ordered community. The subsequent 
settlements on the Miami and Scioto were made by 
citizens of New Jersey and Virginia, and it is cer- 
tainly remarkable that among all the early immi- 
gration, there were no ignorant people. In the 
language of Washington, they came with " infor- 
mation," qualified to promote the welfare of the 

Soon after the settlement on the Muskingum 
and the Miami, the great wave of migration 
flowed on to the plains and valleys of Ohio and Ken- 
tucky. Kentucky had been settled earlier, but the 
main body of emigrants in subsequent years 
went into Ohio, influenced partly by the great 
ordinance of 1787, securing freedom and schools 
forever, and partly by the greater security of 
titles under the survey and guarantee of the 
United States Government. Soon the new State 
grew up, with a rapidity which, until then, was 
unknown in the history of civilization. On the 
Muskingum, where the buifalo had roamed ; on 
the Scioto, where the Shawanees had built their 
towns ; on the Miami, where the great chiefs of 
the Miamis had reigned ; on the plains of San- 
dusky, yet red with the blood of the white man ; 
on the Maumee, where Wayne, by the victory of 
the " Fallen Timbers," had broken the power of 
the Indian confederacy — the emigrants from the 
old States and from Europe came in to cultivate 
the fields, to build up towns, and to rear the insti- 
tutions of Christian civilization, until the single 
State of Ohio is greater in numbers, wealth, and 
education, than was the whole American Union 
when the Declaration of Independence was made. 

Let us now look at the statistics of this growth 
and magnitude, as they are exhibited in the cen- 
sus of the United States. Taking intervals of 
twenty years, Ohio had : In 1810, 45,365 ; in 
1830, 937,903 ; in 1850, 1,980,329 ; in 1870, 
2,665,260. Add to this the increase of population 
in the last six years, and Ohio now has, in round 
numbers, 3,000,000 of people — half a mUhon 
more than the thirteen States in 1776 ; and 
her cities and towns have to-day six times the 
population of all the cities of America one hund- 
red years ago. This State is now the third in 
numbers and wealth, and the first in some of 
those institutions which mark the progress of 





mankind. That a small part of the wilderness of 
1776 should be more populous than the whole 
Union was then, and that it should have made a 
social and moral advance greater than that of any 
nation in the same time, must be regarded as one 
of the most startling and instructive facts which 
attend this year of commemoration. If such has 
been the social growth of Ohio, let us look at its 
physical development ; this is best expressed by the 
aggregate productions of the labor and arts of a 
people applied to the earth. In the census statistics 
of the United States these are expressed in the 
aggregate results of agriculture, mining, manufact- 
ures, and -commerce. Let us simplify these^tatis- 
tics, by comparing the aggregate and ratios as 
between several States^ and between Ohio and some 
countries of Europe. 

The aggregate amount of grain and potatoes — 
farinaceous food, produced in Ohio in 1870 was 
134,938,413 bushels, and in 1874, there were 157,- 
323,597 bushels, being the largest aggregate 
amount raised in any State but one, Illinois, and 
larger per square mile than Illinois or any other 
State in the country. The promises of nature 
were thus vindicated by the labor of man ; and 
the industry of Ohio has fulfilled its whole duty 
to the sustenance of the country and the world. 
She has raised more grain than ten of the old 
States together, and more than half raised by 
Great Britain or by France. I have not the 
recent statistics of Europe, but McGregor, in his 
statistics of nations for 1832 — a period of pro- 
found peace — gives the following ratios for the 
leading countries of Europe : Great Britain, area 
120,324 miles; amount of grain, 262,500,000 
bushels; rate per square mile, 2,190 to 1; 
Austria — area 258,603 miles ; amount of grain, 
366,800,000 bushels; rate per square milCj l,422to 
1; France— area 215,858 miles; amount of grain, 
233,847,300 bushels ; rate per square mile, 1,080 
to 1. The State of Ohio — area per square miles, 
40,000 ; amount of grain, 150,000,000 bushels ; 
rate per square mile, 3,750. Combining the great 
countries of Great Britain, Austria, and France, 
we find that they had 594,785 square miles and 
produced 863,147,300 bushels of grain, which was, at 
the time these statistics were taken, 1 ,45 bushels per 
square mile, and ten bushels to each' one of the 
population. Ohio, on the other hand, had 3,750 
bushels per square mile, and fifty bushels to each 
one of the population ; that is, there was five 
times as much grain raised in Ohio, in proportion 
to the people, as in these great countries of Europe. 

As letters make words, and words express ideas, so 
these dry figures of statistics express facts,, aijd 
these facts make the whole history of civilization's 

Let us now look at the statistics of domestic 
animals. These are always indicative of the state 
of society in regard to the physical comforts. The 
horse must furnish domestic conveyances; the 
cattle must furnish the products of the dairy, as 
well as meat, and the sheep must furnish wool. 

Let us see how Ohio compares with other States 
and with Europe : In 1870, Ohio had 8,818,000 
domestic animals ; Illinois, 6,925,000 ; New York, 
5,283,000; Pennsylvania, 4,493,000; and other 
States less. The proportion to population in these 
States was, in Ohio, to each person, 3.3 ; Illinois, 
2.7; New York, 1.2; Pennsylvania, 1.2. 

Let us now see the proportion of domestic ani- 
mals in Europe. The results given by McGregor's 
statistics are : In Great Britain, to each person, 
2.44; Kussia, 2.00; France, 1.50 ; Prussia, 1.02; 
Austria, 1.00. It will be seen that the proportion . 
in Great Britain is only two-thirds that of Ohio ; 
in France, only one-half; and in Austria and 
Prussia only one-third. It may be said that, in 
the course of civilization, the number of animals ^ 
diminishes as the density of population increases ; 
and, therefore, this result might have been ex- 
pected in the old countries of Etirope. But this 
does not apply to Russia or Germany, still less to . 
other States in this country. Russia in Europe 
has not more than half the density of population 
now in Ohio. Austria and Prussia have less than 
150 to the square mile. The whole of the north 
of Europe has not so dense a population as the 
State of Ohio, still less have the States of Illinois 
and Missouri, west of Ohio. Then, therefore, 
Ohio showing a larger proportion of domestic ani- 
mals than the north of Europe, or States west of 
her, with a population not so dense, we see at once 
there must be other causes to produce such a 

Looking- to some of the incidental results of this 
vast agricultural production, we see that the United 
States exports to Europe immense amounts of 
grain and provisions ; and that there is manufact- 
ured in this country an immense amount of woolen 
goods. Then, taking these statistics of the raw 
material, we find that Ohio produces one-ffth of 
all the wool ; one-seventh of all the cheese ; one- 
eighth of all the corn, and one-tenth of all ,the 
wheat ; and yet Ohio has but a fourteenth part of 
the population, and one-eightieth part of the sur- 
face of this country. 



Let us take another — a commercial view of this 
matter. We have seen that Ohio raises five times 
as much grain per square mile as is raised per 
square mile in the empires of Great Britain, France 
and Austria, taken together. After making allow- 
ance for the differences of living, in the working 
classes of this country, at least two-thirds of the 
food and grain of Ohio are a surplus beyond the 
necessities of life, and, therefore, so much in the 
commercial balance of exports. This corresponds 
with the fact, that, in the shape of grain, meat, 
liquors and dairy products, this vast surplus is con- 
stantly moved to the Atlantic States and to Europe. 
The money value of this exported product is equal 
to $100,000,000 per annum, and to a solid capital 
of $1,500,000,000, after all the sustenance of the 
people has been taken out of the annual crop. 

We are speaking of agriculture alone. We are 
speaking of a State which began its career more 
than a quarter of a century aft«r the Declaration 
of Independence was made. And now, it may be 
asked, what is ^he real cause of this extraordinary 
result, which, without saying anything invidious of 
other States, we may safely say has never been 
surpassed in any country? We have already 
stated two of the advantages possessed by Ohio. 
The first is that it is a compact, unbroken body of 
arable land, surrounded and intersected flj- water- 
courses, equal to all the demands of commerce and 
navigation. Next, that it was secured forever to 
freedom and intelUgence by the ordinance of 1787. 
The intelligence of its future people was secured 
by immense grants of public lands for the purpose 
of education; but neither the blessings of nature, 
nor the wisdom of laws, could obtain such results 
without the continuous labor of an intelligent 
people. Such it had, and we have only to take 
the testimony of Washington, already quoted, and 
the statistical results I have given, to prove that 
no people has exhibited more steady industry, nor 
has any people directed their labor with more in- 

After the agricultural capacity and production 
of a country, its most important physical feature 
is its mineral products; its capacity for coal and 
iron, the two great elements of material civiliza- 
tion. If we were to take away from Grreat Britain 
her capacity to produce coal in such vast quanti- 
ties, we should reduce her to a third-rate position, 
no longer numbered among the great nations of the 
earth. ' Coal has smelted her iron, run her steam 
engines, and is the basis of her manufactures. 
But when we compare the coal fields of Great 

Britain with those of this country, they are insig- 
nificant. The coal fields of all Europe are small 
compared with those of the central United States. 
The coal district of Durham and Northumberland, 
in England, is only 880 square miles. There arc 
other districts of smaller extent, making in the 
whole probably one-half the extent of that in 
Ohio. The English coal-beds are represented as 
more important, in reference to extent, on account 
of their thickness. There is a small coal district 
in Lancashire, where the workable coal-beds are in 
all 150 feet in thickness. But this involves, as is 
well known, the necessity of going to immense 
depths and incurring immense expense. On the 
other hand, the workable coal-beds of Ohio are 
near the surface, and some of them require no ex- 
cavating, except that of the horizontal lead from 
the mine to the river or the railroad. In one 
county of Ohio there are three beds of twelve, six 
and four feet each, within fifty feet of the surface. 
At some of the mines having the best coal, the 
lead from the mines is nearly horizontal, and just 
high enough to dump the coal into the railroad 
cars. These coals are of all qualities, from that 
adapted to the domestic fire to the v^ry best qual- 
ity for smelting or manufacturing iron. Recollect- 
ing these facts, let us try to get an idea of the coal 
district of Ohio. The bituminous coal region de- 
escending the western slopes of the AUeghanies, 
occupies large portions of Western Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee. I 
suppose that this coal field is not less than fifty 
thousand square miles, exclusive of Western Mary- 
land and the southern terminations of that field in 
Georgia and Alabama. Of this vast field of coal, 
exceeding anything found in Europe, about one- 
fifth part lies in Ohio. Prof Mather, in his 
report on the geology of the State (first Geologi- 
cal Report of the State) says : 

" The coal-measures within Ohio occupy a space 
of about one hundred and eighty miles in length by 
eighty in breadth at the widest part, with an area 
of about ten thousand square miles, extending 
along the Ohio from Trumbull County in the north 
to near the mouth of the Scioto in the south. 
The regularity in the dip, and the moderate incli- 
nation of the strata, afford facilities to the mines 
not known to those of most other countries, espe- 
cially Great Britain, where the strata in which the 
coal is imbedded have been broken and thrown out 
of place since its deposit, occasioning many slips 
and faults, and causing much labor and expense in 
again recovering the bed. In Ohio there is very 






little difficulty of this kind, tte faults being small 
and seldom found." 

Now, taking into consideration these geological 
facts, let us look at the extent of the Ohio coal 
field. It occupies, wholly or in part, thirty-six 
counties, including, geographically, 14,000 square 
miles ; but leaving out fractions, and reducing the 
Ohio coal fi«ld within its narrowest limits, it is 
10,000 square miles in extent, lies near the surface, 
and has on an average twenty feet thickness of work- 
able coal-beds. Let us compare this with the coal 
mines of Durham and Northumberland (England), 
the largest and best coal mines there. That coal 
district is estimated at 850 square miles, twelve 
feet thick, and is calculated to contain 9,000,000,- 
000 tons of coal. The coal field of Ohio is twelve 
times larger and one-third thicker. Estimated by 
that standard, the coal field of Ohio contains 180,- 
000,000,000 tons of coal. Marketed at only $2 
per ton, this coal is worth $360,000,000,000, or, 
in other %6rds, ten times as much as the whole 
valuation of the United States at the present time. 
But we need not undertake to estimate either its 
quantity or value. It is enough to say that it is a 
quantity which we can scarcely imagine, which is 
tenfold that of England, and which is enough to 
supply the entire continent for ages to come. 

After coal, iron is beyond doubt the most val- 
uable mineral product of a State. As the mate- 
rial of manufacture, it is the most important. 
What are called the " precious metals " are not to 
be compared with it as an element of industry or 
profit. But since no manufactures can be success- 
fully carf'ied on without fuel, coal becomes the first 
material element of the arts. Iron is unquestion- 
ably the next. Ohio has an iron district extending 
from the mouth of the Scioto River to some point 
north of the Mahoning River, in Trumbull County. 
The whole length is nearly two hundred miles, and 
the breadth twenty miles, making, as near as we can 
ascertain, 4,000 square miles. The iron in this dis- 
trict is of various qualities, and is manufactured 
largely into bars and castings. In .this iron dis- 
trict are one hundred furnaces, forty-four rolling- 
mills, and fifteen rail-mills, being the largest num- 
ber of either in any State in the Union, except 
only Pennsylvania. 

Although only the seventeenth State in its admis- 
sion, I find that, by the census statistics of 1870, 
it is the third State in the production of iron and iron 
manufactures. Already, and within the life of 
one man, this State begins to show what must in 
future time be the vast results of coal and iron, 

applied to the arts and manufactures. In the 
year 1874, there were 420,000 tons of pig iron 
produced in Ohio, which is larger than the prod- 
uct of any State, except Pennsylvania. The 
product and the manufacture of iron in Ohio 
have increased so rapidly, and the basis for 
increase is so great, that we may not doubt that 
Ohio will continue, to be the greatest producer of 
iron and iron fabrics, except only Pennsylvania. 
At Cincinnati, the iron manufacture of the Ohio 
Valley is concentrating, and at Cleveland the ores 
of Lake Superior are being smelted. 

After coal and iron, we may place salt among 
the necessaries of life. In connection with the 
coal region west of the AUeghanies, there lies in 
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio, a large 
space of country underlaid by the salt rock, which 
already produces immense amounts of salt. Of 
this, Ohio has its full proportion. In a large 
section of the southeastern portion of the State, 
salt is produced without any known limitation. 
At Pomeroy and other points, the salt rock lies 
about one thousand feet below the surface, but 
salt water is brought- easily to the surface by the 
steam engine. There, the salt rock, the coal 
seam, and the noble sandstone lie in successive 
strata, while the green corn and the yellow wheat 
bloom on the surface above. The State of Ohio 
produced, in 1874, 3,500,000 bushels of salt, 
being one-fifth of all produced in the United 
States. The salt section of Ohio is exceeded only 
by that of Syracuse, New York, and of Saginaw, 
Michigan. There is no definite limit to the 
underlying salt rock of Ohio, and, therefore, the 
production will be proportioned only to the extent 
of the demand. 

Having now considered the resources and the 
products of the soil and the mines of Ohio, we 
may properly ask how far the people have employed 
their resources in the increase of art and manu- 
facture. We have two modes of comparison, the 
rate of increase within the State, and the ratio 
they bear to other States. The aggregate value 
of the products of manufacture, exclusive of 
mining, in the last three censuses were ; in 1850, 
162.692.000 ; in 1860, $121,691,000 ; in 1870, 

The ratio of increase was over 100 per cent in 
each ten years, a rate far beyond that of the in- 
crease of population, and much beyond the ratio of 
increase in the, whole country. In 1850, the man- 
ufactures of Ohio were one-sixteenlii part of the 
aggregate in the country ; in 1860, one-fifteenth 





part; in 1870, one-twelfth part. In addition to 
this, we find, from the returns of Cincinnati and 
Cleveland, that the value of the manufactured prod' 
ucts of Ohio in 1875, must have reached |400,- 
000,000, and, by reference to the census tables, it 
will be seen that the ratio of increase exceeded that 
of the great manufacturing States of New York, 
Massachusetts and Connecticut. Of all the States 
admitted into the Union prior to Ohio, Pennsylvania 
alone has kept pace in the progress of manufacture. 
Some little reference to the manufacture of leading 
articles may throw some light on the cause of this. 
In the production of agricultural machinery and 
implements, Ohio is the first State ; in animal and 
vegetable oils and in pig iron, the second; in cast 
iron and in tobacco, the third ; in salt, in machinery 
and in leather, the fourth. These facts show how 
largely the resources of coal, iron and agriculture 
have entered into the manufactures of the State. 
This great advance in the manufactures of Ohio, 
when we consider that this State is, relatively to 
its surface, the first agricultural State in the 
country, leads to the inevitable inference that its 
people are remarkably industrious. When, on 
forty thousand square miles of surface, three mill- 
ions of people raise one hundred and fifty million 
bushels of grain, and produce manufactures to the 
amount of $269,000,000 (which is fifty bushels 
of breadstuff to each man, woman and child, and 
$133 of manufacture), it will be difficult to find 
any community surpassing such results. It is a 
testimony, not only to the State of Ohio, but to 
the industry, sagacity and energy of th^ American 

Looking now to the commerce of the State, we 
have said there are six hundred miles of coast line, 
which embraces some of the principal internal ports 
of the Ohio and the lakes, such as Cincinnati, Cleve- 
land, Toledo and Portsmouth, but whose commerce 
is most wholly inland. Of course, no comparison 
can be made with the foreign commerce of the 
ocean ports. On the other hand, it is well known 
that the inland trade of the country far exceeds 
that of all its foreign commerce, and that the larg- 
est part of this interior trade is carried on its 
rivers and lakes. The materials for the vast con- 
sumption of the interior must be conveyed in its 
vessels, whether of sail or steam, adapted to these 
waters. Let us take, then, the ship-building, the 
navigation, and the exchange trades of Ohio, as 
elements in determining the position of this State 
in reference, to the commerce of the country. At 
the ports of Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky and Cin- 

cinnati, there have been built one thousand sail and 
steam vessels in the last twenty years, making an 
average of fifty each year. The number of sail, 
steam and all kinds of vessels in Ohio is eleven 
hundred and ninety, which is equal to the number 
in all the other States in the Ohio Valley and the 
Upper Mississippi. 

When we look to the navigable points to which 
these vessels are destined, we find them on all this 
vast coast line, which extends from the Gulf of 
Mexico to the Yellowstone, and from Duluth to 
the St. Lawrence. 

Looking again to see the extent of this vast in- 
terior trade which is handled by Ohio alone, we 
find that the imports and exports of the principal 
articles of Cincinnati, amount in value to $500,- 
000,000; and when we look at the great trade of 
Cleveland and Toledo, we shall find that the an- 
nual trade of Ohio exceeds $700,000,000. The 
lines of railroad which connect with its ports, are 
more than four thousand miles in lengthy or rather 
more than one mile in length to each ten square 
mUes of surface. This great amount of railroads is 
engaged not merely in transporting to the Atlantic 
and thence to Europe, the immense surplus grain 
and meat in Ohio, but in carrying the largest part 
of that greater surplus, which exists in the States 
west of Ohip, the granary of the West. Ohio 
holds the gateway of every railroad north of the 
Ohio, from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, and 
hence it is that the great transit lines of the coun- 
try pass through- Ohio. 

Let us now turn from the progress of the arts 
to the progress of ideas ; from material to intellect- 
ual development. It is said that a State consists 
of men, and history shows that no art or science, 
wealth or power, will compensate for the want of 
moral or intellectual stability in the minds of a 
nation. Hence, it is admitted that the strength 
and perpetuity of our republic must consist in the 
intelligence and morality of the people. A re- 
public can last only when the people are enlight- 
ened. This ■jvas an axiom with the early legislators 
of this country. Hence it was that when Vir- 
ginia, Connecticut and the original colonies ceded 
to the General Government that vast and then un- 
known wilderness which lay west of the AUeghar 
nies, in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi, they 
took care that its future inhabitants should be an 
educated people. The Constitution was not formed 
when the celebrated ordinance of 1787 was passed. 

That ordinance provided that, " Religion, mor- 
ality, and knowledge being necessary to good 

e) f^ 



government and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall be forever en- 
couraged;" and by the ordinance of 1785 for the 
survey of public lands, in the Northwestern Terri- 
tory, Section 16 in each township, that is, one 
thirty-sixth part, was reserved for the maintenance 
of public schools in said townships. As the State 
of Ohio contained a little more than twenty-five 
millions of acres, this, together with two special 
grants of three townships to universities, amounted 
to the dedication of 740,000 acres of land to the 
maintenance of schools and colleges. It was a 
splendid endowment, but it was many years before 
it became available. It was sixteen years after the 
passage of this ordinance (in 1803), when Ohio 
entered the Union, and legislation upon this grant 
became possible. The Constitution of the State 
pursued the language of the ordinance, and de- 
clared that "schools and the means of education 
shall forever be encouraged by legislative provision." 
The Grovernors of Ohio, in successive messages, 
urged attention to this subject upon the people; 
but the thinness of settlement, making it impossi- 
ble, except in few districts,^ to collect youth in suf- 
ficient numbers, and impossible to sell or lease 
lands to advantage, caused the delay of efiicient 
school system for many years. In 1825, however, 
a general law establishing a school system, and levy- 
ing a tax for its support, was passed. 

This was again enlarged and increased by new 
legislation in 1836 and 1846. Fr6m that time to 
this, Ohio has had a broad, liberal-and efiicient sys- 
tem of public instruction. The taxation for schools, 
and the number enrolled in them at different pe- 
riods, will best show what has been done. In 
1855 the total taxation for school purposes was 
$2,672,827. The proportion of youth of school- 
able age enrolled was 67 per cent. In 1874 the 
amount raised by taxation was $7,425,135. The 
number enrolled of schoolable age was 70 per 
cent, or 707,943. 

As the schoolable age extends to twenty-one 
years, and as there are very few youth in school 
after fifteen years of age, ' it follows that the 70 
per cent of schoolable youths enrolled in the pub- 
lic schools must comprehend nearly the whole 
number between four and fifteen years. It is im- 
portant to observe this fact, because it has been 
inferred that, as the whole number of youth be- 
tween five and twenty-one have not been enrolled, 
therefore they are not educated. This is a 
mistake ; nearly all over fifteen years of age have 
been in the public schools, and all the native 

youth of the State, and all foreign born, young 
enough, have had the benefit of the public schools. 
But in consequence of the large number who 
have come from other States and from foreign 
countries, there are still a few who are classed by 
the census statistics among the "illiterate;" the 
proportion of this class, however, is less in propor- 
tion than in twenty-eight other States, and less in 
proportion than in Connecticut and Massachusetts, 
two of the oldest States most noted for popular 
education. In fact, every youth in Ohio, under 
twenty-one years of age, may have the benefit of a 
public education ; and, since the system of graded 
and high schools has been adopted, may obtain a 
common knowledge from the alphabet to the classics. 
The enumerated branches of study in the pub- 
lic schools of Ohio are thirty-four, including 
mathematics and astronomy, French, German and 
the classics. Thus the State which was in the 
heart of the wilderness in 1776, and was not a 
State until the nineteenth century had begun, now 
presents to the world, not merely an unrivaled de- 
velopment of material prosperity, but an unsur- 
passed system of popular education. 

In what is called the higher education, in the 
colleges and universities, embracing the classics 
and sciences taught in regular classes, it is the pop- 
ular idea, and one which few dare to question, that 
we must look to the Eastern States for superiority ' 
and excellence ; but that also is becoming an as- 
sumption without proof; a proposition difficult to 
sustain.^ The facts in regard to the education of 
universities and colleges, their faculties, students 
and course of instruction, are all set forth in the 
complete statistics of the Bureau of Education for 
1874. They show that the State of Ohio had the 
largest number of such institutions; the largest 
number of instructors in their faculties, except one 
State, New York ; and the largest number of stu- 
dents in regular college classes, in proportion to 
their population, except the two States of Connect- 
icut and Massachusetts. Perhaps, if we look at 
the statistics of classical students in the colleges, 
disregarding preparatory and irregular courses, we 
shall get a more accurate idea of the progress of 
the higher education in those States which claim 
the best. In Ohio, 36 colleges, 258 teachers, 
2,139 students, proportion, 1 in 124; in Penn- 
sylvania, 27 colleges, '239 teachers, 2,359 students, 
proportion, 1 in 150; in New York, 26 colleges, 
343 teachers, 2,764 students, proportion, 1 in 176 ^ 
in the six NewEngland States, 17 colleges, 252 teach- 
ers, 3,341 students, proportion, 1 in 105 ; in Illi- 





nois, 24 colleges, 219 teachers, 1,701 students, 
proportion, 1 in 140. 

This shows there are more collegiate institutions 
in Ohio than in all New England ; a greater num- 
ber of college teachers, and only a little smaller ratio 
of students to the population ; a greater number of 
such students than either in New York or Pennsyl- 
vania, and, as a broad, general fact, Ohio has made 
more progress in education than either of the old 
States which formed the American Union. Such 
a fact is a higher testimony to the strength and the 
beneficent influence of the American Government 
than any which the statistician or the historian 
can advance. 

Let us now turn to the moral aspects of the 
people of Ohio. No human society is found with- 
out its poor and dependent classes, whether made 
so by the defects of nature, by acts of Providence, 
or by the accidents of fortune. Since no society 
is exempt from these classes, it must be judged 
not so much by the fact of their existence, as by 
the manner in which it treats them. In the civil- 
ized nations of antiquity, such as Greece and 
Rome, hospitals, infirmaries, orphan homes, and 
asylums for the infirm, were unknown. These 
are the creations of Christianity, and that must be 
esteemed practically the most Christian State which 
most practices this Christian beneficence. In Ohio, 
as in all the States of this country, and of all 
Christian countries, there is a large number of the 
infirm and dependent classes; but, although Ohio 
is the third State in population, she is only the 
fourteenth in the proportion of dependent classes. 
The more important point, however, was, how does 
she treat them? Is there wanting any of all 
the varied institutions of benevolence? How does 
she compare with other States and countries in 
this respect f It is believed that no State or coun- 
try can present a larger proportion of all these 
institutions which the benevolence of the wise and 
good have suggested for the alleviation of sujBFer- 
ing and misfortune, than the State of Ohio. With 
3,500 of the insane within her borders, she has 
five great lunatic asylums, capable of accommodat- 
ing them all. She has asylums for the deaf and 
dumb, the idiotic, and the blind. She has the 
best hospitals in the country. She has schools 
of reform and houses of refuge. She has " homes " 
for the boys and girls, to the number of 800, who 
are children of soldiers. She has penitentiaries 
and jails, orphan asylums and infirmaries. In 
every county there is an infirmary, and in every 
public institution, except the penitentiary, there is a 

school. So that the State has used every human 
means to relieve the suffering, to instruct the igno- 
rant, and to reform the criminal. There are in 
the State 80,000 who come under all the various 
forms of the infirm, the poor, the sick and the 
criminal, who, in a greater or less degree, make ' 
the dependent class. For these the State has 
made every provision which humanity or justice 
or intelligence can require. A young State, de- 
veloped in the wilderness, she challenges, without 
any invidious comparison, both Europe and Amer- 
ica, to show her superior in the development of 
humanity manifested in the benefaction of public 

Intimately connected with public morals and 
with charitable institutions, is the religion of a 
people. The people of the United States are a 
Christian, people. The people of Ohio have man- 
ifested their zeal by the erection of churches, of 
Sunday schools, and of religious institutions. So 
far as these are outwardly manifested, they are 
made known by the social statistics of the census. 
The number of church organizations in the leading 
States were: In the State of Ohio, 6,488; in 
the State of New York, 5,627 : in the State of 
Pennsylvania, 5,984 ; in the State of Illinois, 4,298. 
It thus appears that Ohio had a larger number 
of churches than any State of the Union. The 
number of sittings, however, was not quite as 
large as those in New York and Pennsylvania. 
The denominations are of all the sects known in 
this country, about thirty in number, the majority 
of the whole being Methodists, Presbyterians and 
Baptists. Long before the American Independ- 
ence, the Moravians had settled on the Mahoning 
and Tuscarawas Rivers, but only to be destroyed ; 
and when the peace with Great Britain was made, 
not a vestige of Christianity remained on the 
soil of Ohio ; yet we see that within ninety years 
from that time the State of Ohio was, in the num- 
ber of its churches, the first of this great Union. 

In the beginning of this address, I said that 
Ohio was the oldest and first of these great States, 
carved out of the Northwestern Territory, and that 
it was in some things the greatest State of the 
American Union. I have now traced the physi- 
cal, commercial, intellectual and moral features of 
the State during the seventy-five years of its 
constitutional history. The result is to establish 
fully the propositions with which I began. These 
facts have brought put : 

1. That Ohio is, in reference to the square 
miles of its surface, the first State in agriculture 

•^ ®~ 





of the American Union; this, too, notwithstand- 
ing it has 800,000 in cities and towns, and a large 
development of capital and products in manu- 

2. That Ohio has raised more grain per square 
mile than either France, Austria, or Great Britain. 
They raised 1,450 bushels per square mile, and 
10 bushels to each person. Ohio raised 3,750 
bushels per square mile, and 50 bushels to each 
one of the population ; or, in other words, five 
times the proportion of grain raised in Europe. 

3. Ohio was the first State of the Union in 
the production of domestic animals, being far in 
advance of either New York, Pennsylvania or Illi- 
nois. The proportion of domestic animals to each 
person in Ohio was three and one-third, and in 
New York and Pennsylvania less than half that. 
The largest proportion of dornestitf animals pro- 
duced in Europe was in Great Britain and Russia, 
neither of which come near that of Ohio. ' ' i 

I 4. The coal-fi^ld of Ohio is vastly greater than 
that of Great Britain, and we need make no com- 
parison with other States in regard to coal or iron ; 
for the 10,000 square miles of coal, and 4,000 
square miles of iron in Ohio, are enough to supply 
the whole American continent for ages to come. 

5. Neither need we compare the results of 
commerce and navigation, since, from the ports of 
Cleveland and Cincinnati, the vessels of Ohio 
touch on 42,000 mUes of coast, and her 5,000 
miles of railroad carry her products to every part 
of , the American continent. 

6. Notwithstanding the immense proportion 
and products of agriculture in Ohio, yet she has 
more than kept pace with New York and New 
England in the progress of manufactures during 
the last twenty years. Her coal and iron are pro- 
ducing their legitimate results in making her a 
great manufacturing State. 

7. Ohio is the first State in the Union ^ to 
the proportion of youth attending school; and the 
States west of the Alleghanies and north of the 
Ohio have more youth in school, proportionably, 
than New England and New York. The facts on 
this subject are so extraordinary that I may be 
excused for giving them a little in detail. 

The proportion of youth in Ohio attending 
school to the population, is 1 in 4.2 ; in Illinois, 1 
in 4.3: in Pennsylvania, 1 in 4.8; in New York, 
1 in 5.2 ; in Connecticut and Massachusetts, 1 in 

These proportions show that it is in the West, 
and not in the East, that education is now advanc- 

ing; and it is here that we see the stimulus given • 
by the ordinance of 1787, is working out its great 
and beneficent results. The land grant for educa- 
tion was a great one, but, at last, its chief effort 
was in stimulating popular education ; for the State 
of Ohio has taxed itself fens of millions of dollars 
beyond the utmost value of the land grant, to 
found and maintain a system of public education 
which the world has not surpassed. 

We have seen that above and beyond all this 
material and intellectual development, Ohio has 
provided a vast benefaction of asylums, hospitals, 
and infirmaries, and special schools for the support 
and instruction of the dependent classes. There is 
not within all her borders a single one of the deaf, 
dumb, and blind, of the poor, sick, and insane, not 
an orphan or a vagrant, who is not provided for 
by the brpad and generous liberality of the State 
and her people. A charity which the classic ages 
knew nothing of, a beneficence which the splendid 
hierarchies and aristocracies of Europe cannot 
equal, has been exhibited in this young State, 
whose name was unknown one hundred years ago, 
whose people, from Europe to the Atlantic, and 
from the Atlantic to the Ohio, were, like Adam 
and Eve, cast out — ^Hhe world before them where 
to choose." 

Lastly, we see that, although the third in pop- 
ulation, and the seventeenth in admission to the 
Union, Ohio had, in 1870, 6,400 churches, the 
largest number in any one State, and numbering 
among them every form of Christian worship. 
The people, whose fields were rich with grain, 
whose mines were boundless in wealth, and whose 
commerce extended through thousands of miles 
of lakes and rivers, came here, as they came to 
New England's rock-bound coast — 

" With freedom to worship God." 

The church and the schoolhouse rose beside the 
green fields, and the morning bells rang forth to 
cheerfiil children going to school, and to a Chris- 
tian people going to the church of God. 

Let us now look at the possibilities of Ohio in 
the future development of the American Repub- 
lican Republic. The two most populous parts of 
Europe, because the most food-producing, are the 
Netherlands and Italy, or, more precisely, Belgium 
and ancient Lombardy ; to the present time, their 
population is, in round numbers, three hundred to 
the square mile. The density of population in 
England proper is about the same. We may 
assume, therefore, that three hundred to the square 

»? S" 





mile is, in round numbers, the limit of comfortable 
subsistence under modern civilization. It is true 
thatmodern improvements in agricultural machin- 
ery and fertilization have greatly increased the 
capacity of production, on a given amount of 
land, with a given amount of labor. It is true, 
also, that the old countries of Europe do not 
possess an equal amount of arable land with Ohio 
in proportion to the same surface. It would seem, 
therefore, that the density of population in Ohio 
might exceed that of any part of Europe. On 
the other hand, it may be said with truth that the 
American people will not become so dense as in 
Europe while they have new lands in the West 
to occupy. This is true ; but lands such as those 
in the valley of the Ohio are now becoming 
scarce in the West, and we think that, with her 
great capacity for the production of grain on one 
hand, and of illimitable quantities of coal and 
iron to manufacture with on the other, that Ohio 
will, at no remote period, reach nearly the density 
of Belgium, which will give her 10,000,000 of 
people. This seems extravagant, but the tide of 
migration, which flowed so fast to the West, is 
beginning to ebb, .while the manufactures of the 
interior offer greater inducements. 

With population comes wealth, the material for 
education, the development of the arts, advance 
in all the material elements of civilization, and the 
still grander advancements in the strength and 
elevation of the human mind, conquering to itself 
new realms of material and intellectual power, 
acquiring in the future what, we have seen in the 
past, a wealth of resources unknown and undreamed 
of when, a hundred years ago, the fathers of the 
republic declared their independence. I know 
how easy it is to treat this statement with easy 
incredulity, but statistics is a certain science ; the 
elements of civilization are now measured, and we 
know the progress of the human race as we know 

that of a cultivated plant. We know the resources 
of the country, its food-producing capacity, its 
art processes, its power of education, and the unde- 
fined and illimitable power of the human mind 
for new inventions and unimagined progress. With 
this knowledge, it is not difficult nor unsafe to say 
that the fixture will produce more, and in a far 
greater ratio, than the past. The pictured scenes 
of the prophets have already been more than ful- 
filled, and the visions of beauty and glory^ which 
their imagination failed fully to describe, will be 
more than realized in the bloom of that garden ' 
which republican America will present to the 
eyes of astonished mankind. Long before another 
century shall have passed by, the single State of 
Ohio will present fourfold the population with which 
the thirteen States began their independence, more 
wealth than the entire Union now has ; greater 
universities than any now in the country, and a 
development of arts and manufacture which the 
world now knows nothing of. You have seen 
more than that since the Constitution was adopted, 
and what right have you to say the future shall 
not equal the past ? 

I have aimed, in this address, to give an exact 
picture of what Ohio is, not more for the sake of 
Ohio than as a representation of the products 
which the American Republic has given to the 
world. A< State which began long after the 
Declaration of Independence, in the t^en unknown 
wilderness of North America, presents to-day 
the fairest example of what a republican govern- 
ment with Christian civilization can do. Look 
upon this picture and upon those of Assyria, 
of Grreece or Rome, or of Europe in her best 
estate, and say where is the civilization of the 
earth which can equal this. If a Roman citizen could 
say with pride, " Civis Romanus sum" with far 
greater pride can you say this day, "I am an 
Anjerican citizen." 

"~^i e) 




WHEN the survey of the Northwest Terri- 
tory was ordered by Congress, March 20, 
1785, it was decreed that every sixteenth section 
of land should be reserved for the "maintenance 
of public schools within each township." The 
ordinance of 1787 — thanks to the New England 
Associates — proclaimed that, "religion, morality 
and knowledge being essential to good government, 
schools and the means of education should forever 
be encouraged." The State Constitution of 1802 
declared that " schools and the means of ii^gpc- 
tion should be encouraged by legislative • provision, 
not inconsistent with the rights of conscience." 
In 1825, through the persevering eifortsof Nathan 
Gruilford, Senator from Hamilton County, Ephraim 
Cutler, Representative from Washington County, 
and other friends of education, a bill was passed, 
" laying the foundation for a general system of 
common schools." This bill provided a tax of one- 
half mill, to be levied by the County Commis- 
sioners for school purposes ; provided for school 
examiners, and made Township Clerks and County 
Auditors school officers. In 1829, this county 
tax was raised to three-fourths of a mill ; in 1834 
to one mill, and, in 1836, to one and a half mills. 
In March, 1837, Samuel Lewis, of Hamilton 
County , was appointed State Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools. He was a very energetic worker, trav- 
eling on horseback all over the State, delivering ad- 
dresses and encouraging school officers and teachers. 
Through his effi)rts much good was done, and 

* From the School GommissionerB* Reports, principally thf Be of 
ThomflB W. Harvey, A. M. 

Note I. — The first school taught in Ohio, or in the Northweatern 
Territory, was iu 1791. The first teacher was Maj. Austin Tapper, 
>'ldestson of Gen. Benjamin Tupper, both Revolutionary officers. 
The room occupied was the same as that in which the first Tourtwas 
held, and was situated in the northwest block-huuBeof tho garrison, 
called the stockade, at Marietta. During the Indian war school 
was also taught at Fort Harmar, Point Marietta, and at other set- 
tlements. A meeting was held in Marietta, April 29, 1797, to con- 
sider the erection of a Bchool building suitabl^for the instruction 
of the youth, and for conducting religious services. Resolutions 
were adopted which led to the erection of a building called the 
Muskingum Academy. The building was of frame, forty feet long 
and twenty-four feet wide, and is yet(18Y8)8tanding. The building 
was twelve fpet high, with an arched ceiling It stood upon a stone 
foundation, three steps from the ground. There were two chimneys 
and a lobby projection. There was a cellar under the whole build- 
ing. It stood upon a beautiful lot, fronting the Munkingum Eiver, 
and about sixty feet back fiom the street. Some large trees were 

j many important features engrafted on the school 
system. He resigned in 1839, when the office was 
abolished, and its duties imposed on the Secretary 
of State. 

The most important adjunct in early education 
in the State was the college of teachers organized 
in Cincinnati in 1831 . Albert Pickett, Dr. Joseph 
Ray, William H. McGruffey — so largely known by 
his Readers — and Milo Gr. Williams, were at its 
head. Leading men in all .parts of the West a.t- 
tended its meetings. Their published deliberations 
did much for the advancement of education among 
the people. Through the efforts of the college, 
the first convention held in Ohio for educational 
purposes was called at Columbus, January 13, 
1836. Two years after, in December, the first 
convention in which the different sections of the 
State were represented, was held. At both these 
conventions, all the needs of the schools, both com- 
mon and higher, were ably and fully discussed, 
and appeals made to the people for a more cordial 
support of the law. No successful attempts were 
made to organize a permanent educational society 
until December, 1847, when the Ohio State Teach- 
ers' Association was formed at Akron, Summit 
County, with Samuel Galloway as President; T. 
W. Harvey, Recording Secretary ; M. D. Leggett, 
Corresponding Secretary ; William Bowen, Treas- 
urer, and M. P. Cowdrey, Chairman of the Executive 
Committee. This Association entered upon its 
work with commendable earnestness, and has since 

upon the lot and on the street iu front. Across the street was an 
open common, and beyond that the river. Immediately opposite 
the door, on entering, was a broad aisle, and, at the end of the 
aisle, against-the wall, was a desk or pulpit. On the right and left 
of the pulpit, against the wall, and fronting the pulpit, was a row 
of slips. On each sideof the door, facing the pulpit, were two slips, 
and, at each end of the room, one slip. These slips were stationary, 
and were fitted with desks that could be let down, and there were 
boxes in the desks for holding books and papers. In the center of 
the room was an open space, which could be filled with movable 
seats. The first school was opened here in 1800." — Letter of A. T. 

Note 2. — Another evidence of the character of the New England 
Associates is the founding of a public library as early as 1796, or 
before. Another was also established at Belpre about the same time. 
Abundant evidence proves the existence of these librarieB, all tend- 
ing to the fact that the early settlers, though conquering a wilder- 
ness and a savage foe, would not allow their mental faculties to 
lack for food. The character of the books shows that "aolid" 
reading predominated. 






never abated its zeal. Semi-annual meetings were 
at first held, but, since 1858, only annual meetings 
occur. They are always largely attended, and al- 
ways by the best and most energetic teachers. 
The Association has given tone to the educational 
interests of the State, and has done a vast amount 
of good in popularizing education. In the spring 
of 1851, Lorin Andrews, then Superintendent of 
the Massillon school, resigned his place, and be- 
came a common-school missionary. In July, the 
Association, at Cleveland, made him its agent, and 
instituted measures to sustain him. He remained 
zealously at work in this relation until 1853, when 
he resigned to accept the presidency of Kenyon 
College, at Grambier. Dr. A. Lord was then chosen 
general agent and resident editor of the Journal 
of Education, which positions he filled two years, 
with eminent ability. 

The year that Dr. Lord resigned, the ex officio 
relation of the Secretary of State to the common 
schools was abolished, and the office of school com- 
missioner again created. H. H. Barney was 
elected to the place in October, 1853. The office 
has since been held by Rev. Anson Smyth, elected 
in 1856, and re-elected in 1859 ; E. E. White, 
appointed by the Grovernor, November 11, 1863, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of C. 
W. H. Cathcart, who was elected in 1862; John 
A. Norris, in 1865; W. D. Henkle, in 1868; 
Thomas W. Harvey, in 1871; C. S. Smart, in 
1875, and the present incumbent, J. J. Burns, 
elected in 1878, his term expiring in 1881. 

The first teachers' * institute in Northern Ohio 
was held at Sandusky, in September, 1845, con- 
ducted by Salem Town, of New York, A. D. Lord 
and M. F. Cowdrey. The second was held at Char- 
don, Geauga Co., in November of the same year. 
The first institute in the southern part of the 
State was held at Cincinnati, in February, 1837; 
the first in the central part at Newark, in Maich, 
1848. Since then these meetitigs of teachers have 
occurred annually, and have been the means of 
great good in elevating the teacher and the public 
in educational interests. In 1843, on petition of 
forty teachers, county commissioners were author- 
ized to pay lecturers from surplus revenue, and the 
next year, to appropriate $100 for institute pur- 
poses, upon pledge of teachers to raise half that 
amount. By the statutes of 1864, applicants for 
teachers were required to pay 50 cents each as an 
examination fee. One-third of the amount thus 
raised was allowed the use of examiners as trav- 
eling expenses, the remainder to be applied to in- 

stitute instruction. For the year 1871, sixty-eight 
teachers' institutes were held in the State, at which 
308 instructors and lecturers were employed, and 
7,158 teachers in attendance. The expense incurred 
wai, $16,361.99, of which $10,127.13 was taken 
from the institute fund; $2,730.34, was contrib- 
uted by members; $680, by county commis- 
sioners, and the balance, $1,371.50, was ob- 
tained from other sources. The last report of the 
State Commissioners — 1878 — shows that eighty- 
five county institutes were held in the State, con- 
tinuing in session 748 /days ; 416 instructors were 
employed; 11,466 teachers attended; $22,531.47 
were received from all sources, and that the ex- 
penses were $19,587.51, or $1.71 per member. 
There was a balance on hand of $9,460.74 to com- 
mence the next year, just now closed, whose work 
has been as progressive and thorough as any former 
year. The State Association now comprises three 
sections;' the general association, the superintend- 
ents' section and the ungraded school section. All 
have done a good work, and all report progress. 

The old State Constitution, adopted by a con- 
vention in 1802, was supplemented in 1851 by 
the present one, under which the General Assem- 
bly, elected under it, met in 1852. Harvey Rice, 
a Senator from Cuyahoga County, Chairman of 
Senate Committee on " Common Schools and 
School Lands," reported a bill the 29th of March, 
to provide "for the re-organization, supervision 
and maintenance of common schools." This bill, 
amended in a few particulars, became a law 
March 14, 1853. The prominent features of the 
new law were : The substitution of a State school 
tax for the county tax ; creation of the office of 
the State School Commissioner; the creation of a 
Township Board of Education, consisting of repre- 
sentatives from the subdistricts ; the abolition of 
rate-bills, making education free to all the youth of 
the State; the raising of a ftind, by a tax of one- 
tenth of a mill yearly, " for the purpose of fur- 
nishing school libraries and apparatus to all the 
common schools." This "library tax" was abol- 
ished in 1860, otherwise the law has remained 
practically unchanged. 

School journals, like the popular press, have 
been a potent agency in the educational history of 
the State. As early as 1838, the Ohio School 
Director was issued by Samuel Lewis, by legisla- 
tive authority, though after six months' continu- 
ance, it ceased for want of support. The same 
year the Pestalozzian, by E. L. SawteU and H. 
K. Smith, of Akron, and the Common School 





Advocate, of Cincinnati, were issued. In 1846, 
the School Journal began te be published by A. 

D. Lord, of Kirtland. The same year saw the 
Free School Clarion, by W. Bowen, of Massillon, 
and the School Friend, by W. B. Smith & Co., 
of Cincinnati. The next year, W. H. Moore & 
Co., of Cincinnati, started the Western School 
Journal. In 1851, the Ohio Teacher, by 
Thomas Rainey, appeared; the News and Edu- 
cator, in 1863, and the Educational Times, in 
1866. In 1850, Dr. Lord's Journal of Educa- 
tion was united with the School Friend, and 
became the recognized organ of the teachers in 
Ohio. The Doctor remained its principal editor 
until 1856, when he was succeeded by Anson 
Smyth, who edited the journal one year. In 1857, 
it was edited' by John D. Caldwell; in 1858 and 
and 1859, by W. T. Coggeshall; in 1860, by Anson 
Smyth again, when it passed into the hands ' of 

E. E. White, who yet controls it. If has an 
immense circulation among Ohio teachers, and, 
though competed by other journals, since started, 
it maintains its place. 

The school systenL of the State may be briefly 
explained as follows: Cities and incorporated vil- 
lages are independent of township and county con- 
trol, in the management of schools, having boards 
of education and examiners of their own. . Some 
of them are organized for school purposes, under 
special acts. Each township has a board of edu- 
cation, composed of one member from each sub- 
district. The township clerk is clerk of this board, 
but has no vote. Each subdistrict has a local 
board of tnlstees, which manages its school affairs, 
subject to the advice and control of the township 
board. These officers are elected on the first 
Monday in April, and hold their offices three 
years. An enumeration of all the youth between 
the ages of five and twenty-one is made yearly. 
All public schools are required to be in session at 
least twenty-four weeks each year. The township 
clerk reports annually such facts concerning school 
' affaCrs as the law requires, to the county auditor, 
who in turn reports to the State Commissioner, 
who collects these reports in a general report to 
the Legislature each year. 

A board of examiners is appointed in each 
county by the Probate Judge. This, board has 
power to grant certificates for a term not exceed- 
ing two years, and good only in the county in 
which they are executed ; they may be revoked on 
sufficient cause. In 1864, a State Board of 
Examiners was created, with power to issue life cer- 

tificates, valid in all parts of the State. Since 
then, up to January 1, 1879, there have been 188 
of these issued. They are considered an excellent 
test of scholarship and ability, and are very credit- 
able to the holder. 

The school funds, in 1865, amounted to f 3,271,- 
275.66. They were the proceeds of appropriations 
of land by Congress for school purposes, upon 
which the State pays an annual interest of 6 per 
cent. The funds are known as the Virginia Mili- 
tary School Fund, the proceeds of eighteen quar- 
ter-townships and three sections of land, selected 
by lot from lands lying in the United States 
Military Reserve, aippropriated for the use of 
schools in the Virginia Military Reservation ; the 
United States Military School FunS, the proceeds 
of one thirty-sixth part of the land in the United 
States Military District, appropriated "for the use 
of schools within the same ;" the Western Reserve 
School Fund, the proceeds from fourteen quarter- 
townships, situated in the United States Military 
District, and 37,758 acres, most of which was lo- 
cated in Defiance, Williams, Paulding, Van Wert 
and Putnam Counties, appropriated for the use of 
the schools in the Western Reserve; Section 
16, the proceed^ from the sixteenth section of 
each township in that part of the State in which 
the Indian title was not extinguished in 1803; the 
Moravian School Fund, the proceeds from one 
thirty-sixth part of each of three tracts of 
4,000 acres situated in Tuscarawas County, orig- 
inally granted by Congress, to the Society of United 
Brethren, and reconveyed by this Society to the 
United States in 1834. The income of these funds 
is not distributed by any uniform rule, owing to 
defects in the granting of the funds. The territo- 
rial divisions designated receive the income in 
proportion to the whole number of youth therein, 
while in the remainder of the State, the rent of 
Section 16, or the interest on the proceeds 
arising from its sale, is paid to the inhabitants of 
the originally surveyed townships. In these terri- 
torial divisions, an increase or decrease of popula- 
tion must necessarily increase or diminish the 
amount each youth is entitled to receive ; and the 
fortunate location or judicious sale of the sixteenth 
section- may entitle one township to receive a large 
sum, T^hile an adjacent township receives a- mere 
pittance. This inequality of benefit may be good 
for localities, but it is certainly a detriment to the 
State at large. There seems to be no legal remedy 
for it. In addition to the income from the before- 
mentioned ftmds, a variable revenue is received 

«^ « 





from certain fines and licenses paid to either county 
or township treasurers for the use of schools; 
from the sale of swamp lands ($25,720.07 allotted 
to the State in 1850), and from personal property 
escheated to the State. 

Aside from the ftinds, a State school tax is fixed 
by statute. Local taxes vary with the needs of 
localities, are limited by law, and are contingent 
on the liberality and public spirit of different com- 

The State contains more than twenty colleges 
and universities, more than the same number of 
female seminaries, and about thirty normal schools 
and academies. The amount of property invested 
in these is more than $6,000,000. The Miami 
University is the oldest college in the State. 

In addition to the regular colleges, the State 
controls the Ohio State University, formerly the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, established 
from the proceeds of the land scrip voted by Con- 
gress to Ohio for such purposes. The amount 
realized from the sale was nearly $500,000. This 
is to constitute a permanent fiind, the interest only 
to be used. In addition, the sum of $300,000 
was voted by the citizens of Franklin County, in 
consideration of the location of the college in that 
county. Of this sum $111,000 was paid for three 
hundred and fifteen acres of land near the city of 
Columbus, and. $112,000 for a college building, 

the balance being expended as circumstances re- 
quired, for additional buildings, laboratory, appa- 
ratus, etc. Thorough instruction is given in all 
branches relating to agriculture and the mechanical 
arts. Already excellent results are attained. 

By the provisions of the act of March 14, 1853, 
township boards are made bodies politic and cor- 
porate in law, and are invested with the title, care 
and custody of all school property belonging to 
the school district or township. They have control 
of the central or high schools of their townships ; 
prescribe rules for the district schools ; may appoint 
one of their number manager of the schools of the 
township, and allow him reasonable pay for his 
services ; determine the text-books to be used ; fix 
the boundaries of districts and locate sehoolhouse 
sites ; make estimates of the amount of money re- 
quired ; apportion the money among the districts, 
and are required to make an annual report to the 
County Auditor, who incqrporates the same in his 
report to the State Commissioner, by whom it 
reaches the Legislature. 

Local directors control the subdistricts. They 
enumerate the children of school age, employ and 
dismis<! teachers, make contracts for building and 
furnishing schoolhouses, and make, all necessary 
provision for the convenience of the district schools. 
Practically, the entire management rests with 






" Oft did the harvest to their sickles yield, 
Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke ; 

How jocund did they drive their teams afield ! 

How bowed the woods beneath their sturdy sti'oke." 

THE majority of the readers of these pages are 
farmers, hence a resume of agriculture in the 
State, would not only be appropriate, but valuable 
as a matter of history. It is the true basis of 
national prosperity, and, therefore, justly occupies 
a foremost place. 

In the year 1800, the Territory of Ohio con- 
tained a population of 45,365 inhabitants, or a 
little more than one person to the square mile. At 

this date, the admission of the Territory into the 
Union as a State began to be agitated. When the 
census was made to ascertain the legahty of 'the 
act, in conformity to the "Compact of 1787," no 
endeavor was made to ascertain additional statis- 
tics, as now ; hence, the cultivated land was not 
returned, and no account remains to tell how 
much existed. In 1805, three years after the ad- 
mission of the State into the Union, 7,252,856 
acres had been purchased from the General Gov- 
ernment. Still no returns of the cultivated lands 
were made. In 1810, the population of Ohio was 
230,760, and the land purchased from the Gov- 





eminent amounted to 9,933,150 acres, of which 
amount, however, 3,569,314 acres, or more than 
one-third, was held by non-residents. Of the lands 
occupied by resident land-owners, there appear to 
have been 100,968 acres of first-rate, 1,929,600 
of second, and 1,538,745 acres of third rate lands. 
At this period there were very few exports from 
the farm, loom or shop. The people still needed 
all they produced to sustain themselves, and were 
yet in that pioneer period where they were obliged 
to produce all they wanted, and yet were opening 
new farms, and bringing the old ones to a productive 

Kentucky, and the country on the Monongahela, 
lying along the western slopes of the Alleghany 
Mountains, having been miiph longer settled, had 
begun, as early as 1795, tosend^qonsiderable quan- 
tities of flour, whisky, bacon and tobacco to the 
lower towns on the Mississippi, at that time in the 
possession of the Spaniards. At the French set- 
tlements on the Illinois, and at Detroit, were 
being raised much more than could be used, and 
these were exporting also large quantities of these 
materials, as well as peltries and such commodities 
as their nomadic lives furnished. As the Missis- 
sippi was the . natural outlet of the West, any at- 
tempt to impede its free navigation by the various 
powers at times controlling its outlet, would lead 
at once to violent outbreaks among the Western 
settlers, some of whom were aided by unscrupulous 
persons, who thought to form an independent 
Western country. Providence seems to have had 
a watchful eye over all these events, and to have 
so guided them that the attempts with such objects 
in view, invariably ended in disgrace to their per- 
petrators. This outlet to the West was thought 
to be the only one that could carry their produce to 
market, for none of the Westerners then dreamed 
of the immense system of railways now covering 
that part of the Union. As soon as ship-building 
commenced at Marietta, in the year 1800, the 
farmers along the borders of the Ohio and Musk- 
ingum Rivers turned their attention to the culti- 
vation of hemp, in addition t« their other crops. Ina 
few years sufficient was raised, not only to furnish 
cordage to the ships in the West, but large quan- 
tities were worked up in the various rope-walks 
and sent to the Atlantic cities. Iron had been 
discovered, and forges on the Juniata were busy 
converting that necessary and valued material into 
implements of industry. 

By the year 1805, two ships, seven brigs and 
three schooners had been built and rigged by the 

citizens of Marietta. Their construction gave a 
fresh impetus to agriculture, as by means of them 
the surplus products could be carried away to a 
foreign market, where, if it did not bring money, 
it could be exchanged for merchandise equally 
valuable. Captain David Devoll was one of the 
earliest of Ohio's shipwrights. He settled on the 
fertile Muskingum bottom, about five miles above 
Marietta, soon after the Indian war, Here he 
built a "floating mill," for making flour, and, in 
1801, a ship of two hundred and fifty tons, called 
the Muskingum, and the brig Eliza Greene, of one 
hundred and fifty tons. In 1804, he built a 
schooner on his own account, and in the spring 
of the next year, it was, finished and loaded for a 
voyage down the Mississippi. It was small, only of 
seventy tons biirden, of a light draft, and intended 
to run on the lakes east of New Orleans. In 
shape and model, it fully sustained its name. Nonpa- 
reil. Its complement of sails, small at first, was 
completed when it arrived in New Orleans. It 
had a large cabin to accommodate passengers, was 
well and finely painted, and sat gracefully on the 
water. Its load was of assorted articles, and shows 
very well the nature of exports of the day. It con- 
sisted of two hundred barrels of flour, flfty barrels of 
kiln-dried corn meal, four thousand pounds of 
cheese, six thousand of bacon, one hundred sets 
of rum puncheon shooks, and a few grindstones. 
The flour and meal were made, at Captain DevoU's 
floating mill, and the cheese made in Belpre, at that 
date one of Ohio's most flourishing agricultural dis- 
tricts. The Captain and others carried on boating as 
well as the circumstances of the days permitted, fear- 
ing only the hostility of the Indians, and the duty 
the Spaniards were liable to'levy on boats going 
down to New Orleans, even if they did not take 
it into their erratic heads to stop the entire navi- 
gation of the great river by vessels other than 
their own. By such means, merchandise was car- 
ried on almost entirely until the construction of 
canals, and even then, until modern times, the 
flat-boat was the main-stay of the shipper inhabit- 
ing the country adjoining the upper Ohio and 
Mississippi Rivers. 

Commonly, very little stock was kept beyond 
what was necessary for the use of the family and 
to perform the labor on the farm. The Scioto 
Valley was perhaps the only exception in Ohio to 
this general condition. Horses were brought by the 
emigrants from the East and were characteristic 
of that region. In the French settlements in Illi- 
nois and about Detroit', French ponies, marvels of 

»? (• 





endurance, were chiefly used. They were impractic- 
able in hauling the immense emigrant wagons over 
the mountains, and hence were comparatively 
unknown in Ohio. Until 1828, draft horses 
were chiefly used here, the best strains being 
brought by the ''Tunkers," " Mennonites," and 
" Ormish," — three religious sects, whose members 
were invariably agriculturists. In Stark, Wayne, 
Holmes, and Richland Counties, as a general thing, 
they congregated in communities, where the neal? 
ness of their farms, the excellent condition of 
their stock, and the primitive simplicity of their 
manners, made them conspicuous. 

In 1828, the French began to settle in Stark 
County, where they introduced the stock of horses 
known as " Selim," "Florizel," "Post Boy" and 
'■Timolen." These, crossed upon the descents of 
the Norman and Conestoga, produced an excellent 
stock of farm horses, now largely used. 

In the Western Reserve, blooded horses were in- 
troduced as early as 1825. John I. Van Meter 
brought fine horses into the Scioto Valley in 1815, 
or thereabouts. Soon after, fine horses were 
brought to Steubenville from Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania. In Northern Ohio the stock was more 
miscellaneous, until the introduction of improved 
breeds from 1815 to 1835. By the latter date 
the strains of horses had greatly improved. The 
same could be "said of other parts of the State. 
Until after 1825, only farm and road horses were 
required. That year a race-course — the first in 
the State — was established in Cincinnati, shortly 
followed by others at Chillicothe, Dayton and Ham- 
ilton. From that date the race-horse steadily im- 
proved. Until 1838, however, all race-courses 
were rather irregular, and, of those named, it is 
difficult to determine which one has priority of 
date over the others. To Cincinnati, the prece- 
dence is, however, generally given. In 1838, the 
Buckeye Course was established in Cincinnati, and 
before a year had elapsed, it is stated, there were 
fifteen regular race-courses in Ohio. The efiect 
of these courses was to greatly stimulate the stock 
of racers, and rather detract from draft and road 
horses. The organization of companies to import 
blooded horses has again revived the interest in 
this class, and now, at annual stock sales, these 
strains of horses are eagerly sought after by those 
having occasion to use them. 

Cattle were brought over the mountains, an(}, 
for several years, were kept entirely for domestic 
uses. By 1805, the country had so far settled 
that the surplus stock was fattened on corn and 

fodder, and a drove was driven to Baltimore. The 
drove was owned by George Renick, of Chillicothe, 
and the feat was looked upon as one of great im- 
portance. The drove arrived in Baltimore in ex- 
cellent condition. The impetus given by this 
movement of Mr. Renick stimulated greatly the 
feeding of cattle, and led to the improvement of 
the breed, heretofore only of an ordinary kind. 

Until the advent of railroads and the shipment 
of cattle thereon, the number of cattle driven to 
eastern markets from Ohio alone, was estimated at 
over fifteen thousand annually, whose value was 
placed at $600,000. Besides this, large numbei-s 
were driven from Indiana and Illinois, whose 
boundless prairies gave free scope to the herding of 
cattle. Improved breeds, " Short Horns," "Long 
Horns" and others, were introduced into Ohio as 
early as 181Q and 1815. Since then the stock 
has been gradually improved and acclimated, until 
now Ohio produces as fine cattle as any State in 
the Union. In some localities, especially in the 
Western Reserve, cheesemaking and dairy interests 
are the chief ipccupations of* whole neighborhoods, 
where may be 'found men who have grown wealthy 
in this business. - 

Sheep were kept by almost every family, in pio- 
neer times, ,in order to be supplied with wool for 
clothing. The Wool was carded by hand, spun in 
the cabin, and frequently dyed and woven as well 
as shaped into garments there, too. All emigrants 
brought the best household and farming imple- 
ments their limited means would allow, so also did 
they bring th4 best strains of horses, cattle and 
sheep they could obtain. About the year 1809, 
Mr. Thomas Rotch, a Quaker, emigrated to Stark 
County, and bl'ought with him a small flock of 
Merino sbeep. They were good, and a part of 
them were' from the original flock brought over 
from Spain, in 1801, by Col. Humphrey, United 
States Minister to that country. He had brought 
200 of these sheep, and hoped, in time, to see 
every part of the United States stocked with Me- 
rinos. In this he partially succeeded only, owing 
to the prejudice against them. In 1816, Messrs. 
Wells & Dickenson, who were, for the day, exten- 
sive woolen manufacturers in Steubenville, drove 
their fine flocks out on the Stark County Plains 
for the summer, and brought them back for the 
winter. This course was pursued for several years, 
until farms were prepared, when they were per- 
manently kept in Stark County. This flock was 
originally derived from the Humphrey importation. 
The failure of Wells & Dickenson, in 1824, placed 





a good portion of this flock in the hands of Adam 
Hildebrand, and became the basis of his celebrated 
flock. Mr. T. S. Humrickhouse, of Coshocton, 
in a communication regarding sheep, writes as fol- 

" The first merinos brought to Ohio were doubt- 
less by Seth Adams, of Zanesville. They were 
Humphrey's Merinos — undoubtedly the best ever 
imported into the United States, by whatever 
name called. He kept them part of the time in 
Washington, and afterward in Muskingum County. 
He had a sort of partnership agency from Gen. 
Humphrey for keeping and selling them. They 
were scattered, and, had they been taken care of 
and appreciated, would have laid a better found- 
ation of flocks in Ohio than any sheep brought 
into it from that time till 1852. The precise date 
at which Adams brought them cannot now be as- 
certained; but it was prior to 1813, perhaps as 
early as 1804." , 

"The first Southdowns," continues Mr. Hum- 
rickhouse," " New Leicester, Lincolnshire and Cots- 
wold sheep I ever saw, were brought into Coshocton 
County from England by Isaac Maynard, nephew 
of the famous Sir John, in 1834. There were 
about ten Southdowns and a trio of each of the 
other kinds. He was offered $500 for his Lin- 
colnshire ram, in Buffalo, as he passed through, 
but refused. He was selfish, and unwilling to put 
them into other hands when he went on a farm, 
all in the woods, and, in about three years, most of 
them had perished." 

The raising and improvement of sheep has kept 
steady tread with the growth of the State, and 
now Ohio wool is known the world over. In quan- 
tity it is equal to any State in America, while its 
quality is unequaled. 

The first stock of hogs brought to Ohio were 
rather poor, scrawny creatures, and, in a short 
time, when left to themselves to pick a livelihood 
from the beech mast and other nuts in the woods, 
degenerated into a wild condition, almost akin to 
their originators. As the country settled, however, 
they were gathered from their lairs, and, by feed- 
ing them corn, the farmers soon brought them out 
of their semi-barbarous state. Improved breeds 
were introduced. The laws for their protection 
and guarding were made, and now the hog of to- 
day shows what improvement and civilization can 
do for any wild animal. The chief city of the 
State has become famous as a slaughtering place ; 
her bacon and sides being known in all the civil- 
ized world. 

Other domestic animals, mules, asses, etc., have 
been brought to the State as occasion required. 
Wherever their use has been demanded, they have 
been obtained, until the State has her complement 
of all animals her citizens can use in their daily 

Most of the early emigrants brought with them 
young fruit trees or grafts of some favorite variety 
from the " old homestead." Hence, on the West- 
ern Reserve are to be found chiefly — especially in 
old orchards — New England varieties, while, in the 
localities immediately south of the Reserve, Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland varieties predominate ; but 
at Marietta, New England fruits are again. found, 
as well as throughout Southeastern Ohio. One of 
the oldest of these orchards was on a Mr. Dana's 
farm, near Cincinnati, on the Ohio River bank. It 
consisted of five acres, in which apple seeds and 
seedlings were planted as early as 1790. Part of 
the old orchard is yet to be seen, though the trees 
are almost past their usefulness. Peaches, pears, 
cherries and apples were planted by all the pioneers 
in their gardens. As soon as the seed produced 
seedlings, these were transplanted to some hillside, 
and the orchard, in a few years, was a productive 
unit in the life of the settler. The first fruit 
brought, was, like everything else of the pioneers, 
rather inferior, and admitted of much cultivfition. 
Soon steps were taken by the more enterprising 
settlers to obtain better varieties. Israel Putnam, 
as early as 1796, returned to the East, partly to 
get cions of the choicest apples, and, partly, on 
other business. He obtained quite a quantity of 
choice apples, of some forty or fifty varieties, and 
set them out. A portion of them were distrib- 
uted to the settlers who had trees, to ingraft. 
From these old grafts are yet to be traced some of 
the best orchards in Ohio. Israel Putnam was one 
of the most prominent men in early Ohio days. 
He was always active in promoting the interests of 
the settlers. Among his eai'liest efforts, that of 
improving the fruit may well be mentioned. He 
and his brother, Aaron W. Putnam, living at Bel- 
pre, opposite Blennerhasset's Island, began the 
nursery business soon after their arrival in the 
West. The apples brought by them from their 
Connecticut home were used to commence the busi- 
ness. These, and the apples obtained from trees 
planted in their gardens, gave them a beginning. 
They were the only two men in Ohio engaged in 
the business till 1817. 

In early times, in the central part of Ohio, 
there existed a curious character known as "Johnny 






Appleseed." His real name was John- Chapman. 
He received his name from his habit of planting, 
along all the streams in that part of the State, 
apple-seeds from which sprang many of the old 
orchards. He did this as a religious duty, think- 
ing it to be his especial mission. He had, it is 
said, been disappointed in his youth in a love 
affair, and came West about 1800, and ever after 
followed his singular life. He was extensively 
known, was quite harmless, very patient, and did, 
without doubt, much good. He died in 1847, at 
the house of a Mr. Worth, near Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, who had long known him, and often 
befriended him. He was a minister in the Swed- 
enborgian Church, and, in his own way, a zealous 

The settlers of the Western Reserve, coming 
from New England, chiefly from Connecticut, 
brought all varieties of fruit known in their old 
homes. These, whether seeds or grafts, were 
planted in gardens, and as soon as an orchard 
could be cleared on some favorable hillside, the' 
young trees were transplanted there, and in time 
an orchard was the result. Much confusion 
regarding the kinds of fruits thus produced arose, 
partly fi-om the fact that the trees grown from 
seeds did not always prove to be of the same qual- 
ity as the seeds. Climate, soil and surroundings 
often ^ change the character of such fruits. 
Many new varieties, unknown to the growers, 
were the result. The fruit thus produced was 
often of an inferior growth, and when grafts were 
brought from the old New England home and 
grafted into the Ohio trees, an improvement as 
well as the old home fruit was the result; After 
the orchards in the Reserve began to bear, the 
fruit was very often taken to the Ohio River for 
shipment, and thence found its way to the South- 
ern and Eastern seaboard cities. ' 

Among the individuals prominent in introducing 
fruits into the State, were Mr. Dille, of Euclid, Judge 
Fuller, Judge Whittlesey, and Mr. Lindley. 
George Hoadly was also very prominent and ener- 
getic in the matter, and was, perhaps, the first to 
introduce the pear to any extent. He was one of 
the most persistent and enthusiastic amateurs in 
horticulture and pomology in the West. About 
the year 1810, Dr. Jared Kirtland, father of 
Prof. J. P. Kirtland, so well " known among 
horticulturists and pomologists, came from Con- 
necticut and settled in Portland, Mahoning 
County, with his family. This family has done 
more than any other in the State, perhaps, to 

advance fruit culture. About the year 1824, 
Prof. J. P. Kirtland, in connection with his brother, 
established a nursery at Poland, then in Trumbull 
County, and brought on from New England above 
a hundred of their best varieties of apples, cherries, 
peaches, pears, and smaller fruits, and a year or 
two after brought from New Jersey a hundred of 
the best varieties of that State ; others were ob- 
.tained in New York, so that they possessed the larg- 
est and most varied stock in the Western country. 
These two men gave a great impetus to fruit cult- 
ure in the West, and did more than any others 
of that day to introduce improved kinds of a,ll 
fruits in that part of the United States. 

Another prominent man in this branch of indus- 
try was Mr. Andrew H. Ernst, of Cincinnati. 
Although not so early a settler as the Kirtlands, 
he was, like them, an ardent student and propa- 
gator of fine fruits. He introduced more than 
six hundred varieties of apples and seven hun- 
dred of pears, both native and foreign. His 
object was to test by actual experience the most 
valuable sorts for the diversified soil and climate 
of the Western country. 

The name of Nicholas Longworth, also of Cin- 
cinnati, is one cff the most extensively known of any 
in the science of horticulture and pomology. For 
more than fifty years he made these his especial 
delight. Having a large tract of land in the 
lower part of Cincinnati, he established nurseries, 
and planted and disseminated every variety of 
fruits that could be found in the United States — 
East or West — making occasional importations 
from European countries of such varieties as 
were thought to be adapted to the Western climate. 
His success has been variable, governed by' the 
season, and in a measure by his numerous experi- 
ments. His vineyards, cultivated by tenants, gen- 
erally Germans, on the European plan, during the 
latter years of his experience paid him a hand- 
some revenue. He introduced the famous Catawba 
grape, the standard grape of the West. It is 
stated that Mr. Longworth bears the same relation 
to vineyard culture that Fulton did to steam navi- 
gation. Others made earlier effort, but he was the 
first to establish it on a permanent basis. He has 
also been eminently successful in the cultivation of 
the strawberry, and was the first to firmly estabUsh 
it on Western soil. He also brought the Ohio Ever- 
bearing Raspberry into notice in the State, and 
widely disseminated it throughout the country. 

Other smaller fruits were brought out to the 
West like those mentioned. In some cases fruits 




indigenous to the soil were cultivated and improved, 
and as improved fruits, are known favorably where- 
ever used. 

In chronology and importance, of all the cereals, 
corn stands foremost. During the early pioneer 
period, it was the staple article of food for both 
man and beast. It could be made into a variety 
of forms of food, and as such was not only palata- 
ble but highly nutritious and strengthening. 

It is very difficult to determine whether corn 
originated in America or in the Old World. Many 
prominent botanists assert it is a native of Turkey, 
and originally was known as " Turkey wheat." Still 
others claimed to have found mention of maize in 
Chinese writings antedating the Turkish discovery. 
Grains of maLze were found in an Egyptian mum- 
my, which goes to -prove to many the cereal was 
known in Africa since the earliest times. Maize 
was found in America when first visited by white 
men, but of its origin Indians could give no ac- 
count. It had always been known among them, 
and constituted their chief article of vegetable diet. 
It was cultivated exclusively by their squaws, the 
men considering it beneath their dignity to engage 
in any manual labor. It is altogether probable corn 
was known in the Old World long before the New 
was discovered. The Arabs or Crusaders probably 
introduced it into Europe. How it was introduced 
into America will, in. all probability, remain un- 
known. It may have been an indigenous plant, 
like many others. Its introduction into Ohio dates 
with the settlement of the whites, especially its 
cultivation and use as an article of trade. True, 
the Indians had cultivated it in small quantities ; 
each lodge a little for itself, but no efibrt to make 
of it a national support began until the civilization 
of the white race became established. From that 
time on, the increase in crops has grown with the 
State, and, excepting the great corn States of the 
West, Ohio produces an amount equal to any State 
in the Union. The statistical tables printed in 
agricultural reports show the acres planted, and 
bushels growjf. Figures speak an unanswerable 

Wheat is probably the next in importance of the 
cereals in the State. Its origin, like corn, is lost 
in the mists of antiquity. Its berry was no doubt 
used as food by the ancients for ages anterior to 
any historical records. It is often called corn in 
old writings, and under that name is ' frequently 
mentioned in the Bible. 

"As far back in the vistas of ages as human 
records go, we find that wheat has been cultivated, 

>^ s~ 

and, with corn, aside from animal food, has formed 
one of the chief alimentary articles of all nations ; 
but as the wheat plant h^s nowhere been found wild, 
or in a state of nature, the inference has been 
drawn by men of unquestioned scientific ability, 
that the original plant from which wheat has been 
derived was either totally annihilated, or else cul- 
tivation has wrought so great a change, that the 
original is by no means obvious, or manifest to bot- 

It is supposed by many, wheat originated in 
Persia. Others affirm it was known and cultivated 
in Egypt long ere it found its way into Persia. It 
was certainly grown on the Nile ages ago, and 
among the tombs are found grains of wheat in a 
perfectly sound condition, that unquestionably 
have been buried thousands of years. It may be, 
however, that wheat was grown in Persia first, and 
thence found its way into Egypt and Africa, or, 
vice versa. It grew first in -Egypt and Africa and 
thence crossed into Persia, and from there found 
its way into India and all parts of Asia. 

It is also claimed that wheat is indigenous to 
the island of Sicily, and that from there it spread 
along the shores of the Mediterranean into Asia 
Minor and Egypt, and, as communities advanced, 
it was cultivated, not only to a greater extent, but 
with greater success. 

The goddess of agriculture, more especially of 
grains, who, by the Greeks, was called Demeter, 
and, by the Romans, Ceres — hence the name ce- 
reals — was said to have her home at Enna, a fertile 
region of that island, thus indicating the source 
from which the Greeks and Romans derived their 
Ceralia. Homer mentions wheat and spelt as 
bread; also corn and barley, and describes his 
heroes as using them as fodder for their horses, as 
the people in the South of Europe do at present. 
R^e was introduced into Greece from Thrace, or 
by way of Thrace, in the time of Galen. In 
Caesar's time the Romans grew a species of wheat 
enveloped in a husk, hke barley, and by them 
called "Far." 

During the excavations of Herculaneum and 
Pompeii, wheat, in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion, was frequently found. 

Dr. Anson Hart, Superintendent, at one time, of 
Indian Affairs in Oregon, states that he found 
numerous patches of wheat and flax growing wild 
in the Yackemas country, in Upper Oregon. There 
is but little doubt that both cereals were intro- 
duced into Oregon at an early period by the Hud- 
son Bay, or other fur companies. Wheat was also 

^^ 3 




found by Dr. Boyle, of Columbus, Ohio, growing 
in a similar state in the Carson Valley. It was, 
doubtless, brought there by the early Spaniards. 
In 1530, one of Cortez's slaves found several grains 
of wheat accidentally mixed with the rice. The 
careful negro planted the handful of grains, and 
succeeding years saw a wheat crop in Mexico, 
which found its way northward, probably into 

Turn where we may, wherever the foot of civil- 
ization has trod, there will we find this wheat 
plant, which, like a monument, has perpetuated 
the memory of the event; but nowhere do we find 
the plant wild. It is the result of cultivation in 
bygone ages, and has been produced by "progress- 
ive development." 

It is beyond the limit and province of these 
pages to discuss the composition of this important 
cereal ; only its historic properties can be noticed. 
With the advent of the white men in America, 
wheat, like corn, came to be one of the staple prod- 
ucts of life. It followed the pioneer over the 
mountains westward, where, in the rich Missis- 
sippi and Illinois bottoms, it has been cultivated 
by the French ^ince 1690. When the hardy New 
Englanders came to the alluvial lands adjoining 
the Ohio, Muskingum or Miami Rivers, they 
brought with them this "staff of life," and forth- 
withlJDegan its cultivation. Who sowed the first 
wheat in Ohio, is a question Mr. A. S. Guthrie 
answers, in a letter published in the Agricultural 
Report of 1857, as follows: 

" My father, Thomas Gruthrie, emigrated to the 
Northwest Territory in the year 1788, and arrived 
at the mouth of the Muskingum in July, about 
three months after Gen. Putnam had arrived with 
the first pioneers of Ohio. My father brought a 
bushel of wheat with him from one of the frontier 
counties of Pennsylvania, which he sowed on a 
lot of land in Marietta, which he cleared for that 
purpose, on the second bottom or plain, in the 
neighborhood of where the Court House now 

Mr. Guthrie's opinion is corroborated by Dr. 
Samuel P. Hildreth, in his "Pioneer Settlers of 
Ohio," and is, no doubt, correct. 

From that date on down through the years of 
Ohio's growth, the crops of wheat hav^ kept pace 
with the advance and growth of civilization. The 
soil is admirably adapted to the growth of this ce- 
real, a large number of varieties being grown, and 
an excellent quality produced. It is firm in body, 
and, in many oases, is a successful rival of wheat 

produced in the great wheat-producing regions of 
the United States — Minnesota, and the farther 

Oats, rye, barley, and other grains were also 
brought to Ohio from the Atlantic Coast, though 
some of them had been cultivated by the French 
in IlUnois and about Detroit. They were at first 
used only as food for home consumption, and, until 
the successful attempts at river and canal naviga- 
tion were brought about, but little was ever sent 
to market. 

Of all the root crops known to man, the potato 
is probably the most valuable. Next to wheat, 
it is claimed by many as the staff of hfe. In 
some localities, this assumption is undoubtedly 
true. What would Ireland have done in her fam- 
ines but for this simple vegetable? The potato is 
a native of the mountainous districts of tropical 
and subtropical America, probably from Chili to 
Mexico ; but there is considerable difficulty in 
deciding where it is really indigenous, and where 
it has spread after being introduced by man. 
Humboldt, the learned savant, doubted if it had 
ever been found wild, but scholars no less famous, 
and of late date, have expressed an opposite 
opinion. In the wild plant, as in all others, the 
tubers are smaller than in the cultivated. The 
potato had been cultivated in America, and its 
tubers used for food, long before the advent of the 
Europeans. It seems to have been first brought 
to Europe by the Spaniards, from the neighbor- 
hood of Quito, in the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, and spread through Spain, the Netherlands, 
Burgundy and Italy, cultivated in gardens as an 
ornament only and not for an article of food. 
It long received through European countries the 
same name with the batatas — sweet potato, which 
is the plant meant by all English writers down to 
the seventeenth century. 

It appears that the potato was brought from 
Virginia to Ireland by Hawkins, a slave-trader, 
in 1565, and to England by Sir Francis Drake, 
twenty years later. It did not at first attract much 
notice, and not until it was a third time imported 
from America, in 1623, by Sir Walter Raleigh, 
did the Europeans make a practical use of it. 
Even then it was a long time before it was exten- 
,sively cultivated. It is noticed in agricultural 
journals as food for cattle only as late as 1719. 
Poor people began using it, however, and finding it 
highly nutritious, the Royal Geographical Society, 
in 1663, adopted measures for its propagation. 
About this time it begaln to be used in Ireland as 



food, and from the beginning of the eighteenth, cent- 
ury, its use has never decUned. It is now known 
in every quarter of the world, and has, by cultiva- 
tion, been greatly improved. 

The inhabitants of America learned its use 
from the Indians, who cultivated it and other 
root crops — rutabagas, radishes, etc., and taught 
the whites their value. When the pioneers of 
Ohio came to its fertile valleys, they brought 
improved species with them, which by cultiya- 
tion and soil, are now greatly increased, and are 
among the standard crops of the State. 

The cucurbitaceous plants, squashes, etc., were, 
like the potato and similar root crops, indigenous 
to America — others, like the melons, ijo Asia — 
and were among the staple foods of the original 
inhabitants. The early French missionaries of 
the West speak of both root crops and cucurbi- 
taceous plants as in' use among the aboriginal inhab- 
itants. "They are very sweet and wholesome," 
wrote Marquette. Others speak in the same terms, 
though some of the plants in this order had found 
their way to these valleys through the Spaniards 
and others through early Atlantic Coast and Mex- 
ican inhabitants. Their use by the settlers of the 
West, especially Ohio, is traced to New England, 
as the first settlers came from that portion of the 
Union. They grow well in all parts of the State, 
and by cultivation have been greatly improved in 
quality and variety. All cucurbitaceous plants 
require a rich, porous soil, and by proper atten- 
tion to their cultivation, excellent results 'can be 

Probably the earliest and most important imple- 
ment of husbandry known is the plow. Grain, 
plants and roots will not grow well unless the soil 
in which they are planted be properly stirred, 
hence the first requirement was an instrument that 
would fulfill such conditions. 

The first implements were rude indeed ; gener- 
ally, stout wooden sticks, drawn through the earth 
by thongs attached to rude ox-yokes, or fastened 
to the animal's horns. Such plows were in use 
among the ancient Egyptians, and may yet be 
found among uncivilized nations. The Old Testar 
ment furnishes numerous instances of the use of 
the plow, while, on the ruins of ancient cities and 
among the pyramids of Egypt, and on the buried 
walls of Babylon, and other extinct cities, are rude 
drawings of this useful implement. As the use 
of iron became apparent and general, it was util- 
ized for plow-points, where the wood alone would 
not penetrate' the earth. They got their plow- 

shares sharpened in Old Testament days, also 
coulters, which shows, beyond a doubt, that iron- 
pointed plows were then in use. From times 
mentioned in the Bible, on heathen tombs, and 
ancient catacombs, the improvement of the plow, 
like other farming tools, went on, as the race of 
man grew in intelligence. Extensive manors in 
the old country required increased means of turning 
the ground, and, to meet these demands, ingenious 
mechanics, from time to time, invented improved 
plows. Strange to say, however, no improvement 
was ever made by the farmer himself. This is ac- 
counted for in his habits of life, and, too often, 
the disposition to "take things as they are." When 
America was settled, the plow had become an im- 
plement capable of turning two or three acres per 
day. Still, and for many years, and even until 
lately, the mold-board was entirely wooden, the 
point only iron. Later developments changed the 
wood for steel, which now alone is used. Still 
later, especially in prairie States, riding plows are 
used. Like all other improvements, they were 
obliged to combat an obtuse public mind among 
the ruralists, who slowly combat almost every 
move made to better their condition. In many 
places in America, wooden plows, straight ax 
handles, and a stone in one end of the bag, to bal- 
ance the grist in the other, are the rule, and for no 
other reason in the world are they maintain^ than 
the laconic answer: 

" My father did so, and why should not I? Am 
I better than he?" 

After the plow comes the harrow, but little 
changed, save in lightness and beauty. Formerly, 
a log of wood, or a brush harrow, supplied its 
place, but in the State of Ohio, the toothed instru- 
ment has nearly always been used. 

The hoe is lighter made than formerly, and is 
now made of steel. At first, the common iron 
hoe, sharpened by the blacksmith, was in constant 
use. Now, it is rarely seen outside of the South- 
ern States, where it has long been the chief imple- 
ment in agriculture. 

The various small plows for the cultivation of 
corn and such other crops as necessitated their use 
are all the result of modern civilization. Now, 
their number is large, and, in many places, there 
are two or, more- attached to one carriage, whose 
operator rides. These kinds are much used in the 
Western States, whose rootless and stoneless soil is 
admirably adapted to such machinery. 

When the grain became ripe, implements to cut 
it were in demand. In ancient times, the sickle 





was the only instrument used. It was a short, 
curved iron, whose inner edge was sharpened and 
serrated. In its most ancient form, it is doubtful 
if the edge was but little, if any, serrated. It is 
mentioned in all ancient works, and in the Bible is 
frequently referred to. 

" Thrust in the sickle, for the harvest is 
ripe," wrote the sacred New Testament, while 
the Old chronicles as early as the time of Moses : 
"As thou beginnest to put the sickle to the 

In more modern times, the handle of the sickle 
was lengthened, then the blade, which in time led 
to the scythe. Both are yet in use in many parts 
of the world. The use of the scythe led some 
thinking person to add a "finger " or two, and to 
change the shape of the handle. The old cradle 
was the result. At first it met considerable oppo- 
sition from the laborers, who brought forward the 
old-time argument of ignorance, that it would 
cheapen labor. 

Whether the cradle is a native of America or 
Europe is not accurately decided; probably of the 
mother country. It came into common, use about 
1818, and in a few years had found its way into 
the wheat-producing regions of the West. Where 
small crops are raised, the cradle is yet much used. 
A man can cut from two to four acres per day, 
hence, it is much cheaper than a reaper, where the 
crop is small. 

The mower and reaper are comparatively mod- 
ern inventions. A rude reaping machine is men- 
tioned by Pliny in the first century. It was pushed 
by an ox through the standing grain. On its 
front was a sharp edge, which cut the grain. It 
was, however, impracticable, as it cut only a por- 
tion of the grain, and the peasantry preferred the 
sickle. Other and later attempts to make reapers 
do not seem to have been successful, and not till 
the present century was a machine made that would 
do the work required. In 1826, Mr. Bell, of 
Scotland, constructed a machine which is yet used 
in many parts of that country. In America, Mr. 
Hussey and Mr. McCormick took out patents for 
reaping machines of superior character in 1833 
and 1834. At first the cutters of these machines 
were various contrivances, but both manufacturers 
soon adopted a serrated knife, triangular shaped, at- 
tached to a bar, and driven through " finger 
guards " attached to it, by a forward and backward 
motion. These are the common ones now in use, 
save that all do not use serrated knives. Since 
these pioneer machines were introduced into the 

harvest fields they have been greatly improved and 
changed. Of late years they have been constructed 
so as to bind the sheaves, and now a good stout 
boy, and a team with a " harvester," will do as 
much as many men could do a few years ago, and 
with much greater ease. 

As was expected by the inventors of reapers, 
tljey met with a determined resistance from those 
who in former times made their living by harvest- 
ing. It was again absurdly argued that they would 
cheapen labor, and hence were an injury to the 
laboring man. Indeed, when the first machines 
were brought into Ohio, many of them were torn 
to pieces by the ignorant hands. Others left fields 
in a body when the proprietor brought a reaper to 
his farm. Like all such fallacies, these, in time, 
passed away, leaving only their stain. 

Following the reaper came the thresher. As 
the country filled with inhabitants, and men in- 
creased their possessions, more rapid meai;is than 
the old flail or roller method were demanded. At 
first the grain was trodden out by horses driven over 
the bundles, which were laid in a circular inclosure. 
The old flail, the tramping-out by horses, and the 
cleaning by the sheet, or throwing the grain up 
against a current of air, were too slow, and 
machines were the result of the demand. In Ohio 
the manufacture of threshers began in 1846, in 
the southwestern part. Isaac Tobias, who came 
to Hamilton from Miamisburg that year, com- 
menced building the threshers then in use. , They 
were without the cleaning attachment, and simply 
hulled the grain. Two years later, he began 
manufacturing the combined thresher and cleaner, 
which were then coming into use. He continued 
in business till 1851. Four years after, the in- 
creased demand for such machines, consequent 
upon the increased agricultural products, induced 
the firm of Owens, Lane & Dyer to fit their estab- 
lishment for the manufacture of threshers. They 
afterward added the manufacture of steam engines 
to be used in the place of horse power. Since 
then the manufacture of these machines, as well as 
that of all other agricultural machinery, has greatly 
multiplied and improved, until now it seems as 
though but little room for improvement remains. 
One of the largest firms engaged in the manufact- 
' ure of threshers and their component machinery is 
located at Mansfield — the Aulthian & Taylor 
Co. Others are at Massillon, and at other cities 
in the West. - > 

Modern times and modern enterprise have devel- 
oped a marvelous variety of agricultural implements 




— too many to be mentioned in a volume like 
this. Under special subjects they will occasionally 
be found. The farmer's life, so cheerless in pioneer 
times, and so full of weary labor, is daily becom.. 
ing less laborious, until, if they as a class profit 
by the advances, they can find a hfe of ease 
in farm pursuits, not attainable in any other 
profession. Now machines do almost all the work. 
They sow, cultivate, cut, bind, thresh, winnow 
and carry the grain. They, cut, rake, load, mow 
and dry the hay. They husk, shell and clean the 
corn. They cut and split the wood. They do al- 
most all; until it seems as though the day may 
come when the farmer can sit in his house and 
simply guide the afiairs of his farm. 

Any occupation prospers in proportion to the 
interest taken in it by its members. This interest 
is always heightened by an exchange of views, hence 
societies and periodicals exercise an influence at 
first hardy realized. This feeUng among prominent 
agriculturists led to the formation of agricultural 
societies, at first .by counties, then districts-, then 
by States, and lastly by associations of States. 
The day may cofiie when a national agricul- 
tural fair may be one of the annual attractions of 

Without noticing the early attempts to found 
such societies in Europe or America, the narrative 
will begin with those of Ohio. The first agricul- 
tural society organized in the Buckeye State was 
the H^imilton County Agricultural Society. Its 
exact date of organization is not now preserved, 
but to a certainty it is known that the Society held 
public exhibitions as a County Society prior to 
1823. Previous to that date there were, doubt- 
less, small, private exhibitions held in older local- 
ities, probably at Marietta, but no regular organi- 
zation seems to have been maintained. The 
Hamilton County Society held its fairs annually, 
with marked success. Its successor, the present 
Society, is now one of the largest county societies 
in the Union. 

During the legislative session of 1832—33, the 
subject of agriculture seems to have agitated the 
minds of the people through their representatives, 
for the records of that session show the first laws 
passed for their benefit. The acts of that body 
seem to have been productive of some good, for, ' 
though no records of the number of societies or- 
ganized at that date exist, yet the record shows 
that " many societies have been organized in con- 
formity to this act," etc. No doubt many societies 
held fairs from this time, for a greater or less 

number of years. Agricultural journals* were, 
at this period, rare in the State, and the subject of 
agricultural improvement did not receive that at- 
tention from the press it does at this time ; and, 
for want of public spirit and attention to sustain 
these fairs, they were gradually discontinued until 
the new act respecting their organization was 
passed in 1846. However, records of several 
county societies of the years between 1832 and 
1846 yet exist, showing that in some parts of the 
State, the interest in these fairs was by no means 
diminished. The Delaware County Society re- 
ports for the year 1833 — ^it was organized in June . 
of that year — good progress for a beginning, and 
that much interest was manifested by the citizens 
of the county. 

Ross County held its first exhibition in the 
autumn of that year, and the report of the mana- 
gers is quite cheerful. Nearly all of the exhibited 
articles were sold at auction, at greatly advanced 
prices from the current ones of the day. The en- 
try seems to have been free, in an open inclosure, 
and but little revenue was derived. Little was ex- 
pected, hence no one was disappointed. 

Washington County reports an excellent cattle 
show for that year, and a number of premiums 
awarded to the successful exhibitors. This same 
year the Ohio Importation Company was organ- 
ized at the Ross County fair. The Company began 
the next season the importation of fine cattle from 
England, and, in a few years, did incalculable good 
in this respect, as well as make considerable money 
in the enterprise. 

These societies were re-organized when the law 
of 1846 went into effect, and, with those that had 
gone down and the new ones started, gave an im- 
petus to agriculture that to this day is felt. Now 
every county has a society, while district, State 
and inter-State societies are annually held; all 
promotive in their tendency, and all a benefit to 
every one. 

The Ohio State Board of Agriculture was organ- 
ized by an act of the Legislature, passed February 
27, 1846. Since then various amendments to the 
organic law have been passed from time to time as 

*The PTestern Tirterwas published in Cincinnati, in 1826. Itwaa 
"miscellaneous," but contained many excellent articles on agri- 

The Farm^e' Record was published in Cincinnati, in 1831, and 
continued for several years. 

The Ohw Farmer was published at Batavia, Clermont County, in 
1833, by Hon. Samuel Medary. 

These were the early agricultural journals, some of which yet 
survive, though in new names, and under new management. Others 
have, also, since been added, some of which have an exceedingly 
large sirculation, and are an influence for much good in the State. 

I- f^ 




tlie necessities of the Board and of agriculture in 
the State demanded. The same day that the act 
was passed creating the State Board, an act was 
also passed providing for the erection of county and 
district societies, under which law, with subsequent 
amendments, the present county and district agri- 
cultural societies are managed. During the years 
from 1846 down to the present time, great improve- 
ments have been made in the manner of conduct- 
ing these societies, resulting in exhibitions unsur- 
passed in any other State. 

Pomology and horticulture are branches of in- 
dustry so closely allied with agriculture that a 
brief resume of their operations in Ohio will be 
eminently adapted to these pages. The early 
planting and care of fruit in Ohio has already been 
noticed. Among the earliest pioneers were men of 
fine tastes, who not only desired to benefit them- 
selves and their country, but who were possessed 
with a laudable ambition to produce the best fruits 
and vegetables the State could raise. For this end 
they studied carefully the topography of the coun- 
try, its soil, climate, and various influences upon 
such culture, and by careful experiments with fruit 
and vegetables, produced the excellent varieties now 
in use. Mention has been made of Mr. Longworth 
and Mr. Ernst, of Cincinnati ; and Israel and Aaron 
W. Putnam, on the Muskingum River ; Mr. Dille, 

Judges Fuller and Whittlesey, Dr. Jared Kirtland 
and his sons, and others — all practical enthusiasts in 
these departnients. At first, individual efforts alone, 
owing to the condition of the country, could be 
made. As the State filled with settlers, and means 
of communication became better, a desire for an in- 
terchange of views became apparent, resulting in 
the establishment of periodicals devoted to these 
subjects, and societies where difierent ones could 
meet and discuss these things. 

A Horticultural and Pomological Society was 
organized in Ohio in 1866. Before the organiza- 
tion of State societies, however, several distinct or 
independent societies existed ; in fact, out of these 
grew the State Society, which in turn produced 
good by stimulating the creation of county societies. 
All these societies, aids to agriculture, have pro- 
gressed as the State developed, and have done much 
in advancing fine fruit, and a taste for aesthetic cul- 
ture. In all parts of the West, their influence is 
seen in better and improved fruit ; its culture and 
its demand. 

To-day, Ohio stands in the van of the Western 
States in agriculture and all its kindred associa- 
tions. It only needs the active energy of her 
citizens to keep her in this place, advancing 
as time advances, until the goal of her ambition is 




THE climate of Ohio varies about four degrees. 
Though originally liable to malaria in many 
districts when first settled, in consequence of a 
dense vegetation induced by summer heats^ and 
rains, it has became very healthful, owing to clear- 
ing away this vegetation, and proper drainage. The 
State has became as favorable in its sanitary char- 
acteristics as any other in its locality. Ohio is re- 
markable for its high productive capacity, almost 
every thing grown in the temperate climates being 
within its range. Its extremes of heat and cold 
are less than almost any other State in or near the 
same latitude, hence Ohio suflers less from the ex- 
treme dry or wet seasons which afiect all adjoining 
States. These modifications are mainly due to the 
influence of the Lake Erie waters. These not 

only modify the heat of summer and the cold of 
winter, but apparently reduce the profusion of 
rainfall in summer, and favor moisture in dry pe- 
riods. No finer climate exists, all conditions consid- 
ered, for delicate vegetable growths, than that por- 
tion of Ohio bordering on Lake Erie. This is 
abundantly attested by the recent extensive devel- 
opment there of grape culture. 

Mr. Lorin Blodget, author of ■"American Clima- 
tology," in the agricultural report of 185.3, says; 
'"A district bordering on the Southern and West- 
ern portions of Lake Erie is more favorable in this 
respect (grape cultivation) than any other on the 
Atlantic side of the Rocky Mountains, and it will 
ultimately prove capable of a very liberal extension 
of ,vine culture." 



Experience has proven Mr. Blodget correct in 
his theory. Now extensive fields of grapes are 
everywhere found on the Lake Erie Slope, while 
other small fruits find a sure footing on its soU. 

" Considering the climate of Ohio by isother- 
mal lines and rain shadings, it must be borne in 
mind," says Mr. Blodget, in his description of 
Ohio's climate, from which these facts are drawn, 
" that local influences often require to be considered. 
At the South, from Cincinnati to Steubenville, the 
deep river valleys are two degrees warmer than the 
hilly districts of the same vicinity. The lines are 
drawn intermediate between the two extremes. 
Thus, Cincinnati, on the plain, is 2° warmer than 
at the Observatory, and 4° warmer for each year 
than Hillsboro, Highland County — the 'pne being 
500, the other 1,000, feet above sea-level. The 
immediate valley of the Ohio, from Cincinnati to 
Gallipolis, is about 75° for the summer, and 54° 
for the year; while the adjacent' hilly districts, 
300 to 500 feet higher, are not above 73° and 52° 
respectively. For the summer, generally, the 
river valleys are 73° to 75° ; the level and central 
portions 72° to 73°, and the lake border 70° to 
72°. A peculiar mildness of climate belongs to 
the vicinity of Kelley's Island, Sandusky and 
Toledo. Here, both winter and summer, the cli- 
mate is 2° warmer than on the highland ridge ex- 
tending from Norwalk and Oberlin to Hudson and 
the northeastern border. This ridge varies from 
500 to 750 feet above the lake, or 850 to 1,200 
feet above sea level. This high belt has a summer 
temperature of 70°, 27° for the winter, and 49° 
for the year ; while at Sandusky and Kelley's 
Island the summer is 72°, the winter 29°, and the 
year 50°- In the central- and eastern parts of 
the State, the winters are comparatively cold, the 
avers^e falling to 32° over the more level districts, 
and to 29° on the highlands. The Ohio River 
valley is about 35°, but the highlands near it fall 
to 31° and 32° for the winter." 

As early as 1824, several persons in the State 
began taking the temperature in their respective 
localities, for the spring, summer, autumn and win- 
ter, averaging them for the entire year. From time 
to time, these were gathered and published, inducing 
others to take a step in the same direction. Not 
long since, a general table, from about forty local- 

ities, was gathered and compiled, covering a period 
of more than a quarter of a century. This table, 
when averaged, showed an average temperature of 
52.4°, an evenness of temperature not equaled 
in many bordering States. 

Very imperfect observations have been made 
of the amount of rainfall in the State. Until 
lately, only an individual here and there through- 
out the State took enough interest in this matter 
to faithfully observe and record the averages of 
several years in succession. In consequence of 
this fact, the illustration of that feature of Ohio's 
climate is less satisfactory than that of the 
temperature. "The actual rainfall of different 
months and years varies greatly," says Mr. Blod- 
get. "There may be more in a month, and, 
again, the quantity may rise to 12 or 15 inches 
in a single month. , For a year, the variation may 
be from a minimum of 22 or 25 inches, to a maxi- 
mum of 50 or even 60 inches in the southern part 
of the State, and 45 to 48 inches along the lake 
border. The average is a fixed quantity, and, 
although requiring a period of twenty or twenty- 
five years to fix it absolutely, it is entirely certain 
and unchangeable when known. On charts, these 
average quantities are represented by depths 
of shading. At Cincinnati, the last fifteen years 
of observation somewhat reduce the average of 
48 inches, of former years, to 46 or 47 inches." 

Spring and summer generally give the most rain, 
there being, in general, 10 to 12 inches in the 
spring, 10 to 14 inches in the summer, and 8 to 
10 inches in the autumn. The winter is the most 
variable of all the seasons, the southern part of 
the State having 10 inches, and the northern part 
7 inches or less — an average of 8 or 9 inches. 

The charts of rainfall, compiled for the State, 
show a fall of 30 inches on the lake, and 46 inches 
at the Ohio River. Between these two points, the 
fall is marked, beginning at the north, 32, 34, 36 
and 38 inches, all near the lake. Farther down, 
in the latitude of Tuscarawas, Monroe and Mercer 
Counties, the fall is 40 inches, while the south- 
western part is 42 and 44 inches. 

The clearing away of forests, the drainage of 
.the land, and other causes, have lessened the rain- 
fall, making considerable difference since the days 
of the aborigines. 


® fc-. 

_< g) 







" New empires rise, 
Gathering the strength of hoary centuries, 
And rush down like the Alpine avalanche, 
Startling the nations." — lyentice. 

THE author of Ecce Deus says : " History 
can never be written ; it can only be hinted 
at, and most dimly outlined from the particular 
standpoint which the historian has chosen to oc- 
cupy. It is only by courtesy that any man can 
be called an historian. Seldom do men so flatly 
contradict each other as upon points of fact. 
Incompleteness marks all narrations. No man 
can fully write his own life. On reviewing the 
sheets which were to have told everything, the 
autobiograpber is struck with their reticence and 
poverty." Another writer "has said, that " history 
is an imperfect record of nations and races, diverse 
in their position and capacities, but identical in na- 
ture and one in destiny. Viewed comprehensively, 
its individuals and events comprise the incidents 
of an uncompleted biography of man, a biography 
long, obscure, full of puzzling facts for thought to 
interpret, and more puzzling breaks for thought to 
^ bridge ; but, on the whole, exhibiting man as 
moving, and as moving forward." And still 
another author says, that " history is but the 
footprints upon the sands of time, by which we 
trace the growth, development, and advancement 
of the people constituting a nation." We might 
add, that it is history that takes note of the 
humblest tiller of the soil as well as of the scholar, 
the statesman, the soldier, and the great and good 
men and women who build the imperishable mon- 

uments of a country's greatness. Of the men and 
things that existed in the world durinj, the many 
dark centuries that precede the historic period, we 
know nothing, except through rude hieroglyphics 
and vague traditions, handed down through the 
beclouded minds of unlettered and superstitious 
people. Beginning with the age of letters and 
improvements in the languages of the world, fol- 
lowed by the modern inventions of printing types 
and presses, and the immense institution of the 
daily newspaper and telegraph, minute and reliable 
records of the world's daily doings are chronicled, 
and out of these veritable history is formulated. 

The events that make up the annals of a country 
will always be of interest to the seeker after 
knowledge, who may in them learn who has lived 
and what has been done in the past ages of the 
world. The time is approaching when ignorance 
of the world's historic past will be a reproach, 
however it may be as to a lack of knowledge of 
the future. America constitutes a great nation 
of people, made up from the populations of 
many other nations, and Ohio is one of the 
greatest and most highly favored by nature of 
all the thirty-eight states of the American Union. 
As every portion of a thing goes to make up, 
and becomes a part of, the whole, so is a his- 
tory of Delaware County ■ a part of the history 
of Ohio, as Ohio is a part of the history of 
America. The population of Delaware County 
constitutes a part of the forty millions of Ameri- 
can citizens who people this country, and their 
absolute wealth and prosperity make a part of our 

D ^ 




national wealth and material greatness. The 
intelligence of its people forms a part of our intel- 
ligence as a nation. The patriotism and self- 
sacrificing devotion of its sons; the gallantry and 
process of its soldiers, are no mean part of the 
pride and glory of this great American nation. 

The age of Delaware County (as a county) is 
almost three-quarters of a century, but the date 
of its settlement extends back a number of years 
beyond the period of its organization as a county. 
Within that time the events that have transpired, 
and the scenes that have been enacted upon its 
soil, will be the subject matter of these pages. 
Taking it from its occupancy by the Indians, we 
will trace its progress from that wild and sayage 
state to its present prosperity, and endeavor to 
present to its citizens an authentic and impartial 

Delaware County is located near the geological 
center of the State, and is bounded on the north 
by Marion and Morrow Counties, on the east by 
Licking and Knox, on the south by Franklin 
(which contains Columbus, the capital of the 
State), and on the west by Union County. Its 
area, officially stated at 283,289 acres, embraces 
81,975 acres of arable land, 104,649 acres of 
meadow or pasture land, and 96,665 acres of un- 
cultivated or wood land. Its average value per 
acre, exclusive of buildings, is $33.44, that" of 
Franklin County (according to official records) 
being $57.42, and Hamilton, which contains the 
city of Cincinnati, $84.39. The Scioto and Olen- 
tangy Kivers cross the central portion of the county 
from north to south. These streams, with their 
tributaries, constitute the drainage system of the 
county. The Scioto is the larger stream ; both, 
however, are subject to sudden and very great 
increase of volume in freshet time. They afford 
many excellent water-power privileges, some of 
which have been improved by the erection of 
mills, for flouring and manufacturing. As they 
are inclosed, throughout most of the county, by 
high banks that are often rocky, they may be 
dammed with ease, and security to adjoining lands. 
" The eastern portion of the county is rolling, 
particularly' the sandstone districts. This is 
due partly to the original unequal deposit of the 
Drift,* and partly to the effect of streams which 
have dug their channels through it, and into the 
rock, in some instances, to the depth of fifteea or 
twenty feet. The area of the shale and black slate 

* Geological Survey. 

was at first generally flat, but the streams and all 
little ravines have so roughened the surface that it 
should now be called rolling, or undulating, 
although there are yet many wide flat tracts. The 
belt underlaid by the shale and black slate is sep- 
arated from the limestone belt by the valley of the 
Olentangy, which, with its tributaries, constitutes 
an important system of drainage. The whole lime- 
stone district which embraces all that part of the 
county west of the Olentangy Eiver, except that 
underlaid by the waterlime, is moderately undu- 
lating, the surface being worn by erosion into 
shallow depressions, which, near their junction 
with larger streams, become ravines bounded by 
steep bluffs. The district of the waterlime is flat, 
especially in the townships of Radnor, Thomp- 
son, and Scioto. The deeply eroded valleys of the 
Scioto and Olentangy constitute the most marked 
topographical features of the country. In the 
southern part of the county these valleys are 
deeply cut in the underlying rock. The divide 
between them at a point west of Powell is 125 feet 
above the Scioto. That interval is made up mostly 
of the beds of the underlying limestone, the Drift 
not having an average thickness of over twenty- five 
feet. The descent to the Olentangy is usually very 
gentle, occupying sometimes the space of a mile or 
more on either side ; while the valley of the Scioto 
is narrower, and its banks more frequently rocky 
and precipitous. The valley of the Olentangy is 
excavated for the most part in the black slate or 
the underlying shale, but that of the Scioto is cut 
in solid limestone strata. This fact may account 
for the greater breadth of the former." 

" In the northwestern part of the county the 
valley of the Scioto is strikingly different from the 
southern part. It has here the features that the 
same valley presents in Marion and Hardin Coun- 
ties. The bluffs are never rocky. The general 
level of the country is but little above the level of 
the water in the river. The stream has not yet 
cut its channel throughout this part of its course 
through the Drift, and in traveling along its valley, 
one is forcibly reminded of the strong resemblance 
of the face of the country to the Black Swamp 
region of Northwestern Ohio. It is a natural and 
reasonable inference that this portion of the coun- 
try has had a very different superficial history from 
the southern and eastern parts, and one that allies 
it more to the Lake Erie Valley than to the Ohio 
slope. These Black Swamp features prevail in the 
townships of Radnor and Thompson, and in the 
northwestern part of Scioto." 

"-^ — ®pv 




The following oflScial table is of some interest 
in this connection, as showing the railroad elevation 
in this section of the country : ,,-t. ^^^ye vt. above 

Lake Erie Ocean 

Morrow Co.line (C. C. C. & I. R.B.) 405 970 

■Ashley (C. C.C. & I.E. R.) 412 977 

Eden " 405 970 

Delaware " 378 943 

Berlin " 381 946 

Lewis Center " 387 952 

The soil generally is dependent on the nature of 
the northern drift. In this the various essentials, 
(State geological survey), such as iron, lime, phos- 
phorus, silica, magnesia, alumina, and soda, are 
so thoroughly mixed and in such favorable propor- 
tions that the strength and fertility of the soil are 
very great. The depth of the soil has the same 
limit as the drift itself, which is, on an average, 
about twenty-five feet. The soil is more gravelly 
and stony in the rolling tracts. The stones come 
partly from the underlying rock, but mainly from 
the drift. They are common along all the valleys 
of streams and creeks and in shallow ravines. 
They are made to appear superficial by the wash- 
ing away of the clayey parts of the drift, and are 
not due to any drift agency acting since the depo- 
sition of the great mass. The northwestern part 
of the county has a heavy, clayey soil, with some 
exceptions. This clayey, flat land is comparative- 
ly free from superficial bowlders. Very little 
gravel'can be found except in the line of gravel 
knolls that passes northwestwardly through Eadnor 
Township. The valleys of the streams, however, 
show a great many northern bowlders, as in other 
parts of the county. Besides these general char- 
acteristics of the soil of the county, a great many 
modifications due to local causes will be seen in 
passing over the county. There are some marshy 
accumulations, which, when duly drained, are 
found to possess a soil of remarkable ammoniacal 
qualities, due to decaying vegetation. The alluvial 
river margins possess a characteristic soil, strongly 
contrasting with the generally clayey lands of the 
county. They are lighter and warmer, while they 
are annually renewed, like the countries of Lower 
Egypt, by the muddy waters of spring freshets, and 
are hence of exhaustless fertility. 

The whole county was originally wooded, and in 
certain localities the timber was heavy. The pre- 
vailing varieties are those common to this part of 
the State, and consist of many of the difierent 
kinds of oak, hickory, black and white walnut, ash, 
birch, sugar-maple, and other species unnecessary 
to particularize. Some of the more common shrubs, 

such as hazel, willow, sumac, etc., etc., are also to 
be found in considerable profusion. With this 
brief glance at the topography of the county, and 
its physical ■ features, we will now turn to another 
branch of the subject. 

On the geological structure of a country depend 
the pursuits of its inhabitants, and the genius of 
its civilization. Agriculture is the outgrowth of a 
fertile soil ; mining results from mineral resources ; 
and from navigable waters spring navies and com- 
merce. Every great branch of industry requires, 
for its successful development, the cultivation of 
kindred arts and sciences. IPhases of life and 
modes of thought are thus induced, which give to 
diflsrent communities and states characters as 
various as the diverse rocks that underlie them. 
In like manner it may be shown that their moral 
and'^ intellectual qualities depend on material con- 
ditions. Where the soil and subjacent rocks are 
proftise in the bestowal of wealth, man is indolent 
and effeminate ; where effort is required to live, he 
becomes enlightened and virtuous ; and where, on 
the sands of the desert, labor is unable to procure 
the necessaries and comforts of life, he lives like a 
savage. The civilization of states and nations 
is, then, to a great extent, but the reflection of 
physical conditions, and hence the propriety of 
introducing their civil, political and military history 
with a sketch of the geological substructure from 
which they originate. 

We are not writing the history of a state or a 
nation, but that which applies to either, geologi- 
cally, will apply with equal force to an individual 
county, and it is possible that the people of Dela- 
ware County feel as great an interest in their 
geology as if their county comprised a nation. 
From the geological survey of the State we make 
some extracts pertaining to Delaware County, 
which will be found of value to those interested in 
the subject. Under the head of "Geological 
Structure," is the following: "The geological 
range of the county is from the base of the Carbonifer- 
ous system to the waterlime in the Upper Silurian. 
The oldest and hence the lowest, geological horizon 
is in the northwestern part of Scioto Township. 
The outcropping belts of the formations cross the 
county from north to south. The townships of 
Kadnor, Marlborough, Troy, Delaware, Concord, 
Liberty, and Scioto are underlaid by the cornifer- 
ous, including also what there may be of the Ham- 
ilton. The belt between the Olentangy and Alum 
Creek is occupied mainly with the outcropping 
edge of the Huron shale, inducing the underlying 





blue shale seen beneath the Huron at Delaware, in 
the banks of the Olentangy. How far east of Alum 
Creek the black shale extends, it is impossible to say, 
but it probably includes the western portions of 
King8ton,Berkshire, and Genoa. The fragile shales 
that immediately underlie the Berea grit have a 
narrow belt of outcrop through Kingston, Berk- 
shire, and Genoa. The Berea grit underlies the 
most of Porter, Trenton and Harlem. The over- 
lying Cuyahoga shales and sandstone, called Logan 
sandstones in the southern part of the State, have 
but a feeble representation in Delaware County. 
They would undoubtedly be encountered by drill- 
ing in the extreme eastern portions of the eastern 
tier of towns. The various strata making the 
series of Delaware Couiity are as follows, in de- 
scending order : 

Cuyahoga shales and sandstones. 

Berea grit. 

Cleveland shale. 

Huron shale. 

Olentangy shale. 

Hamilton and Upper Corniferous limestone. 

Lower Corniferous limestone. ) 

Oriskany sandstone or conglomerate. 

Waterlime. . ^ 

At Condit, in Trenton Township, on the«^in8« 
between Sections 1 and 2, may be seen an exposure 
of the Cuyahoga, in the bed of Perfect's Creek, 
which has the following section, in descending 
order : jt, i„. 

No. 1. Sandstone, of the grit of the Berea, not glit- 
tering and earthy, in beds of 1 to 4 

inches, seen 3 

No. 2. Shale— blue, hard 1 

No. 3. Sandstone, same as No. 1, but in thicker 

beds of 4 to 6 inches 2 

No. 4. Shale, like No. 2 8 

No. 5. Sandstone, same as No. 1, seen 4 


..•..10 8 

Southwest quarter, Section 2, Trenton. In the 
left bank of Perfect's Creek, the following sectioti 
may be made out, in descending order : 

Ft. In. 
No. 1. Thin-bedded, shaly sandstone, glittering 
with mica, especially on the sides of 

the bedding'. 3 

No. 2. Beds more even, 2 to 5 inches; grit 

similar to that of the Berea 4 6 

No. 3. Very thin and shaly, rather slaty 6 

No. 4. Beds 2 to 4 inches 6 

No. 5. Slaty sandstone^ 4 

No. 6. Beds 2 to 6 inches, seen 1 


9 10 

The slaty beds of this section, which are wavy 
and ripple-marked, lie irregularly among stone that 
is of a coarser grain and heavier bedding, the 
heavy beds showing the unusual phenomenon of 
tapering out, allowing the horizon of the slaty lay- 
ers to rise and fall in the course of a few rods. 
This section, or parts of it, is seen again in the left 
bank of the Walnut, below the mouth of the Per- 
fect Creek, on Mr. Overturf's land. It is also 
exposed a few rods further north, along the left 
bank of Walnut Creek, on Monroe Vance's farm. 
At the latter place some very good flagging has 
been obtained from the bed of the creek, but the 
thickest beds are not over four inches, the most 
being less than one inch. They afford here a fine 
surface exposure, showing a peculiar sheety and 
wavy arrangement. They rise and fall, shooting 
up and down at various angles and in all directions, 
and are often ripple-marked, reminding the ob- 
server of similar thin layers of the waterlime of the 
Upper Silurian. Similar beds are exposed on John 
Fenier's land, next above Mr. Vance's. They con- 
.tinue'also through the farms of Andrew Wiants, 
Hosea Stockwell, Nelson Utley, and James Will- 
iamson, a mile and a half above Mr. Vance's, 
showing the same characters, and are somewhat 
used for walling wells and for common foundations. 

Opposite the mill of Mr. McFarland, Mr. Lan- 
don owns a quarry situated a little further down. 
At this place the exposed section is as follows, 
continuing the numbering from above : 

Ft. In. 

No. 11. As above 18 

No. 12. Shale, as above 4 6 

No. 13. Heavy sandstone, in one bed, sometimes 

concretionary '. 2 

No. 14. Shale 1 

No. 15. In one bed, sandstone 1 10 

No. 16. Shale in the bed of the creek, thickness 


The shale of No. 12 is apt to contain thin but 
very even beds of good sandstone. Indeed, one 
heavy bed of sandstone, valuable for railroad 
bridges, and for that purpose here quarried, entirely 
embraced in this shale, gradually thins out hori- 
zontally toward the north, and disappears entirely 
in the distance of 22 feet. This is a valuable 
quarry and furnishes heavy stone- The same is 
true of Sprague & Burr's quarry, which is across 
the creek, and near the mill of Mr. McFarland. 

Berea Grit. — Besides the foregoing sections in 
the Berea grit, it is also quarried by Mr. John Knox, 
in the banks of the Rattlesnake Creek, about half 



a mile above the junction with the Walnut. This 
quarry, worked by Messrs. Landon & Fish, shows 
the following downward section : 

Ft. In. 

No. 1. Drift 2 

No. 2. Beds 2 to 3 inches 12 

No. 3. " 6 to 8 " 8 

No. 4. Slaty Beds 2 

No. 5. Concretionary rough, worthless 2 2 

No. 6. Heavy beds, 4 to 10 inches 5 

No. 7. Interval hid '. 

No. 8. Thicker beds in creek, not well seen 

Total. 24 4 

This quarry is probably in the upper portion of 
the Berea grit. A quarter of a naile above Mr. 
Knox's quarry, is that of Mr. Alfred Williams 
This shows about fifteen feet of beds of two to 
four inches. About a mile and a quarter north ot 
Harlem, along the South Branch of Spruce Kun, is 
Honier Merritt's quarry. The upper portion of 
thii section consists of thin layers of two to six 
inches. Thicker layers of fourteen or sixteen 
inches are near the bottom of the quarry. At 
Harlem, Mr. Carey Paul owns a quarry, worked 
by Daniel Bennett, which embraces about twelve 
feet in perpendicular section, of uniform beds of 
two to six inches. Mr. A. S. Scott's land joins 
Paul's below, and contains two opened quarries 
that supply, like Paul's, considerable valuable 
stone. The horizons of Mr. Scott's quarries are 
identical, and embrace the following descending 
section : 


No. 1. Drift 3 

No. 2. Beds three to four inches, with shaly inter- 
stratification 12 

No. 3. Beds eight to ten inches 4 

Total 19 

These quarries are in the southern corner of 
Harlem Township, on small tributaries to Duncan's 
Creek, and are probably in the upper portion of 
the Berea grit. Still further south, and adjoining 
Mr. Scott's, is Sherman Fairchild's section, which 
embraces good stone, and lies in a very favorable 
situation for drainage of the quarry. It is com- 
posed of beds of two to eight inches, with shale, 

making six feet exposed. 

***** * * 

Cleveland Shale. — The Bedford shale, which 
occurs below the Berea, in the northern part of 
the State, seems not to exist in Delaware County. 
The Cleveland, likewise, has not been certainly 
identified. This is partly owing to the meagerness 

of the exposure of the beds of that horizon in 
Delaware County, and partly to the difficulty of 
distinguishing, without fossils, the Cleveland from 
the black slate (Huron shale). This uncertainty 
is augmented by the attenuation or non-existence 
of the Erie shale, which separates them by a wide 
interval in the northern part of the State. There 
are few exposures of black or blackish shale in the 
banks of Walnut Creek, in Berkshire Township, 
that may be referred to the Cleveland. 

Huron Shale. — This shale has a full develop- 
ment in Delaware County. Its outcropping belt 
is from eight to ten miles wide, and is divided by 
Alum Creek into about equal parts. It graduates 
downward into a shale which is much less bitumi- 
nous and has a bluish color, and which lies directly 
on the blue limestone quarried at Delaware. It 
has occasional outcrops on tne west side of the 
Olentangy, but that stream lies, almost without 
exception, along the western edge of the black 
slate or of the shale underlying. Alum Creek, 
and nearly all of its small tributaries, afibrd fre- 
quent sections of the Huron shale ; but they are 
so unconnected, and have so great a resemblance 
on# to the other, that they cannot be correlated. 
»H*i>ce, no correct statement of the thickness of 
this shale can be given. It has been estimated at 
about three hundred feet. It would be impossible 
to mention every point at which this shale is 
exposed in Delaware County ; hence, only those 
outcrops will be noted at which some features are 
disclosed which throw light on the general charac- 
ter of the formation. In the bank of the East 
Branch of the Olentangy, near the center of Sec- 
tion 1, Marlborough Township, at Kline's factory, 
the following section, in descending order, was 
taken. It belongs to the lowest part of the Huron : 

Ft. In. 

No. 1. Thin, bituminous and brittle, similar to 
the exposure at Cardington, Morrow 
County 7 

No. 2. Blue shale ; calcareous, hard and compact, 
parting concBoidally ; less hard and en- 
during than limestone; concretionary, 
irregular and bilging ; seen in the bed 
of the river ; this may not be a constant 
layer; seen 6 

Total 7 6 

Thirty or forty rods below the bridge over the 
Olentangy, just below the union of the East and 
West Branches, Troy Township, the same horizon 
is exposed in the left bank of the river, on Joseph 




Cole's land, covering, however, more of both num- 
bers, as follows : „^ ^ 

X t. Is. 

No. 1. Black slate, the weathered surface of whicK 

is divided into very thin beds ; includes 

two beds of an inch or two each, of less 

bituminous shale, which is blue, if damp, 

but brown when dry and rusted 23 

No. 2. Blue shale, jet in regular, thin bedding... 6 

No. 3. Same as No. 1 4 

No. 4. Bluish or purplish shale, in thin beds 3 6 

No. 5. Black slate 8 

No. 6. Massive blue shale, weathering out super- 
ficially in small, rounded pieces or short 
cylinders the upper ends of which are 
convex and the lower concave, the equiv- 
alent of No. 2: at Kline's factory 1 3 

No. 7. Blue-bedded shale ; seen 3 

Total 29 6 

At Delaware, a quarter of a mile below the rail- 
road bridge over the Olentangy, the Huron shale 
appears in the left bank of the river, underlaid by 
the shale which has been regarded the equivalent 
of the Hamilton. There are no fossils in this un- 
derlying shale at Delaware, proving its Hamilton 
age, and it will be referred to in the following 
pages, to avoid a possible misuse of terms, as the 
Olentangy shale. The slate is of its usual thin 
beds, with some calcareous layers, which are 
black and about half an inch thick, hardly distin- 
guishable from the slate itself. Here also are 
the round, calcareous concretions, technically called 
septaria, common to the lower portion of the black 
slate. The line of contact of the slate with the 
shale underlying, is quite conspicuous at some dis- 
tance from the bluff, the shale weathering out fast- 
er, allowing the tough beds of slate to project. 
The following is the section at Delaware, covering 
the lower part of the Huron shale and the whole 
of the Olentangy shale : _ . 

No. 1. Black slate (Huron shale) 30 

No. 2. Blue shale, without fossils, in thin beds 

or massive 8 

No. 3. Blue limestone 4 

No. 4. Shale, like No. 2 1 4 

No. 5. Blue limestone 3 

No. 6. Shale, like No. 2 : 6 

No. 7. Alternations of blue shale and black slate 4 

No. 8. Blue shale, like No. 2 4 

No. 9. Shale with concretions of blue limestone, 
that part under the weather couchoidally 
like massive shale. These hardened cal- 
careous masses are not regularly disposed 
with respect to ea«h other, but fill most 
of the interval of six feet. They are six 
to eight inches thick, and two to three 
feet wide horizontally* 6 

* No 9 here appears the same as No. 6, near the base of the sec- 
tion at Coles, in Troy Township. 

No. 10. Shale ? (sloping talus), not well exposed 10 
No. 11. Bituminous, nearly unfossiliferous, lime- 
stone of a black, or purplish black color, 
hard and crystalline. This black lime- 
stone shows a few indistinct bivalves. 
One, which is large and coarse, appears 
to be Av'cula pectiniformis. Hall : seen 3 

No. 12. Interval, rock not seen 5 

No. 13. Section at Little's quarry, in blue lime- 
stone (see page 96). The apportions are 
quite cherty and pyritiferous. It may be 2-5 

Total, 101 1 1 

Above Delaware, the black slate and the Olen- 
tangy shale are frequently seen in the left bank of 
the river. The strike of the slate runs a little east 
of the river at the city, passing through and form- 
ing the bluff on which East Delaware is situated. 
The concretions of black limestone are from three 
inches to three and four feet in diameter, and some- 
times much larger. (The survey here copies a 
lengthy extract from Dr. J. S. Newberry, which, as 
it is pertinent to the subject, and moreover con- 
tains much of interest, we give it entire.) 

" Much of the doubt which has hung around the 
age of the Huron shale has been due to the fact 
that it has been confounded with the Cleveland 
shale, which lies several hundred feet above it, and 
that the fossils (without which, as we have said, it 
is generally impossible to accurately determine the 
age of any of the sedimentary rocks) had not been 
found. Yet, with diligent search, we have now 
discovered not only fossils sufficient to identify this 
formation with the Portage of New York, but the 
acute eye of Mr. Hertzer has detected, in certain 
calcareous concretions which occur near the base at 
Delaware, Monroeville, etc., fossils of great scien- 
tific interest. These concretions are often spher- 
ical, are sometimes twelve feet in diameter, and 
very frequently contain organic nuclei, around 
which they are formed. These nibclei are either 
portions of the trunks of large coniferous trees 
allied to our pines, replaced, particle by particle, by 
silica, so that their structure can be studied 
almost as well as that of the recent wood, or large 
bones. With the exception of some trunks of tree 
ferns which we have found in the corniferous lime- 
stone of Delaware and Sandusky, these masses of 
silicified wood are the oldest remains of a land veg- 
etation yet found in the State. The Silurian rocks 
everywhere abound with impressions of sea-weeds, 
but not until now had we found proof that there 
were, in the Devonian age, continental surfaces cov- 
ered with forests of trees similar in character to, and 
rivaling in magnitude, the pines of the present day. 







" The bones contained in these concretions are 
of gigantic fishes, larger, more powerful, and 
more singular in their organization, than any of 
those immortalized by Hugh Miller. These 
fishes we owe to the industry and acuteness 
of Mr. Hertzer, and, in recognition of the fact, 
I have named the most remarkable one Din- 
ichihys Hertzeri, or Hertzer's terrible fish. 
This name will not seem ill chosen, when I 
say that the fish that now bears it had a head 
three feet .long by two feet broad, and that his un- 
der jaws were more than two feet in length and 
five inches deep. They are composed of dense 
bony tissue, and are turned up anteriorly like sled 
runners; the extremities of both jaws meeting to 
form one great triangular tooth, which interlocked 
with two in the upper jaw, seven inches in length 
and more than three inches wide. It is apparent, 
from the structure of these jaws, that they could 
easily embrace in their grasp the body of a man — 
perhaps a horse — and as they were doubtless 
moved by muscles of corresponding power, they 
could crush such a body as we would crack an 

One mile northwest from Delaware, Mr. Nathan 
Miller struck the black slate, on the west side of 
the Olentangy, at the depth of twenty-one feet, in 
digging a well. It may also be seen along a little 
ravine tributary to the Delaware Run, near Mr. 
Miller's farm, on the land of C. 0. and G. W. 
Little. Limestone only is seen in the bed of the 
run a few rods further west. It is blue and fos- 
siliferous. A short distance still higher up the 
run the black member (No. 11 of the section 
taken in the Olentangy at Delaware) is seen in the 
bed of the same run. About a mile and a half 
below Stratford a little stream comes into the Olen- 
tangy, from the east, bringing along in freshet time 
a good many pieces of black slate. About a hun- 
dred rods up this little stream the beds of the black 
slate appear in situ in the tops of the blufis, the 
Olentangy shale, with its full thickness of about 
thirty feet, being plainly exposed near its junction 
with the slate, while in the river the limestone 
beds of the upper corniferous are spread out over 
a wide surface exposure. In Liberty Township, 
two and a half miles south of the Stratford, the 
black slate may be seen on the farm of Mr. J. 
Moorhead, on the west side of the Olentangy, in 
the banks of a ravine the distance of a mile from 
the river. From a considerable distance from this 
point, in descending the Olentangy, the banks 
show frequent exposures of limestone. Near Mr. 

William Case's quarry, five and a half miles below 
Stratford, the black slate may be seen by ascend- 
ing a little ravine that comes in from the east. 
Just at the county line, the slate appears in full 
force again in the left bank of the river, little 
streams bringing fragments from the west side as 
well as from the east. A perpendicular exposure 
on land owned by Granby Buell,of about forty feet, 
consists of about five feet of shale at the bottom. 
It is also seen on the west of the Olentangy, by 
ascending a ravine near the county line, on Archi- 
bald Wood's land, and again, by ascending another 
ravine about three-quarters of a mile north of the 
county line, on the land of F. Bartholomew, and 
it seems to extend about two miles west of the 
Olentangy at its point of exit from Delaware 

The name Olentangy shale is given to that 
bluish and sometimes greenish shale which is so 
extensively exposed in the banks of the Olentangy 
River, in Delaware County, and which underlies 
the black, tough, but thin beds of the Huron 
shale. J It has a thickness of about thirty feet. 
No fossils have been found in it. It is interstrati- 
fied with a little black slate, and in some of its ex- 
posures it bears a striking resemblance, at least in 
its bedding, to the Huron shale. The ^ section 
which has already been given of its exposures at 
Delaware, is the most complete that has been 
taken, and very accurately represents its bedding 
and characters wherever seen in the county. It 
lies immediately upon a hard, blackish, sometimes 
bluish, crystalline, pyritiferous limestone, or on the 
beds that have been denominated upper cornifer- 
ous in the reports on the counties of Sandusky, 
Seneca, and Marion. In the county of Franklin, 
and further south, it is said to be wanting, and the 
black slate lies immediately upon the same lime- 
stone beds. It is also wanting in Defiance County, 
the black slate there also lying immediately on the 
beds that contain the only Hamilton fossils there 
yet discovered. This shale embraces occasionally 
a course of impure limestone that has a blue color 
and a rude concretionary appearance. On account of 
easy quarrying, it is a constant temptation to the peo- 
ple to employ itinfoundations. It is found, however, 
to crumble with exposure after a few months or 
years, and change into a soft shale or clay. Large 
blocks of it are washed out from this shale just 
below Waldo, in Marion County, by the force of 
the water coming over the dam at the mill, and 
have been somewhat used by Mr. John Brundage, 
near Norton, in Marlborough Township. This 

s ^ 




shaly limestone near the base of the OJentangy 
shale is immediately underlaid by a very hard crys- 
talline limestone, which is sometimes black, but fre- 
quently purplish, containing pyrites in abundance 
and very few evident fossils. It is exposed and 
quarried just below Waldo, in Marion County, but 
is nowhere wrought in Defiance County. It is a 
persistent layer and occurs in Defiance County. In 
the report on the geology of Marion County it has 
been referred to the Hamilton, where it probably 
belongs, and seems to represent the Tully limestone 
of New York. The following section in the Olen- 
tangy shale will further illustrate the bedding and 
the nature of this member of the Devonian. It 
occurs along the banks of a little creek that enters 
the Olentangy River from the west, on land of F. 
Bartholomew, southeast of Powell : 

Ft. In. 
No. 1. Black slate, with black limestone con- 
cretions 20 

No. 2. Blue shale, bedded like the slate but 

softer , 3 

No. 3. Black limestone, in a broken lenticular or 

concretionary course 8 

No. 4. Same as No. 2 5 4 

No. 5. Black slate 2 

No. 6. Shale, same as No. 2 2 

No. 7. Blue, irregular, shaly limestone, appear- 
ing concretionary ; the same as washed 
out of blue clay near Waldo ; comes out 

in blocks ; in one course 4 

No. 8. Same as No. 2 10 

No. 9. Same as No. 5 3 

No. 10. Same as No. 2 2 

No. 11. Same as No. 5 1 

No. 12. SameasNo. 2 6 

No. 13. SameasNo 5 1 

No. 14. SameasNo. 2 1 2 

No, 15. Same as No. 5 4 

No. 16. SameasNo. 2 1 

No. 17. Same as No. 5 1 

No. 18. SameasNo. 7 8 

No. 19. Shaly (not well seen) 15 

No. 20. Hard, dark blue, bituminous limestone, 
with much chert and pyrites ; the chert 
is black, and hard as flint ; beds 3 to 12 

inches (well exposed) 9 6 

No. 21. Thinner blue beds, with vermicular or 
fucoidal marks and little chert; fossilifer- 
ous; sometimes coarsely granular and 
crinoidal, but mainly earthly or argil- 
laceous, and tough under the hammer ; 
within, this is in beds of six to twelve 

inches i 6 

No. 22. Limestone in thin slaty beds, so con- 
torted and yet so agglomerated by chert 
(which forms nearly one-half of the 
mass) that the whole seems massive ; 
the chert is dark '. 3 6 

No. 28. Beds of blue limestone of 4 to 10 inches, 
alternating with chert beds, latter about 
an inch thick ; where this number forms 
the bed of the creek it does not appear 
slaty, but massive and smooth, like a 
very promising building stone ; the creek 
where it enters the river bottoms is on 
this number, and nothing more is seen.. 6 



Hamilton and Upper Corniferous. — These 
names are here associated, because whatever Ham- 
ilton fossils have been found in the county have 
been detected in that formation that has been de- 
scribed in reports on other counties as upper corni- 
ferous, and because it seems impossible to set any 
limit to the downward extension of the Hamilton, 
unless the whole of the blue limestone be Hamil- 
ton. The shale which has been described as Olen- 
tangy shale was at one time regarded as the only 
equivalent of the Hamilton, from the occurrence 
of Hamilton fossils in a shaly outcrop at Prout's 
Station, in Erie County. But after the survey of 
the county revealed no fossils in that shale, it 
became evident that it could not be the equivalent 
of the very fossiliferous outcrop at Prout's Station, 
and should not bear the name of Hamilton. That 
shale partakes much more largely of the nature of 
the Huron than of the Hamilton. The name 
corniferous is made by Dr. Newberry to cover the 
whole interyal between the Oriskany and that shale, 
the Hamilton being regarded as running out into 
the corniferous, its fossils mingling with typical 
corniferous fossils. In the State of Michigan, how- 
ever, the term Hamilton has been freely applied 
to these beds, the corniferous, if either, being regard- 
ed as receded. The lithological characters of the 
Michigan Hamilton are the same as those of the 
upper corniferous in Ohio, and it is hardly suscep- 
tible of doubt that they are stratigraphically identi- 
cal. In Ohio, there is a very noticeable lower hori- 
zon that should limit the Hamilton, if that name 
be applicable to these beds, and if palseontological 
evidence will not limit it. 

***** * * 

The upper surface of these beds can be seen on 
the Olentangy, near Norton, where they have been 
opened for building-stone. They are also quarried 
near Waldo, in Marion County, in a similar situa- 
tion, in the bed of the Olentangy. The only 
other undoubted exposure of the very highest beds 
belonging to this formation that is known occurs 
near Delaware, likewise in the bed of the Olen- 
tangy. It is mentioned in the section of the shale 





outcropping there, under the head of the Huron 
Shale, and is described as a black limestone, hard 
and crystalline. It is also included in No. 20 of 
the " section in the Olentangy shale in Liberty 
Township." The exposure near Norton does not 
show so dark a color, but varies to a blue ; it 
occurs there in even, thick courses, that would be 
extremely difiScult to quarry except for the natural 
joints by which the layers are divided into blocks. 
The same is true of its outcrop near Waldo. In 
both places it is a hard, ringing, apparently sili- 
cious, tough, and refractory limestone, some of the 
blocks being over two feet thick. It is a very 
reliable building- stone, but the abundance of 
pyrites that is scattered through it makes it very 
undesirable for conspicuous walls. It is exceed- 
ingly fine grained, and but slightly fossiliferous. 
At these places, not more than four or five feet of 
this stone can be seen, but it has an observed 
thickness in the southern part of the county of 
about nine and a half feet. It seems to retain a 
persistent character, for the same stratum is seen 
to form the top of the upper corniferous in 
Defiance County, on the west side of the great 
anticlinal axis. It is believed to be the equivalent 
of the TuUy limestone of New York. Below 
these very hard and heavy layers comes the stone 
quarried extensively at Delaware. The quarry of 
Mr. G. W. Little shows about eighteen feet of 
bedding, in courses three to fifteen inches thick. 
It is for the most part in a very handsome, evenly 
bedded blue limestone that shows some coarse 
chert, and, in places, considerable argillaceous 
matter, which renders the walls built of it liable 
to the attacks of the weather. The features of 
the Hamilton here seem very conspicuously blended 
with those that have been designated more dis- 
tinctively as belonging to the corniferous. The 
fossils are not abundant throughout the whole, but 
between certain thin beds many bivalves — Cyrtia 
Hamiltonensis, Spirifera mucronata, Strophomena 
(^Rhomboidalisf), Strophomena demissa — and one 
or two species of Discina, and various vermicular 
markings, are common. In some of the heavier 
beds the fish remains that have been described by 
Dr. Newberry, from the Corniferous at Sandusky, 
are met with, as well as the large coils of Cyrto- 
ceras undulatum. 

Between two and three miles below Stratford 
the lower corniferous appears on both sides of the 
river, and is described under the head of lower 
corniferous. But about fifty rods still further 

down the right bank shows the Hamilton, or 
upper corniferous, again, having a thin and al- 
most slaty appearance as the edges of the layers 
are exposed in the river bluff. In some parts 
there, beds are thickly crowded with Spirifera, 
Cyrtia, and Strophomena ; these, indeed, being the 
only conspicuous fossils. These beds closely overlie 
the above-mentioned lower corniferous, although 
the superposition could not be discovered, showing 
the continuance of Hamilton fossils well down into 
the Delaware stone. At a point about five miles 
and a half below Stratford, Mr. William Case has 
a quarry on the left bins' of the river, in beds at 
the horizon of the base of the Delaware stone. A 
little above this quarry, a ravine joins the river 
from the east, its sides affording a fine connected 
section through the Olentangy shale, and the whole 
of the Delaware limestone, into the lower cornif- 
erous. The shale and overlying Huron are seen 
in ascending this ravine about fifty rods from the 
river. Descending this ravine, and including the 
rock exposed below Mr. Case's quarry, where a 
very prominent bluff is formed by the erosion of 
the river, the following succession of beds appears : 


No. 1. Black slate (Huron shale), seen 10 

No. 2. Blue, or bluish-green, bedded shale; non- 
fos3iliferou3,.einb?'aoing sometimes layers 
of black slate, like No. 1, of three or four 
inches in thickness ; poorly exposed (Olen- 
tangy shale), about 30 

No. 3. Bituminous, dark blue, or black limestone ; 
non-fossiliferoas, rather rough, hard, and 
with some black chert, or flint (TuUy lime- 
stone?) 1 

No. 4. Thin, blue, tough, finely crystalline beds, 
containing considerable black chert, or 
flint, associated with pyrites ; in the lower 
portion in beds of four to sixteen inches ; 
but little fossiliferous (TuUy limestone?), 
about 8 

No. 5. Beds four to six inches, slightly fossiliferous ; 
embracing some bituminous, slaty shale in 
irregular deposits about crowded concre- 
tions (Hamilton limestone?) 14 

No. 6. Tough, bluish-gray, slaty beds of impure 
limestone of the thickness of one-quarter 
to one-half inch, with considerable chert 
(Hamilton?) 8 

No. 7. Heavier beds (six to twenty inches), but of 
the same texture as the last; fossiliferous; 
blue; the horizon of the best quarries at 
Delaware, showing the usual fossils and 
lithological cfcaracters (Hamilton?) 6 

No. 8. Crinoidal beds, fossiliferous, of a lighter 
color ; not showing blue ; generally mass- 
ive, or eight to thirty-six inches, but 
weathering into beds of three to five inches 
(corniferous limestone) 6 



No. 9. Heavy or massive beds of crinoidal lime- 
stone, which weathers off by crumbling 
into angular pieces of an inch or two ; 
light gray or buff, with large concretions of 
chert between it and the last. This seems 
to contain all the fossils characterizing the 
lower corniferous, as that term has been 
used in reports on other counties. Below, 
becoming more bituminous, less crinoidal, 
but equally fossiliferous (Corniferous lime- 
stone), seen 11 




That limestone which, in reports on the counties 
of Sandusky, Seneca, Crawford, and Marion, the 
writer has designated " lower corniferous, 'i is 
divisible, on account of strong lithological and palas- 
ontological diiferences, into two well-marked mem- 
bers. The upper member, well exposed and ex- 
tensively burned for lime at Delhi, in Delaware 
County, lies immediately below the blue limestone 
quarried at Delaware, as may be seen by reference 
to the last foregoing section, and has a thickness of 
about twenty-eight feet. It is of a light cream 
color, crystalline or saccharoidal texture, quite fos- 
siliferous, and usually seen in beds of three or four 
inbhes. It is rather hard and firm under the ham- 
mer. It makes a lime not purely white, but of 
the very best quality. Where this stone is deeply 
and freshly exposed, it is seen to lie in very heavy 
layers, and as such it would furnish a very fine 
crinoidal marble for architecture. Its most con- 
spicuous fossils are brachiopods of the genera 
strophomena (T) Atrypa Chonetes, and others, 
with one or two genera of gasteropods, and occa^ 
sionally a specimen of Cyrtoceras undulatum. 
There may also be seen in these beds different spe- 
cies of oyathophylloids, trilobite remains, and fish 
spines and teeth. This member of the Lower Cor- 
niferous occupies the position relatively to the 
Hamilton, of the corniferous limestone of New 
York, though it is not possible at present to say it 
is the equivalent of that formation. It would thus 
be the upper member of the ¥pper Helderberg of 
that State. It has a thickness of about twenty- 
eight feet. 

Below the Delhi limestone, is a fossiliferous belt 
of limestone, often of a bluish color and bituminous 
character, ten to fifteen feet thick, cliaracterized by 
corals in great abundance. In the central part of 
the county of Delaware, this belt is chiefly fossilif- 
erous in the lower three or four feet, the remainder 
being rather, but of a blue color. The south- 
em part of the county, however, seems to be with- 

out this bluish and highly coralline member, the 
Delhi beds coming immediately down on the second 
division of the lower corniferous. The corals 
found here are favosites, coenastroma, stroma- 
topora, and oyathophylloids. This belt is met 
with in Crawford County, and seems to prevail 
toward the north as far as Erie County. The 
second division of the lower corniferous is a light- 
colored, even-bedded, nearly non-fossiliferous ves- 
icular or compact magnesian limestone, which 
makes a good building stone, being easily cut with 
common hammer and chisel, and has a thickness of 
about thirty feet. It is apt to appear somewhat 
bituminous and of a dirty or brown color when 
constantly wet, but under the weather, it becomes 
a light buff. The upper half of this stone is in 
beds of two to four inches, the lower in beds of one 
to three feet. Near the bottom it becomes arena- 
ceous, and even conglomeratic, passing into the 
Oriskany sandstone, which has a sudden transition 
to the waterlime of the Lower Helderberg. It 
seems to have many pf the lithological features and 
the persistency of the Onondaga limestone of New 
York, and may be provisionally parallelized with 
that formation. The fossils are generally absorbed 
into the rock, casts or cavities only remaining ; yet 
a cyathophylloid and a coarse favositoid coral have 
been seen. 

In Delaware County, the Oriskany is much re- 
duced in thickness -from what it is in the northern 
part of the State, but its composition is much, 
coarser, reaching that of a real conglomerate. It 
is not over two feet at any point where it has been 
seen. The pebbles embraced in it are entirely of 
the waterlime, and uniformly rounded, as by water 
action. Some are four inches in diameter, but in 
thin'pieces. The last section given (that on Mill 
Creek) shows its position on the strata. It is 
there plainly exposed, and there fades out, without 
change of bedding, into the lowest part of the 
lower corniferous, which sometimes, as in the 
county of Sandusky, has been seen to be some- 
what arenaceous, several feet above the strong aren-' 
aceous composition of the Oriskany. The exposure 
on Mill Creek, and that in the left bank of the 
Scioto, near the lime-kiln of Mrs. Evans, are the 
only points in the county at which this conglom- 
erate has been seen. 

As already mentioned, the waterlime appears in 
the left bank of the Scioto, near Mrs. Evans' lime- 
kiln, a quarter of a mile below Millville, and has 
been somewhat used for quicklime. It rises here. 

-^ a) \ 




fifteen feet above th^ water of the river, at sum- 
mer stage. It is probable that the bed of the 
river is on the waterlime for a mile below this 
point, and even to Sulphur Spring Station. The 
quarry of John Weaver, about half a mile Ijelow 
Cone's Mills; is in the waterlime. The exposure 
here is in a ravine tributary to the Scioto from the 
West. The situation is favorable for profitable 
quarrjring and lime-burning. The stone is drab, 
and much shattered. It turns a light buff after 
weathering, some of it becoming as white as chalk. 
Half a mUe above Millville, the waterlime rises in 
the right bank of the Scioto about fifteen feet, the 
road passing over it. It is visible in the bed of 
the Scioto, at the crossing known as the Broad 
Ford. 1 At Cone's Jlills is a fine surface exposure 
of the waterlime. It has been somewhat wrought 
at this place. The beds are quite thin and slaty, 
and of a blue color. The texture is close, and the 
grain very fine. In the bed of the Scioto a stone 
spotted with drab and blue is quarried, a short dis- 
tance below Middletown. It is in even beds of 
four to eight or ten inches, and is very valuable for 
all uses. It is a part of the waterlime. Some of 
the same kind is found in Boggs' Creek, two miles 
from the Scioto, on land of John Irwin. In 
Thompson Township the waterlime is seen on the 
farm of Jonathan Fryman, a mile and a quarter 
west of the Scioto, at the road-crossing of Fulton 
Creek. It is in thin, blue beds, the same as at 
Cone's Mill, and has been used somewhat in cheap 

Several interesting features pertaining to the 
Drift, proving the glacier origin of this deposit 
and all its features, were first noticed in Delaware 
County. Allusion has already been made, under 
the head of Surface Features, to the valley of the 
Scioto, and the contrast its upper part presents to 
its lower. Throughout the county generally the 
beds of all streams are deeply eroded in the under- 
lying rock, alfjiough their banks are constantly 
rooky. This fact is more and more evident to the 
observer in traveling from the northwestern part 
of the county to the southeastern. The north- 
western corner of the county, including the town- 
ships of Thompson, Radnor, and the northern part 
of Scioto, has the features of the flat tract in 
Northwestern Ohio known as the Black Swamp. 
The banks of the Scioto are low (ten or fifteen), 
and consist of Drift, the rock rarely being known 
in its bed. The Drift appears fresher and the sur- 
face is smoother than in the rest of the county. A 

short distance above Millville the banks begin to 
be rocky, the excavation beginning in the water- 
lime, over which it has been running since it left 
the western part of Hardin County, but without 
making the slightest excavations, rarely revealing 
it in its bed by rapids. Within a mile from Mill- 
ville the amount of erosion in the underlying rock 
increases to a remarkable extent, and at Sulphur 
Spring Station, about two mOes below Millville, 
the erosion in the rock amounts to sixty or seventy 
feet. From there south the rest of the Scioto 
valley is between high rook banks. This exemp- 
tion from erosion in the upper waters of the Scioto 
cannot be due to the harder nature of the rock 
there, because ihe waterlime is much more rapidly 
worn out under such agencies . than the lower 
corniferous, on which it enters at Sulphur Springs 
Station. The composition of the Drift about the 
head-waters of the Scioto is the same as about the 
lower portions of its course. It is in both cases a 
hard-pan deposit, made up pf a mixture of gravel- 
stones, bowlders, and clay, rarely showing stratifi- 
cation or assortment — such a deposit as is, with- 
out much difference of opinion, attributed to the 
direct agency of glacier ice. The conclusion is in- 
evitable that the lower portion of the Scioto has 
been at work digging its channel in the rock much 
longer than the upper portion. The slope is in 
both cases toward the south, at least that portion 
of it in Delaware County ; and that agency, what- 
ever it was, which served to make this change in 
the valley of the Scioto from no excavation to 
deep rock erosion, could not have been quiet, 
standing waters over one portion of the valley and 
not over the other, since such waters would have 
retired last from the lower part of the valley, and 
we should there expect less instead of more erosion. 
The only possible way to explain this phenomenon, 
in the light of plausible theories, is to refer it to 
the operation of the last glacial epoch, or to the 
operation of a glacial epoch which projected the 
ice-field only so far south as to cover the upper 
part of the Scioto Valley, leaving the lower portion 
of the valley, which probably pre-existed, to serve 
as a drainage channel from the ice itself. Subse- 
quently, when the ice withdrew, the upper tribu- 
taries were located in such places as the contour of 
the surface allowed or demanded. 

There are other evidences that the township of 
Radnor, Thompson, and the northern part of Sci- 
oto were for a time under glacial ice, while the rest 
of the county was uncovered, and suffered all the 
vicissitudes of surface erosion. The aver,age 



thickness of the Drift in Radnor Township, judg- 
ing by the phenomena of wells and the height of 
river banks, as well as from the rocky exposures, 
is about twenty feet. Toward the river, bowlders 
are common on the surface. In Thompson Town- 
ship, the thickness seems also to be eighteen or 
twenty feet. Id descending the Scioto along the 
right bank, after passing Fulton Creek, there is a 
noticeable thickness of the Drift, and two Drift ter- 
races follow the river for "a couple of miles with 
considerable distinctness. They are each about fif-- 
teen feet in height, the upper one sometimes 
reaching twenty feet, and are separated in many 
places by a flat belt of land, the surface level of 
the lower terrace. Below these is the river flood 
— plain. This second, or upper river terrace, 
comes in apparently from the west, and appears 
just at the point where the rock begins to be 
excavated by the river. It makes the thickness 
of the Drift about thirty or forty feet. After pass- 
ing Millville and S»lphur Spring Station, the 
upper terrace disappears in a general slope to the 
river, and it cannot be identified at any point 
further south. This thickening of the Drift is in the 
form of a moraine ridge, which, passing west of 
Ostrander about a mile, is intersected by the 
Marysville Pike a little west of the county line. 
From its summit toward the west the descent is 
seventy-five or one hundred feet, when a flat is 
reached like that in the northwestern part of Dela- 
ware County. This moraine has not been traced 
through Union County. 

A singular line of gravel knolls and short ridges 
pertaining to the Glacier Drift crosses Radnor 
Township, coming into the county from the north 
at Middletown (which is on the Scioto, in Marion 
County), and passing about a mile to the west of 
Delhi. It is traceable nearly to Millville. It is 
intersected by the gravel road about a mile north 
of Delhi. The road then follows it to Middletown, 
where it becomes lost from further observation. 
This interesting series of ridges is not arranged 
in a single, continuous line, IfUt the separate ridges 
overlap each other, rising and falling at irregular 
intervals. Sometimes the line appears double ; 
low places on one side are in some places made up 
by full deposits on the other. On either side the 
country is flat, the soil is of close clay, and the 
roads very muddy in rainy weather. The Delhi 
beds of the lower corniferous are exposed at a 
number of places in close proximity to these gravel 
knolls, proving the strike of the formation to be 
exactly coincident with this strip of gravelly land. 

Toward the east is the enduring corniferous ; 
toward the west, the easily disrupted waterlime. 
There is a general but very gentle' slope to the 
west. The material in these ridges is stratified 
sand and gravel, which has been considerably used 
in constructing the gravel roads that intersect that 
part of the county. 

Beginning with the lowest in the geological 
series of the county, we find a clogegrained, drab 
limestone. The beds, so far as seen in Delaware 
County, are usually less than six inches in thick- 
ness, yet at one place, near the north line of the 
county, it is taken from below the waters of the 
Scioto in beds of six to ten inches. Although 
this stone is rather hard and close-grained, it is 
also apt to be brittle, and in its undisturbed bed- 
ding, to be checked into small, angular pieces. It 
occupies low, sheltered places, owing to a tendency 
to be destroyed by the elements. It is easily dis- 
rupted, even by the use of the crow-bar or pick, 
and seldom needs blasting. These qualities ren- 
der it a poor quality for construction, and it is sel- 
dom used except for quicklime. When it has 
not been bleached and weakened by long exposure 
to the elements, it makes a lime nearly as strong as 
any that can be burned in Delaware County, and 
much whiter than that made from the Hamilton 
or the corniferous. Near Mrs. Evans' kiln, where 
it has been used in conjunction With the cornifer- 
ous, it is distinguished as the " White Stone," by 
the workmen, from the whiteness of the quick- 
lime it affords. 

The Oriskany, which succeeds to the water- 
lime, has no economical value whatever. In some 
parts of the State it is very pure, silicious sand- 
stone, in heavy beds, but in Delaware County is 
conglomeratic with waterlime pebbles, and it grad- 
uates upward into the lower members of the lower 
corniferous, the supposed equivalent of the Onon- 
daga limestone of New York State. The remain- 
der of the Devonian limestones coHstitutes a group 
which are noted for their various economical uses. 
The heavy buff' limestone overlying the Oriskany 
is rather coarse-grained and rough to the touch, but 
lies in heavy layers of uniform thickness and text- 
ure. Its color is pleasant and cheerful, especially 
when dressed under the hammer and laid in the 
wall. It is sometimes ve.^cular or cherty, when 
its value as a building material is considerably less ; 
yet in all cases it answers well for any heavy stone 
work, as bridge piers and abutments, aqueducts, 
and all foundations. In some parts of the State 





this member of the corniferous is extensively 
wrought, and sawn into handsome blocks for 
stone fronts. Ample facilities are offered along 
the Scioto River, at a great many places, for the 
working of this stone. Its value for building, 
and the accessibity of its layers, render it a little 
surprising that no opening worthy the name of a 
quarry has been made in it within the limits of 
Delaware County. As a cut-stone, it ranks next to 
the Berea grit in its best estate, which is found in 
the eastern part of the county, and when once 
introduced int the market of the county, particu- 
larly in the western portions, it would draw cus- 
tom from a wide range of country west and north, 
where no good cut-stone can be found. Some of 
the most favorable points for quarries in this lime- 
stone are near the south county line, in the banks 
of the Scioto, or in some of its tributaries. The 
banks of Mill Creek, at Bellepoint, and also for 
a couple of miles above, are almost equally favor- 

The next member of the lower corniferous is 
that described as thin-bedded, cherty, buff lime- 
stone, and differs but little from the last. Owing 
to the thinness of the bedding it is only useful for 
quicklime, of which it makes a quality very simi- 
lar to the heavier beds below. The bluish lime- 
stone next overlying is not constantin its characters ; 
indeed, in some sections, covering the same horizon, 
it was found wanting. In its place may sometimes 
be seen a few feet of very fossiliferous, bituminous 
limestone. The blue color is believed to be due 
to the more even dissemination of bituminous mat> ■ 
ter through the entire rock, instead of its preser- 
vation in fossil forms. When the bitumen is present 
in considerable quantity, the black films and their 
irregular scales, that disfigure and destroy the rock 
for building purposes, do not materially injure it 
for making quicklime. They readily volatilize in 
the kiln, but the fresh lime is of a little darker 
color. When the member is not highly coralline 
and bituminous, it makes a very firm and useful 
stone for all uses in walls and foundations. The 
quarry of Mrs. Evans, about a fourth of a mile 
below Millville, is in this stone. 

It is to the " Delhi stone," however, that the 
county is indebted for the greatest quantity of 
quicklime. These beds lie immediately over the 
" bluish stone " last mentioned. The layers are gen- 
erally not over three or four inches in thickness, 
and rather hard and crystalline. They are often 
crinoidal and very fossiliferous. The color is 
rather light, and the line made is heavy and strong. 

It contains very little sediment that cannot slack, 
and brings the best price in the markets ; yet it is 
not so white as that made from the waterlime, nor 
is the stone so easily burned as the upper part of 
the Niagara limestone. 'In the absence of a better 
qu.ality of stone for walls and common foundations, 
this limestone is very commonly employed, but the 
irregularity of its bedding, and the thinness of its 
layers, will effectually prevent its use in heavy 
stone work . In deep quarrying, the bedding would 
become thicker and the variations of color and 
texture due to its fossils and crystalline tendency 
might make it take rank as a handsome marble. 

Overlying the Delhi beds is the well-known 
" blue limestone " of Delaware County, extensively 
quarried and used for buildings at Delaware. This 
is a hard and crystalline stone, variously inter- 
spersed with bituminous and argillaceous matter. 
Where these impurities are wanting, the bedding 
is usually about six inches in thickness, but may 
reach ten or twelve. When they are abundant, 
the bedding becomes slaty, and the stone is much 
injured for purposes of building. These argillar 
ceous layers, which part the bedding, soon succumb 
to the weather, and cause the calcareous layers to 
chip out or break by superincumbent pressure of 
the wall. Numerous instances of such defective 
masonry could be pointed out in the city of Dela- 
ware, showing the treacherous character of much 
of this blue stone. Stone-cutters will be at no 
pains to remove such shaly matter from the stone, 
but rather prefer to leave it, even to the damage 
of important buildings, since it gives them less 
labor to cut. The effect of the elements is much 
greater on this stone when it is placed on edge in 
the wall, instead of being laid as it was deposited 
by nature in the quarry. The beds of sedimenta- 
tion ought always to be laid horizontally, instead 
of perpendicularly. Although this stone is very 
firm and crystalline in its best estate, it is yet sus- 
ceptible of being out into all useful forms, for sills, 
caps, keystones and water-tables, and is largely 
used both at Sandusky and Delaware for these 
purposes. Its dark color makes it especially 
adapted to foundations where a light-colored super- 
structure is intended, and to all Gothic architecture. 
For lime it is very little used, owing to the diffi- 
culty of calcination, compared to other accessible 
limestones, and the heavy sediment of argillaceous 
matter that will not slack ; yet the lime it makes, 
although rather dark-colored, is said to be very 

strong and hot. 

* * * * * * * 

Missing Page 




can only be partially gleaned from the internal 
evidences which they themselves afford. They 
consist of the remains of what were apparently 
villages, altars, temples, idols, cemeteries, monu- 
ments, camps, fortifications, pleasure grounds, etc. 
The farthest relic of this kind, discovered in a 
northeastern direction, was near Black River, on 
the south side of Lake Ontario. Thence they 
extend in a southwestern direction by way of the 
Ohio, the Missisifippi, Mexican Gulf, Texas, New 
Mexico and Yucatan, into South America. 

" In Ohio, where the mounds have been carefully 
examined, are found some of the most extensive 
and interesting that occur in the United States. 
At the mouth of the Muskingum, among a num- 
ber of curious works, was a rectangular fort contain- 
ing forty acres, encircled by a wall of earth ten 
feet high, and perforated with openings resem- 
bling gateways. In the mound near the fort were 
found the remains of a sword, which appeared to 
have been buried with its owner. A fort of 
similar construction and dimensions was found on 
Licking River, near Newark. Eight gateways 
pierced the walls, and were guarded by mounds 
directly opposite each, on the inside of the work. 
At Circleville, on the Scioto, there were two forts 
in juxtaposition ; the one an exact circle, sixty 
rods in diameter, and the other a perfect square, 
fifty-five rods on each side. The circular fortifi- 
cation was surrounded by two walls, with an inter- 
vening ditch twenty feet in depth. On Paint 
Creek, fifteen miles west of Chillicothe, besides 
other extensive works, was discovered the remains 
of a walled town. It was built on the summit of 
a hill about 300 feet in altitude, and encompassed 
by a wall ten feet in height, made of stone in their 
natural state. The area thus inclosed contained 
130 acres. On the south side of it there were 
found the remains of what appeared originally to 
have been a row of furnaces or smith-shops, about 
which cinders were found several feet in depth." 

But, to come down to the local history of these 
people, we give place to the following article, pre- 
pared at our special request, by Reuben Hills, Esq., 
of Delaware. Mr. Hills has given the subject 
much study, and our readers will find the result of 
his researches of considerable interest. He says : 

In the examination of the early history of Del- 
aware County, we find the first inhabitants who have 
left any traces of their existence were the Mound- 
Builders. The question may properly be asked, 

" Who were the Mound-Builders? " And it is a 
question which has puzzled archaeologists ever since 
the discovery of the strange works of this racg. 
The name itself, though conveying an impression 
of their habits, is rather suggestive of our igno- 
rance as to who they were, since, except from the 
mounds of earth or stone, which cover the central 
part of this continent, we know almost nothing of 
this people, who, in the ages long ago, came we 
know not whence, and vanished we can not tell 

The red Indians who occupied this country at 
the time of its discovery by Europeans had no 
knowledge nor even any traditions of their prede- 
cessors, so that what the white man learns of them 
he must learn directly from the remains of their 
own works. Their antiquity is as yet an entire 
mystery. That some of the mounds were com- 
pleted and deserted as long as eight hundred years 
ago is certain, but how much longer is not known. 
Their civilization was of a different order from 
that of the red Indian, and their manner of living 
was apparently more allied to that of the ancient 
Peruvians and Mexicans. Many questions remain 
to be solved in regard to them. Whether they 
had anything like a written language, of which we 
have, as yet, no proof; whether the remains, of 
different character in various parts of the continent, 
are the work of the same people at different stages 
of their civilization, or the work of different races 
at very remote periods ; and about what time they 
occupied this country — these are all questions of 
conjecture. Sd also is the question of the relation 
of the modern Indian to the Mound-Builder ; 
whether he is the conqueror or the descendant. 
Nearly all late writers, however, agree in believing 
the Indian is nbt a descendant of the jMound- 
Builder. All these questions are to be answered 
by the diligent study and research of the antiqua- 
rian, and will be satisfactorily settled only when 
the answers are founded on fact and not on theory. 

But the design of this article is not a discussion 
of the Mound-Builders in general, but of the posi- 
tion in political geogTaphy held by Delaware 
County during the period of the Mound-Builders' 
occupation of the country. The evidences of the 
ancient occupation of this county consist of flint 
arrow-heads and spear-heads, fleshers, celts, stone 
hammers, hatchets, pestles, pipes, relics classified 
as " drilled ceremonial weapons," mounds of vari- 
ous descriptions, and fortifications. Such imple- 
ments as arrow-heads, hatchets, etc., are found in 
all parts of the county, the largest numbers 



ooourring in tlie neighborhoods of the Scioto and 
Olentangy Rivers. Dr. H. Basse, of Delaware, 
has in his collection a fine assortment of the above- 
mentioned drilled ceremonial weapons, also several 
perforated tablets, all of which were found on the 
surface, in Porter Township. Mr. John J. Davis 
has in his possession a stone pipe, of plain design 
but exquisite finish, which was unearthed in dig- 
ging for the foundation of St. Peter's Episcopal 
Church in Delaware. In the museum of the Ohio 
Wesleyan University may be seen a large number 
of relics, gathered from all parts of the county. 

The mounds are mostly sepulchral. One of 
the most remarkable ever opened in the county, 
was the one on the farm of Solomon Hill, a short 
distance west of the Girls' Industrial Home. We 
take the following notice of this mound from the 
Delaware Herald of September 25, 1879 : " Satur- 
day we were shown some interesting relics consisting 
of aqueen conch-shell, some isinglass [mica] and sev- 
eral peculiarly shaped pieces of slate, which were 
found in a mound on the farm of Solomon Hill, 
Concord Township, Delaware Co., Ohio. The 
mound is situated on the banks of a rocky stream. 
The nearest place where the queen conch-shell is 
found is the coast of Florida ; the isinglass in New 
York State, and the slate in Vermont and Penn- 
sylvania. Two human skeletons were also found 
in the mound, one about seven feet long, the other 
a child. The shell was found at the left cheek of 
the large skeleton. A piece of slate about one by 
six inches was under the chin. The slate was pro- 
vided with two smooth holes, apparently for the pur- 
pose of tying it to its position. Another peculiarly 
shaped piece', with one hole, was on the chest, and 
another with some isinglass was on the lep; hand. 

Another mound, on the Olentangy River, about 
three miles north of Delaware, was opened in Sep- 
tember, 1877. This was located on a farm at that 
time leased by A. H. Jones, and Ifuown as " the 
broom- corn farm." It had been so often plowed 
over and so nearly leveled that its existence would 
not have been noticed if Mr. Jones had not 
plowed into a large collection of flint implements, 
which directed his attention to the fact that he 
was then on a mound. It measured about forty 
feet in diameter, and was three and a half or 
four feet high. Investigation was made by dig- 
ging a narrow trench into what wag supposed to 
be the center of the mound, but no discovery of 
importance was made. Only two skeletons were 
found, and they were, probably, a comparatively 
recent interment, as they were only about thirteen 

inches below the surface. They had been there 
so long, however, that the bones mostly crumbled 
at the touch. They had probably been buried in 
a sitting posture, for the bones of the head and 
trunk were badly mixed, while the legs occupied 
a horizontal position. The mound was located 
on the second terrace, in a bend of the stream, at 
a distance of three hundred and fifty or four 
hundred feet from its old bed. 

A mound near Galena was Recently opened by 
Prof John T. Short, of the Ohio University, under 
the direction, and for the benefit of, the Peabody 
Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology ; 
and we are under obligations to Prof F. W. Pui> 
nam. Curator of the Museum, for the privilege of 
using Prof. Short's report in this connection, and 
to Prof Short himself for kindly furnishing a 
copy of his report for this purpose. 

He says : " In the month of August, 1879, the 
writer, in company with Mr. Eugene Lane and 
Mr. David Dyer, opened three mounds in Dela- 
ware County, Ohio. Two of these formed part of 
a system of mound-works situated on the estate of 
Jacob Rhodes, Esq., in Genoa Township. * * 
The peninsula or tongue of land situated between 
Big Walnut Creek and Spruce Run is an elevated 
area having nearly perpendicular sides, washed by 
the streams, over a hundred feet below. The cen- 
tral figure, the mound A [referring to a plate] 
stands within a perfectly circular inclosure (B) 
measuring 570 feet around. Now it is but about 
three feet higher than the natural level, but form- 
erly was ten feet higher. Its present owner re- 
duced it by plowing it down. The trench is in- 
side of the inclosure, and no- doubt furnished the 
earth for both the embankment and the mound. 
Its present width is twenty-seven feet, and it was 
formerly about seven feet deep. The circle has an 
opening about twenty feet in vridth on the east, 
from which a graded way of about the same width 
and probably 400 feet in length, no doubt of arti- 
ficial construction, affords a descent at an angle of 
about 30° to the stream below. On the north 
side of the entrance and continuous with the em- 
bankment, is a small mound measuring ten feet in 
diameter and four feet in height. It may have 
served as a point of outlook into the deep ravine 
below, as from it alone the entire length of the 
graded way is at once visible. A afcaft six feet in 
diameter was sunk in this mound to a depth of 
four and a half feet, but we discovered nothing 
that could be removed. Charcoal, a few calcined 
animal bones, and burnt clay were all that was 



found. The large mound situated in the center of 
the inclosure measures seventy-five feet through 
its major axis, and sixty-eight feet through 
its minor axis. Its present height is about twelve 
feet above the natural level, though the distance to 
the bottom of the trench is three or four feet or 
more. It is probable that the mound was perfectly 
round, as its symmetry has no doubt been de- 
stroyed in part by the removal from its surface of 
about twenty-five wagon loads of flat sandstones 
(each a foot square, more or less, and about three 
inches thick) for the purpose of walling neighbor- 
ing cellars. These stones were brought from the 
ravine below and made a complete covering for the 
mound. Extending out from the mound on the 
west, the remains of a low crescent-shaped platform, 
twenty-five feet across at its greatest width, are still 
visible. A small excavation was made four years 
ago in the top of the mound, by the son of the 
present owner, but the digging was abandoned be- 
fore any depth was reached, or anything was dis- 
covered. I excavated the mound by causing a 
trench four feet wide to be dug from the northern 
side of the mound to its center. * * * ^ 
single layer of flat stones like those on the outside 
of the mound was found to start at the base and 
to cover what at one time must have been regarded 
as its finished surface. At the center this inner 
layer of stones was situated about three feet below 
the preseijt surface of the mound. This was the 
only trace of stratification observable in the struct- 
ure, and is .suggestive of the section given by Squier 
and Davis to illustrate stratification in altar 
mounds. Aside from this, the indications were 
distinct that the earth had been dumped down in 
small basket or bag fulls. This is confirmatory of 
the observations of Prof. E. B. Andrews in the 
mounds of Southern Ohio. * * * On the 
undisturbed surface of the ground at the center of 
the mound I uncovered a circular bed of ashes 
eight feet in diameter and about six inches in 
thickness. These ashes were of a reddish clay 
color except that through the center of the bed ran 
a seam or layer of white ashes — no doubt calcined 
bones, as at the outer margin of the bed in one or 
two instances the form of bones was traceable, but 
so calcined that they possessed no consistency when 
touched or uncovered. Ranged in a semicircle 
around the eastern margin of the ash-heap were 
several pieces of pottery, all broken, probably in 
the construction of the mound or by its subsequent 
settling. The pottery was exceedingly brittle and 
crumbled rapidly after exposure. It was almost 

impossible to recover any fragments larger than 
the size of the hand, though a couple of pieces 
were taken out which indicated that the vessel to 
which they belonged was much larger than any 
which to my knowledge has been taken from Ohio 
mounds ; it was probably twelve or fourteen inches 
in height. This vessel was ornamented with a 
double row or border of lozenge or diamond shaped 
figures, and when intact probably resembled 
figure 3, PI. II. both in form and decoration. 

* * * Although the decoration on these vessels 
(produced by a pointed tool before the clay was 
baked) indicated an attempt at art of a respectable 
order, the material employed was nothing more 
than coarse clay and pounded sandstone — instead 
of pounded shells, as is more frequently the case. 
However, numerous fragments of finer workman- 
ship * * * ^gj.g taken out. Evidently 
an attempt had been made to glaze the vessel. 

* * * I could not help being impressed with 
the thought that the mound marked the site where 
cremation or possibly sacrifice had been performed. 

* * ''' About 300 yards southwest of 
the mound just described are the remains of a cir- 
cular inclosure 300 feet in diameter. The em- 
bankment has been reduced by plowing until it is 
now scarcely two feet in height. The precipitous 
sides of both the Big Walnut and Spruce Run 
render an ascent at this point impossible. The 
circle is visible from the mound and is possibly an 
intermediate link between the mound and another 
system lying west at a point two miles distant. 

" On the estate of E. Phillips, Esq., one mile 
south of Galena, in the same county, I opened 
a mound of 165 feet in circumference, and about 
four feet in height. * * =*= No bones nor pot- 
tery were found. * * * Mr. Dyer is an old 
resident, a graduate of West Point, and a gent^p- 
man whose statement concerning the history of the 
relics is perfectly reliable. Mr. Dyer states that 
a couple of years ago, a large mound, measuring 
seventy-five feet in diameter and fifteen feet in 
height, constructed entirely of stone, and situated 
on the farm of Isaac Brimberger, Esq., three 
miles south of Galena, was partly removed by its 
owner for the purpose of selling the stone. Imme- 
diately under the center of the mound, and below 
the natural level, a vault Was discovered. The 
sides and roof of the vault consisted of oak and 
walnut timbers, averaging six inches in diameter, 
and still covered with bark. * * * The tim- 
bers were driven perpendicularly into the ground 
around the quadrangular vault, while others were 

'^ ®~ 





laid across the top for a roof. Over all, the skin 
of some animal had been stretched. Inside of the 
vault were the remains, apparently, of three per- 
sons, one a child, and fragments of a coarse cloth 
made of vegetable fiber and animal hair. * * 
The preservation of the wood is due, probably, 
to the presence of water, with which the vault 
seems to have been filled."* 

On the east side of the Olentangy, about four 
miles south of Delaware, may be seen the remains 
of a fortification. This is one of a series of works 
extending along the course of this stream into 
Franklin County, and, probably, dowfn the Scioto 
to the Ohio itself. This work is located about a 
quarter of a mile from the river on a high point 
of land where two ravines unite. The fortification 
consists of an embankment, with a ditch outside 
of it, which, in a slightly curved line, cuts off about 
twenty acres of the point. The height of the 
embankment is now only about five feet from the 
bottom of the ditch. It is about five hundred feet 
long, with an opening or gateway near the south- 
ern extremity. Near the- north end of the work 
is a spring of clear water. These artificial works, 
in connection with the deep ravines on either side, 
formed a place of defense which must have been 
very secure from such attacks as were made pos- 
sible by the methods of warfare in those days. 
This work is different from most of the other for- 
tifications of the Mound-Builders in this State, but 
is very similar to the one described by Prof E. 
B. Andrews, in the tenth annual report of the 
Peabody Museum, as existing about two miles east 
of Lancaster, though this one is much larger in 
the inclosure. 

There is said to be in Porter Township a cir- 
cular fortification, inclosing about half an acre of 
ground, but the wall is fast disappearing under the 
action of the plow. Our knowledge of the other 
remains in this county is meager, but enough is 
known to enable us to classify it with the other 
counties bordering the Scioto River to the Ohio. 
It appears to have been near the northeast corner 
of the territory of the race which occupied Ohio, 
Indiana and Illinois, as the most of the permanent 
works discovered have been south and west of here, 
although many fine specimens of implements have 
been found in Marioft County, north of Delaware. 

The writer does not know of the discovery in 
this county of any copper implements, or any re- 
mains similar to the garden beds of Michigan 
figured in Vol. I, No. 1, of the "American Anti- 
quarian." And there are 'only two localities in 

the State where anything is found like the emblem- 
atic or animal mounds of Wisconsin. Yet the 
evidences derived from the number of mounds, 
their size and contents, and from the other works 
connected with them, seem clearly to indicate that 
this region was thickly settled by the Mound- 
Builders ; although a recent writer has held the 
theory that this was a place of temporary residence 
only, alid was rather a highway from the settle- 
ments fiirther south to the copper mines of Lake 
Superior, j 

With the foregoing highly interesting sketch of 
the relics of the Mound-Builders in this county, 
we will leave the study of this strange and un- 
known race of people to those whose time and 
inclination afford them opportunities of investiga- 
tion. Definite information of their existence will 
probably never be obtained, until the seventh seal 
of that Great Book shall be opened. If they were 
not the ancestors of the Indians, who. were they ? 
The oblivion which has closed over them is so 
complete, that only conjectures can be given in 
answer to the question. Thousands of interesting 
queries arise respecting, these nations which now 
repose under the ground, but the most searching 
investigation can only give us vague speculations 
for answers. No historian has preserved the names 
of their mighty chieftains, and even tradition is 
silent respecting them. If we knock at the tombs, 
no spirit comes back with a response, and only a 
sepulchral echo of forgetfulness and death reminds 
us how vain is the attempt to unlock the myste- 
rious past upon which oblivion has fixed its seal. 

The third distinct race which inhabited this 
country is the Indians. " When visited by the 
early European pioneers," says an able authority 
upo^ the subject, " they were without cultivation, 
refinement or literature, and far behind their pre- 
cursors, the Mound-Builders, in a knowledge of the 
arts. The question of their origin has long inter- 
ested archseologists, and is one of the most difficult 
they have been called on to answer. One hypoth- 
esis is that they are an original race indigenous to 
the Western Hemisphere. Those who entertain 
this view think their peculiarities of physical 
structure preclude the possibility of a common par- 
entage with the rest of mankind. Prominent 
amono; these distinctive traits, is the hair, which 
in the red man is round, in the white man oval, 
and in the black man flat. In the pile of the 
European, the coloring matter is distributed by 
means of a central' canal, but in that of the Indian, 
it is incorporated in the fibrous structure." 





A more common supposition, however, is that 
they axe a derivative race, and sprang from one or 
more of the ancient peoples of Asia. In the ab- 
sence of all authentic history, and when even tradi- 
tion is wanting, any attempt to point out the par- 
ticular theater of their origin must prove unsatis- 
factory. " They are, perhaps, an offshoot of Shem- 
itic parentage, and some imagine, from their tribal 
organization and some faint coincidences of language 
and religion, that they were the descendants of the 
ancient Hebrews."* Others, with as much pro- 
priety, contend that their " progenitors were the 
ancient Hindoos, and that the Brahmin idea which 
uses the sun to symbolize the Creator of the Uni- 
verse, has its counterpart in the sun-worship of the 
Indians." Though the exact place of origin may 
never be known, yet the striking coincidences of 
physical organization between the Oriental types of 
mankind and the Indians, point unmistakably to 
some part of Asia as the place whence they emi- 
grated. Instead of 1800 years, the time of their 
roving in the wilds of America, as determined by 
Spanish interpretation of their pictographic records, 
the interval perhaps has been thrice that period. 
Their religions, superstitions and ceremonies, if of 
foreign origin, evidently belong to the crude the- 
ologies prevalent in the last centuries before the in- 
troduction of Mohammedanism or Christianity. 
Scarcely 3,000 years would suffice to blot out perhaps 
almost every trace of the language they brought with 
them from the Asiatic cradle of the race, and in- 
troduce the present diversity of aboriginal tongues. 
Like their Oriental progenitors, they have lived for 
centuries without progress, while the Caucasian 
variety of the race, under the transforming power 
of art, science and improved systems of civil polity, 
have made the most rapid advances. 

The Indians inhabiting this section of the State 
when the whites first came to its territory, were 
the Delawares, Shawanees, Mingoes, and branches 
perhaps of other tribes. A brief sketch of the 
principal and more powerful of these tribes, the 
Delawares, is deemed appropriate in this work, and 
we therefore devote some space to the subject in 
this chapter. 

The Delawares called themselves Lenno Lenape, 
which signifies " original " or " unmixed " men. 
They were divided into three clans : the Turtle, 
the Wolf, and the Turkey. " When first met with 
by European^, they occupied a district of country 
bounded easterly by the Hudson River and the 

* Davidson. 

Atlantic ; on the west their territories extended to 
the ridge separating the flow of the Delaware from 
the other streams emptying into the Susquehanna 
River and Chesapeake Bay." * Taylor's " History 
of Ohio " says ; " According to their own traditions, 
the Delawares, many hundred years ago, resided in 
the western part of the continent ; thence, by slow 
emigration, they at length reached the Alleghany 
River, so called from a nation of giants, the AUe- 
gewi, against whom they (the Delawares) and the 
Iroquois (the latter also emigrants from the West) 
carried on successful war ; and, still proceeding 
eastward, settled on the Delaware, Hudson, Sus- 
quehanna, and Potomac Rivers, making the Dela- 
ware the center of their possessions. By the 
other Algonquin tribes the Delawares were re- 
garded with the utmost respect and veneration. 
They were called ' fathers,' ' grandfathers,' etc." 

From the same authority quoted above, viz.: 
Gallatin's " Synopsis of the Indian Tribes," we learn 
that " When William Penn landed in Pennsylvania 
the Delawares had been subjugated and made 
women by the Iroquois. They were prohibited 
from making war, placed under the sovereignty of 
the Iroquois, and even lost the right of dominion 
to the lands which they had occupied for so many 
generations. Gov. Penn, in his treaty with the 
Delawares, purchased from them the right of pos- 
session merely, and afterward obtained the relin- 
quishment of the sovereignty from the Iroquois." 
The Delawares accounted for their humiliating 
relations to the Iroquois by claiming that their 
assumption of the role of women, or mediators, 
was entirely voluntary on their part. They said 
they became " peacemakers," not through compul- 
sion, but in compliance with the intercession of 
different belligerent tribes, and that this position 
enabled their tribe to command the respect of all 
the Indians east of the Mississippi River. While 
it is true that the Delawares were very generally 
recognized as mediators, they never in any war or 
treaty exerted an influence through the possession 
of this title. It was an empty honor, and no 
additional power or benefit ever accrued from it. 
That the degrading pos^ition of the Delawares was 
not voluntary, is proven in a variety of ways. Gen. 
Harrison, in a discourse upon the subject, says : 
" We possess none of the details of the war waged 
against the Lenapes, but we know that it resulted 
in the entire submission of the latter, and that the 
Iroquois, to prevent any further ' interruption from 

*Galltttin's Synopsis of the Indian Tribes. 




the Delawares, adopted a plan to humble and 
degrade them, as novel as it was effectual. Singu- 
lar as it may seem, it is nevertheless true that the 
Lenapes, upon the dictation of the Iroquois, agreed 
to lay aside the character of warriors and assume 
that of women." While they were not present at 
the treaty of G-reenville, the Iroquois took care to 
let Gen. Wayne know that the Delawares were 
their subjects — "that they had conquered them 
and had put petticoats on them." 

Colden's " History of the Five Nations'' gives the 
proceedings of a conference held July 12, 1742, 
at the house of the Lieutenant Grovernor of Penn- 
sylvania, when the subject of the previous grants 
of land was under discussion. During the debate 
'an Iroquois orator turned to the Delawares who 
were present at the council, and holding a belt of 
wampum, addressed them thus : " Cousins, let 
this belt of wampum serve to chastise you. You 
ought to be taken by the hair of your head and 
shaked severely, till you recover your senses and 
become sober. How came you to take upon your- 
self to sell land at all ? " [Referring to lands on the 
Delaware River, which the Delawares had sold 
some fifty years before.] " We conquered you ; 
we made women of you. You know you are 
women, and can no more sell land than women ; 
nor is it fit you should have the selling of lands, 
since you would abuse it." The Iroquois orator 
continued his chastisement of the Delawares, in- 
dulging in the most opprobrious language, and' 
closed his speech by telling the Delawares to remove 
immediately. " We don't give you the liberty," 
said he, " to think about it. You may return to 
the other side of the Delaware, where you came 
from ; but we don't know, considering how you had 
demeaned yourselves, whether you will be permit- 
ted to live there." 

The Quakers, who settled Pennsylvania, treated 
the Delawares in accordance with the rules of 
justice and equity. The result was, that during a 
period of sixty years, peace and the utmost har- 
mony prevailed. This is the only instance in the 
settling of America by the English, where unin- 
terrupted friendship and good will existed between 
the colonists and the aboriginal inhabitants. Grad- 
ually, and by peaceable means, the Quakers ob- 
tained possession of the greater part of their terri- 
tory, and the Delawares were in the same situation 
as other tribes — without lands, without means of 
subsistence, and were threatened with starvation. 
Induced by these motives, some of them, between 
the years 1Y40 and 1750, obtained from the Wy- 

andots, and with the assent of the Iroquois, a 
grant of land on the Muskingum River, in Ohio. 
An old history of the American Indians has the 
following in reference to the Delawares : " The 
greater part of the tribe remained in Pennsylvania, 
and, becoming more and more dissatisfied with 
their lot, shook off the yoke of the Iroquois, joined 
the French, and ravaged the frontiers of Pennsyl- 
vania. Peace was concluded at Easton in 1758, 
and, ten years after, the last remaining bands of 
the Delawares crossed the AUeghanies. Here, 
being removed from the influence of their dreaded 
masters, the Iroquois, the Delawares now assumed 
their ancient independence. During the four or 
five succeeding decades, they were the most for- 
midable of the Western tribes. While the Revo- 
lutionary war was in progress, as allies of the 
Rritish ; after its close, at the head of the North- 
western cqnfederacy of Indians — they fully regained 
their lost reputation. By their geographical posi- 
tion placed in the front of the battle, they were, 
during those two *ars, the most active and danger- 
ous enemies of America. 

The territory claimed by the Delawares subse- 
quent to their being driven westward from their 
former possessions, is established in a paper ad- 
dressed to Congress, May 10, 1779, from delegates 
assembled at Princeton, N. J. The boundaries of 
their country, as declared in the address, is as fol- 
lows : " From the mouth of the Alleghany River, 
at Fort Pitt, to the Venango, and from thence up 
French Creek, and by Le Boeuf (the present site 
of Waterford, Penn.) along the old road to Presque 
Isle, on the east ; the Ohio River, including all 
the islands in it from Fort Pitt to the Ouabache, 
on the south ; thence up the River Ouabache to 
that branch, Ope-co-mee-cah (the Indian name of 
White River, Ind.), and up the same to the head 
thereof; from thence to the head- waters and 
springs of the Great Miami, or Rocky River; thence 
across to the head-waters of the most northeastern 
branches of the Scioto River ; thence to the west- 
ernmost springs of the Sandusky River ; thence 
down said river, including the islands in it and in 
the little lake (Sandusky Bay), to Lake Erie, on 
the west and northwest, and Lake Erie on the 
north. These boundaries contain the cessions of 
lands made to the Delaware Nation by the Wyan- 
dots, the Hurons and Iroquois. 

After Gen. Wayne's signal victory over the 
Indians, the Delawares came to realize that further 
contests with the American colonies would be 
worse than useless. They, therefore, .submitted to 



the inevitable, acknowledged the supremacy of the, 
whites, and desired to make peace with the victors. 
At the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, there were 
present three hundred and eighty-one Delawares — 
a larger representation than that of any other 
tribe. By this treaty, they ceded to the United 
States Government the greater part of the lands 
allotted to them by the Wyandots and Iroquois. 
For this cession, they received an annuity of 

At the close of the treaty made with the Indi- 
ans by Gen. Wayne, Bu-kon-ge-he-las, a Delaware 
chief, spoke as follows : " Father, your children 
all well understand the sense of the treaty which 
is now concluded. We experience daily proofs of 
your increasing kindness. I hope we may all have 
sense enough to enjoy our dawning happiness. 
Many of your people are yet among us. I trust 
they will be immediately restored. Last winter, 
our king came forward to you with two ; and when 
he returned with your speech to us, we immedi- 
ately prepared to come forward with the remainder, 
which we delivered at Fort Defiance. All who 
know me, know me to be a man and a warrior and 
I now declare that I will, for the future, be as 
steady and true friend to the United States, as I 
have, heretofore, been an aciive enemy." 

This promise of the warrior was faithfully kept 
by his people. They evaded all the efforts of the 
Shawanee prophet, Tecumseh, and the British, who 
endeavored to induce them, by threats or bribes, to 
violate it. They remained faithful Jto the United 
States during the war of 1812, and, with the 
Shawanees, furnished some very able warriors and 
scouts, who rendered valuable service to the United 
States during this war. Afber the treaty at Green- 
ville, the great body of Delawares removed to their 
lands on White River, Ind., whither some of their 
people had preceded them. It is related that their 
manner of obtaining possession of these lands was 
by a grant from the Piankeshaws, upon condition 
of their settling upon them, and assisting them 
(the Piankeshaws) in a war with the Kickapoos. 
These terms were complied with, and the Delawares 
remained in possession of the land. 

They continued to reside upon White River and 
its branches until 1819, when most of them joined 
the band who had emigrated to Missouri, upon the 
tract of land granted jointly to them and the 
Shawanees, in 1793, by the Spanish authorities. 
Others of their number who remained, scattered 

* American State Papers. 

themselves among the Miamis, Pottawatomies a,nd 
Kickapoos ; while others, including the Moravian 
converts, went to Canada. 

The majority of the nation, in 1829, settled on 
the Kansas and Missouri Rivers. They numbered 
about 1,000, were brave, enterprising hunters, 
cultivated lands and were friendly to the whites. 
In 1853, they sold the Government all the lands 
granted them, excepting a reservation in Kansas. 
During the late rebellion, they sent to the United 
States Army 170 out of their 200 able-bodied men. 
Like their ancestors, they proved valiant and 
trustworthy soldiers. Of late years, they have 
almost lost their aboriginal customs and manners, 
They live in houses, have schools and churches, 
cultivate farms, and, in fact, bid fair to become 
useful and prominent citizens in the great Repub- 

Howe, in his " Historical Collections," credits the 
following tradition of this tribe of Indians, to the In- 
dian agent, John Johnston : " The true name of 
this once powerful tribe is Wa-be-nugh-ka, that 
is, ' the people from the East,' or, 'the sun-rising.' 
The tradition among themselves is, that they orig- 
inally, at some very remote period, emigrated from 
the West, crossed the Mississippi, ascending the 
Ohio, fighting their way, until they reached the 
Delaware River, near where Philadelphia now 
stands, in which region of country they became 
fixed. About this time they were so numerous 
that no enumeration could be made of the nation. 
They welcomed to the shores of the new world that 
great law-giver, William Penn, and his peaceful fol- 
lowers, and ever since this people have entertained 
a kind of grateful recollection of them ; and, to 
this day, speaking of good men, they would say, 
' Wa, she, a, E, le, ne,' such a man is a Quaker, 
i. e., all good men are Quakers. In 1823, 1 removed 
to the west of the Mississippi persons of this 
tribe, who were born and raised within thirty« 
miles of Philadelphia. These were the most 
squalid, wretched and degraded of their race, and 
often furnished chiefs with a subject of reproach 
against the whites, pointing to these of their peo- 
ple, and saying to us, ' See how you have spoiled 
them ' — meaning, they had acquired all the bad 
habits of the white people, and were ignorant of 
hunting, and incapable of making a livelihood as 
other Indians. In 1819, there were belonging to 
my agency in Ohio, eighty Delawares, who were sta- 
tioned near Upper Sandusky, and in Indiana, . 
2,300 of the same tribe. Bockinghelas was the 
principal chief of the Delawares for many years after 

j) v 




my going into the Indian country ; he was a dis- 
tinguished warrior in his day, and an old man 
when I knew him. Killbuck, another Delaware 
chief, had received a liberal education at Princeton 
College, and retained until his death the great out- 
lines of the morality of the Gospel." 

The Delawares had a village near the Sulphur 
Springs, in the city of Delaware, and cultivated 
corn in the vicinity. Howe says, " There were 
formerly two villages belonging to the Delawares, 
mostly within the limits of the present town of Dela- 
• ware. One occupied the ground around the east end 
of Williams street, and the other was at the west 
end, extending from near the saw-mill to the hill- 
side. Upon the ground now occupied by the town, 
they cultivated a corn-field of about 400 acres. 
The Mingoes had a small village above town, on 
' Horse-shoe Bottom,' where they also raised corn." 
They did not remain here long, however, after the 
advent of the whites. But, as it has ever been 
since the landing of the Europeans upon the 
Atlantic Coast, the Indians have been forced to 
give way before their more powerful foes. Step 
by step they have been borne backward across the 
Continent, until but a narrow space lies between 
them and the last shore. As a race, they are fast 
disappearing from the land. " Their arrows are 
broken, their springs are dried up, their cabins 
are in the dUst. Their council-fire has long since 
gone out on the shore, and their war-cry is fast 
dying away in the untrodden West. Slowly and 
sadly they climb the distant mountains, and read 
theip doom in the setting sun. They are shrink- 
ing before the mighty tide which is pressing them 
away ; they must soon hear the roar of the last 
wave which will settle over them forever."* There 
is much in the Indian character to excite our bit- 
ter and revengeful feelings, and much, too, to 
awaken our pity and sympathy. When we reflect 
how their hunting-grounds have been wrested 
from them, we feel but little disposition to censure 
or condemn them for contesting the pale-face's 
" right of possession " to the lands of their 

After the removal of the Indians from Delaware 
County, detachments used to frequently return to 
trade their peltries to the white people. The 
Shawanees, Mingoes and Wyandots especially, 
were in the habit of making periodical visits to 
the neighborhood for a number of years. Much 
of their local history belongs more appropriately to 

* Sprague's American Indians. 

particular sections of the county, and hence will 
be given in the township histories. 

Although, it may be that neither La Salle, nor 
Joliet, nor Hennepin, nor, indeed, any of the French 
pioneers ever set foot upon what is now Delaware 
County, yet, it forms a part of the territory claimed 
by the French through these early explorations. 
Says Howe, in his "Historical Collections of Ohio " : ' 
" "The territory now comprised within the limits 
of Ohio was formerly a part of that vast region 
claimed by France, between the Alleghany and 
Eocky Mountains, first known by the general 
name of Louisiana. In 1673, Marquette, a zeal- 
ous French missionary, accompanied by M. Joliet, 
from Quebec, with five boatmen, set out on a mis- 
sion from Mackinac to the unexplored regions lying 
south of that station. They passed down the 
lake to Green Bay, thence frgm Fox River crossed 
over to the Wisconsin, which they followed down to 
its junction with the Mississippi. They descended 
this mighty stream 1,000 miles, to its confluence 
with the Arkansas. On their return to Canada', 
they did not fail to urge, in strong terms, the 
immediate occupation of the vast and fertile regions 
watered by the Mississippi and its branches. At 
this period, the French had erected forts on the 
Mississippi, on the Illinois, on the Maumee, and 
on the lakes. Still, however, the communication 
with Canada was through Lake Michigan. Before 
1750, a French post had been fortified at the 
mouth of the Wabash, and a communication was 
established through that river and the Maumee 
with Canada. About the same time, and for the 
purpose of checking the progress of the French, 
the Ohio Company was formed, and made some 
efibrts, to establish trading-houses among the 
Indians. The French, however, established a 
chain of fortifications back of the English set- 
tlements, and thus, in a measure, had the entire 
control of the great Mississippi Valley. The 
English Government became alarmed at the en- 
croachments of the French and attempted to se<> 
tie boundaries by negotiations. These availed, 
nothing, and both parties determined to settle their 
differences by the force of aims." All this, how- 
ever, belongs, more to the history of the country 
at large, than to this particular county. It is 
given in this connection merely to show who were 
the original possessors of the soil. It is general 
history, also, which tells us how, in this country, 
the lilies of France drooped and withered before 
the majestic tread of the British Lion, and how 
he, in his turn, quailed beneath the scream of the 




American Eagle. The successful termination of 
the Revolutionary war decided the ownership of 
this section of country, perhaps, for all coming 
time, while the war of 1812 but confirmed that 

At the period when it passed from the sway of 
the British Government, this broad domain was 
the undisputed home of the red savage, and the 
solitudes of its forests echoed the crack of his 
rifle as he pursued his enemy or howled behind 
his flying prey. His canoe shot along the streams, 
and the paths worn by moccasined feet were the 
only trails through the unbroken wilderness. But 
little more than three-quarters of a century have 
passed, and behold the change ! Under the wand 
of enchantment wielded by the pale-face pioneer, 
the forests have bloomed into smiling fields clothed 
with flocks and herds, and waving with rich har- 
vests ; and their solitudes have become peopled 
with over 30,000 civilized and intelligent human 
beings. Nor is this all. During the years that 
have come and gone in quick succession while the 
panorama has been unfolding to view, we behold 
the trail of the Indian obliterated by the railway 
track, and the ox-team displaced by the locomo- 
tive and the rushing train. The landscape is 
dotted with happy homes^ churches and school- 
houses, and the silence of its wastes are broken by 
" The laugh of children, the soft voice 

Of maidens, and the sweet and solemn hymn 

Of Sabbath worshipers." 

Delaware County has accumulated its popula- 
tion from various sources, but the larger portion 
of it has been drawn from the older States of the 
East. Several countries of the Old World have 
contributed to its settlement material that has 
developed into the very best of citizens.' Here, too, 
may be found many of the descendants of Ham, 
who, under the refining influences of education, 
and the substantial benefits of a free government, 
have become honorable and upright men and 
women. Prom the pine forests of Maine, to the 
"Old Dominion," and the "dark and bloody 
ground ; " and from that region to the Atlantic 
Ocean, every State has aided more or less in the 
settlement of the county. These elements from 
the different States, and from the different quarters 
of the world have blended into a population whose 
high standard of education and intelligence will 
compare with any county in the great State of 

The first settlement made within the limits of 
Delaware County by white people was in Liberty 

Township, in 1801. Speaking of the first settle- 
ment, Howe, in his " Historical Collections," says : 
" The first settlement in the county was made May 
1, 1801, on the east bank of the Olentangy, five 
miles below Delaware, by Nathan Carpenter and 
Avery Powers, from Chenango County, N. Y. 
Carpenter brought his family with him, and built 
the first cabin near where the farmhouse now stands. 
Powers' family came out toward fall, but he had 
been out the year before to explore the country and 
select the location. In April, 1802, Thomas Cel- 
ler, with Josiah McKinney, from Franklin County, 
Penn., moved in and settled two miles lower down, 
and, in the fall of 1803, Henry Perry, from Wales, 
commenced a clearing and put up a cabin in Rad- 
nor, three-fourths of a mile from Delhi. In the 
spring of 1804, Aaron, John, and Ebenezer Welch 
(brothers) and Capt. Leonard Monroe, from Che- 
nango County, N. Y., settled in Carpenter's neigh- 
borhood, and the next fall Col. Byxbe and his 
company, from Berkshire, Mass., settled on Alum 
Creek, and named their town Berkshire. The 
settlement at Norton, by William Drake and Na- 
thaniel Wyatt ; Lewis settlement, in Berlin, and the 
one at Westfield followed soon after." There 
appears to be no doubt of the truth that Carpen- 
ter was the first actual settler in the county. 
Upon this point, the different authorities agree, 
also, upon the date of his settlement. In addi- 
tion to those above mentioned as locating in Lib- 
erty Township, they were followed, in a few years, by 
Ebenezer Goodrich, George and Seth Case, who set- 
tled on the west bank of the river, below Carpenter's. 
David Thomas and his family were added to the 
settlement about the same time, and squatted just 
north of the spot occupied by the Cases. James 
Gillies and Roswell Fuller also came about this 
time. Timothy Andrews, A. P. Pinney and Mr. 
Bartholomew located farms on Tyler's Rup, and 
were followed soon after by many other gturdy 
pioneers, who joined in the work of subduing the 

In the division of the county known as Berk- 
shire Township, settlements -followed a few years 
later than those mentioned in Liberty. Moses 
Byxbe is recorded as the first settler, or rather as 
the leader of a colony, who settled in this section 
in the fall of 1804. He owned 8,000 acres of 
land, which he had obtained by the purchase of 
land warrants from Revolutionary soldiers, and, 
being a man of influence and enterprise, he had 
induced a number of friends and neighbors to 
emigrate with him to the land of promise. The 




colony came from Berkshire County, Mass., where 
Byxbe had followed the vocation of tavern-keep- 
ing, and, in this business, had received a number 
of land warrants from soldiers for board. On his 
arrival here, he laid out a village plat, and called 
the place Berkshire, for his native county in the old 
Bay State. The village, the first laid out in Dela- 
ware County, has never attained the ponderous 
proportions of Cincinnati, or Cleveland, or Toledo, 
or many other cities of more modern origin. A 
post office of the name of Berkshire is about all 
there is left of this ancient town. The removal 
of Byxbe to Delaware, and the laying-out of the 
county seat, destroyed the hopes of Berkshire. 
Among the names of early settlers in this 
township we notice those of John Patterson, 
Maj. Thomas Brown, Solomon Jones, James 
Gregory, Nicholas Handley, "Nijah" Rice, 
David Pierce, Joseph Pierce, Maj. Plum and 
William Gamble. Maj. Brown had made a 
visit to the " Great West," from his home 
in Massachusetts, in 1803, visiting Detroit 
and Cincinnati. Favorably impressed with the 
country in the vicinity of the latter place, he 
determined to emigrate to it. He returned home 
by way of the Berkshire settlement, and Byxbe 
induced him to settle in that locality. The family 
of Brown started for their new home in the West 
in September, 1805. They crossed the AUeghanies 
and found Zanesville, with a few log huts and a 
small mill ; a little improvement at Bowling Green, 
a few cabins at Newark, and at Granville the body 
of a cabin ; and beyond, Brown's wagon was the 
second to mark the route through the wilderness. 
The family found shelter with Mr. Root until 
their own cabin was ready for occupancy. 

In 1805, a settlement was made in what is now 
Berlin Township. The first purchase of land in 
this division of the county was made by Joseph 
Constant, and consisted of 4,000 acres. He was 
a Colonel in the war with the Seminole Indians, of 
Florida, and was taken sick at the South, and 
returned to his home in New York, where he 
soon after died. Col. Byxbe purchased a similar 
tract of land in this township, to that of Constant's. 
It was on this tract of Byxbe's that the first set- 
tlement was made in 1805, by George Cowgill. 
During this year, settlements were made on the 
Constant purchase, by Philander Hoadley, David 
Isaac, and Chester Lewis, who came from the 
town of Waterbury in the " Nutmeg State." The 
next settlers were Joseph Eaton and John John- 
son, from Huntingdon, Penn. They settled on 

Olive Creek, and Eaton is mentioned as a man of 
a large family, consisting of nine children. In 
1808, Lovell Calkins, who had visited the neigh- 
borhood the year before, "returned to Connecticut, 
accompanied by Lawson Lewis, and brought out 
his father's family. He described the new coun- 
try as a second Eden (not even lacking the ser- 
pents), and induced others to emigrate to its 
delectable fields. The train of emigrants, consist- 
ing of the families of Samuel Adams, Jonathan 
Thompson, John Lewis Calkins, and his father, 
Roswell Calkins, set out, and after the usual hard- 
ships of an " overland " journey, reached the set- 
tlement safely in September, 1809. The little 
band consisted of about thirty persons, and though 
wearied vpith their long trip, they at once set 
about providing shelter, and soon the proverbial 
cabin was ready for occupation. 

The first white settlers in that portion of the 
county known as Radnor Township, David Pugh 
and Henry Perry, who came in 1803. They were 
natives of Wales, -and Pugh had purchased of Dr. 
Jones, of Philadelphia, a section of land in this 
township, upon which he laid out a village, in 1805, 
and called it New Baltimore. This village never 
amounted to miich, although the plat contained 
150 acres of land, laid out into blocks and lots. 
Pugh was of the opinion that it would grow up a 
great city, and immortalize him as its founder, but 
soon discovered that the opinions of " men and 
mice aft gang aglee." Thomas Warren came from 
Pennsylvania in the fall of 1810, bought the entire 
150 acres, and''converted it into a farm, thus put- 
ting an end to the incipient city. A Mr. Lodwig 
was the next settler in this township, after Pugh, 
and was followed shortly by Jenkins, Watkins and 
John Jones. Elijah Adams came in 1808, and 
located just north of the village of Delhi. John 
Philips was a relative of Pugh, and settled in the 
neighborhood shortly after the latter gentleman. 
David Marks and Hugh Kyle settled about two 
miles north of Delhi in 1810. They were fol- 
lowed by others who located in this immediate 

The next division to be occupied by the Anglo- 
Saxon was the present township of Scioto. Rich- 
ard Hoskins and family, consisting of four boys 
and three girls, were the first squatters in this 
region, and came in 1806. They were from Wales 
originally, but had located in Franklin County 
upon first coming to the country. The next ar- 
rival was Zachariah Stephens, who came from 
Pennsylvania. He removed to Kentucky from the 







Quaker State, thence to Chillicothe, Ohio, and fin- 
ally to a location on the Scioto River, north of 
Boke's Creek, where he settled an adjoining farm 
to Hoskins, and a few months after the settlement 
of that gentleman. James McCune, from the 
Emerald Isle, came up with Hoskins, and located 
just south of this farm. The next year Stewart 
Smith, also an Irishman, settled on Boke's Creek. 
(Thus the Smith family got a foothold in the 
county.) Joseph Shoub, a Pennsylvania DutL-li- 
ma.j- and a millwright by trade, came in the same 
year, and settled near Smith, also a man named 
Hall. John Williams and Jacob North were 
added to the little settlementin 1809, and in 1810, a 
family named Dilsaver settled at what was known 
as the " Broad Ford" of the Scioto. Philip Hor- 
shaw and one Nidy came in the same year, and 
erected a grist and saw mill, which proved a wel- 
come institution to the surrounding country. 

Genoa (not the birthplace of Christopher Co- 
lumbus, but a township of Delaware County) comes 
next in chronological order, and had settlements 
made in it as early as 1807. The first whites who 
located in this division were Marcus Curtis and 
Elisha Newell and their families, who came from 
Connecticut. A few months later, William Cox 
came from Pennsylvania, and settled in the " ox- 
bow " bend of the Creek, as it was called, from its 
fancied resemblance to that " implement." Daniel 
Wicks was here as early as 1810. In addition to 
Cox, mentioned above, the old Quaker State sent 
to the township, Hezekiah Roberts and family, A. 
Hendricks, Jacob Clausen, and Bixby Rogers. 
Roberts came in 1810, and settled on land owned 
by one Latshaw, who had cleared ground, raised a 
crop of corn, and built a cabin. Hendricks came 
at the same time, and with Roberts, Clauson set- 
tled in the neighborhood in 1809. He went to 
Columbus seeking employment, and assisted in cut- 
ting the first timber and raising the first cabin in the 
fiijiure metropolis of the State. Rogers came to the 
settlement in 1812. He had served through the 
Revolutionary war, and some years after its close, re- 
moved from Pennsylvania to Knox County, and to 
this township, as above, in 1812. Shortly after 
this, David Dusenbury came in from Virginia. 
Acting' upon the principle that it is not well for 
man to be alone, the first thing he did after his 
arrival was to marry Betsey Linnebury, and of 
course was happy ever after. Further additions 
were made to the settlement in 1810, by the arrival 
of Sylvester Hough and Eleazer Copely, the latter 
a physician, and their families, from Connecticut. 

Jonas Carter was also a pioneer of 1810. He made 
some improvements, but after remaining a few 
years, sold out, and took up his course with the 
star of empire — westward. A man named Duell, 
a doctor, came from Vermont, and located in the 
neighborhood, where he remained several years, 
and then moved away. 

In Kingston, the first settlers located in the 
southeast quarter of the township. Pennsylvania 
contributed the larger portion of them, and as 
early as 1807, sent out George Hess and John Phil- 
ips. In 1809,James Stark, John Roseerans, Daniel 
Roseorans and David Taylor moved in, and 'com- 
menced the business of preparing the wilderness for 
human habitations. The Rosecranses were a prolific 
people, if we may accredit the early chronicles, from 
which we learn that John brought with him four stal- 
wart sons, to say nothing of his daughters. With a 
profound respect for the patriarchs and prophets, 
he called his sons Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and 
John. Daniel Roseerans' family consisted of Na- 
thaniel, Jacob, Purlemas and Crandall. Joseph 
Patrick and his wife came to the neighborhood 
with the Rosecranses. This constituted the sum 
total of the settlements in this township, so far as 
we were able to learn, prior to the war of 1812. 
We quote the following from a local record : " The 
Anways were settlers in 1815, and escaped the 
suspense suffered by their earlier neighbors. The 
neighbors in Pennsylvania were nearer neighbors 
here. Common interest grouped their cabins, and 
gave them security against attack. To the north- 
ward they knew there were no settlements, and the 
presence of the foe would be the first indication of 
danger. In the year 1812, a block- house was 
built at Stark's Corner. The more cautious retired 
hither nightly. Drake's historic defeat drove the 
entire settlement to the little fortress, where they 
awaited the onset." When the truth came out, 
the people returned to their homes, and doubtless 
(we may venture the remark with safety), when 
they did learn the truth of the matter, they in- 
dulged in a few pages of profane history, at the 
man who, in such squally times, would perpetrate 
a practical joke, and we don't blame them either. 
The most famous event perhaps connected with the 
history of Kingston Township, is the fact that it 
gave birth to ]\Iiij. Gen. Roseerans, a gallant 
officer of the late war. 

The first account we have of a settlement in 
what is now Delaware Township, was made in the 
present city of Delaware. In the fall of 1807, one 
Joseph Barber built a cabin at the Sulphur 

s ^ 



Spring. The spot on whicli it -/as located is now 
embraced in the University Campus. Says Howe 
in his "Historical Collections," from which we have 
several times quoted : "It stood close to the 
spring, and was made of poles, Indian fashion, fif- 
teen feet square, in which he kept tavern. The 
principal settlers were Messrs. Byxbe, William 
Little, Dr. Lamb, Solomon Smith, Elder Jacob 
Drake (Baptist preacher), Thomas Butler, and 
Ira Carpenter. In 1808 Moses Byxbe built the 
first frame house on William Street, Lot 70, and 
the first brick house was er< cted the ensuing fall, 
by Elder Drake, on Winter street. Being unable 
to get but one mason, his wife laid all the brick of 
the inside walls." (Lady readers, how many of 
you, who grow up like hothouse plants, could, in 
case of the most extreme emergency, perform such 
work as laying brick ?) But few settlements were 
made in this division of the county, until the lay- 
ing-out of the town in 1808 (about the time of 
the formation of the county). After it became 
the seat of justice, it settled up rapidly, as more 
particularly noticed in another chapter. 

In 1807, a settlement was made in the present 
township of Marlborough, by Jacob Foust. The 
following account of his trip to this section is of 
some interest : " Foust left Pennsylvania in 1799, 
with the aim to settle in the Scioto Valley. He 
had with him a good team of horses, a wagon, a 
cow, and his wife and seven children. He crossed 
the Ohio at Wheeling, and, leaving the few habita^ 
tions of the river, entered the forest, which lay un- 
broken for miles before him. Twenty miles through 
the woods brought the family to a large building 
erected as a 'travelers rest,' capable of holding 
fifty persons. Here they resolved to pass a night. 
Morning came, and discovered the fact that some 
rascal had stolen the best horse. Foust rode to 
Will's Creek, and hired help to bring the family to 
that point. Thence they were advanced to Zanes- 
ville, where, arriving at night and finding a black- 
smith-shop near the center of the town, they took 
possession. The smith was much surprised in the 
morning to find his shop converted into a dwelling, 
but kindly provided some provision for their break- 
fast. Foust leased land of a man named Brown, 
and raised a good crop of corn. A woman came 
along one day with an empty wagon and four 
horses — her share of an estate. Foust engaged 
the wagon and team, and hired a man named Bow- 
man to convey -his family on to Coleraine Township, 
of Ross County, where the famUy remained until 
1807. In April of this year, Foust moved up to the 

forks of the Whetstone, and squatted on lands 
belonging to the Campbell heirs — the first settler 
in that section, and only the cabin of Barber, near 
the spring at Delaware, between his cabin and the 
Carpenter settlement." The next settler on the 
river in this section was Arie^ Strong; the third 
was a newly married pair of young people, named 
Swinington. These three families were all the set- 
tlers in this immediate section, prior to 1808. At 
other points in the township, there were Nathaniel 
Wyatt, from New York, William Brundage and 
his son Nathaniel, William Hannaman, Levi Hin- 
ter, William and Allen Reed and families. Joseph 
Curran, Isaac Bush and Silas Davis came in prior 
to 1812. 

In the same year as given above (1807), settle- 
ments were made in Trenton Township. William 
Perfect and Mordecai Thomas were the first squat- 
ters, and came from the "dark and bloody 
ground." A man named Spining owned 1,000 
acres of military land, and Thomas and Perfect 
each bought 100 acres of this land, located at the 
mouth of Perfect Creek, a little stream named for 
the family. Bartholomew Anderson also came from 
Kentucky, and settled just east of Perfect, in 
1810. John Culver, Michael Ely and their fami- 
lies were the first settlers north of Culver's Creek, 
and located in the settlement in 1809. Shortly 
after them John Williamson came and bought land 
of Ely, and during the year, married his daughter 
Rosanna. A man named Roberts is noted as the 
first permanent settler on Rattlesnake's Run, where 
he lived for twenty years or more. John Gim set- 
tled on the Creek near by, as early as 1807-8. 
William Ridgaway came a few years later and set- 
tled on a farm adjoining to that of Grim's. We 
make the following extract referring to the settlers 
of this township: "The northern part of the 
township was settled by industrious people from 
New Jersey. A colony from Ithaca, N. Y. 
settled in the south, and one from Pennsylvania in 
the west part of the township, ail strong men, well 
fitted for toil in the forest. Of the early settlers 
was Gratax, who wore 'leather breeches full of 
stitches,' a fawn-skin vest, and a coon-skin cap. 
One farmer ran two large asheries, and supplied 
Delaware with salt and window glass for more than 
twelve years. These articles he wagoned from 
Zanesville. Jonathan Condit, whose descendants 
are scattered over the east part of the township, 
came from New Jersey, and settled on Little ^al- 
nut. Oliver Gratax came a single man, and mar- 
ried a Miss Rosecrans." 


— S a) \' 




The wilderness of the present township of Har- 
lem was broken by white men also in 1807. In 
this year, one Benijah Cook emigrated from Con- 
necticut, and built the first cabin, and is recorded 
as the first settler in the township. A man named 
Thomson (without the p) built the next cabin, and 
in ISll sold his improvement to a Mr. Adams. 
Daniel Bennett had settled jn the teighborhood 
prior to the coming of Adams. He was a preacher 
(Bennett), and lived on the farm until the time of 
his death, years later. John Budd came in about 
this time and bought land where the village is 
located. From Pennsylvania came William Pan- 
cher and family, and, following him, Waters and 
family. Fancher built the first brick house in the 
township, in whichhe spent the remainder of his life. 

" Porter Township"* drew her first settlers from 
the Susquehanna, and from Western Pennsylvania. 
They were an energetic people, and entered the 
dense forest with a resolution to create for them- 
selves comfortable homes. Each made his effort 
the first year to consist in clearing six to eight 
acres, and planting a crop of corn. Christopher 
and Ebenezer Linberger were the first settlers in 
the township. The third settler was Joel Z. 
Mendenhall — all three located in and near the 
village of Olive Green. The settlement of Porter 
began after the organization of the county. Tim- 
othy Murphy settled north of Olive Grreen, and 
Daniel Pint in the same locality. Their improve- 
ments were made on land owned by Robert Porter, 
after whom the township was named, and the set- 
tlers were called squatters. Joseph Patrick became 
the agent of Porter, and leased lots containing one 
hundred acres to each settler." In 1811, Peter 
and Isaac Place settled in the southeast portion of 
the town.ship, and Abraham Anway settled near 
Liberty. Other settlers came in after the war of 
1812, and the township was rapidly taken up. 

In Orange Township we have Joab Norton 
recorded as the first settler. The following is from 
a published account : " In the family are old-time 
letters from Worthington, asking him to migrate to 
that village and bring with him all his tools for 
shoemaking, and a quantity of dressed calf-skins. 
The letters bear date of the spring of 1807, and 
indicate an anxiety for his arrival. Responding to 
the call, Norton started with his family from Con- 
necticut in 1807, reached Worthington, where he 
remained one year, and then moved up into Orange, 
and settled one mile west of Orange Station, on 

* County Atlas. 

land purchased of James Kilbourne. Norton 
started a tannery in 1808, the first in Delaware 
County, and combining the manufacture of 
shoes with his tannery, he employed for his work- 
man Charles Hempstead." From the Empire 
State, the township received as recruits N. King 
in 1810, and C. P. Elsbree and J. McCumber in 
1811. The two latter settled north of Orange, 
and King settled on the place known as the Conk- 
ling Farm. John Higgins came from Vermont in 
1808, soon after the settlement of Norton, and was 
followed shortly by others of his family, who set- 
tled in the southwest quarter of the township. 
Lewis Eaton and family were from New Hamp- 
shire, and located just south of King's place. E. 
Luddington settled just south of Norton, toward 
the close of 1808. His wife died in 1810, and is 
recorded as the first death occurring in the settle- 
ment. The early settlers on the east side of Alum 
Creek were William Steuard, John Gordon, and 
Ira Arnold, who came in and located, in the order 
mentioned. Randall Arnold, Isaac Black, Chester 
Campbell, Lee Hurlbut, and Cyrus Chambers, were 
all early settlers, and came to the township before 
the war of 1812. 

The territory embraced in Brown Township 
was not occupied by the whites as early as many 
of the other divisions of the county. The follow- 
ing notice from the County Atlas, is about as ap- 
propriate as any matter we have obtained in regard 
to this settlement. " The earliest settlement of 
the township was made along the west bank of 
Alum Creek. The northeast quarter was known as 
the ' Salt Reservation,' and strong hopes were raised 
of finding salt water, by boring wells, sufiSciently 
salt to pay for the establishment of works thereon. 
Daniel G. Thurston, F. Cowgill, and Stephen 
Goram had a well sunk and some salt made, but 
the brine was not strong, and the work was 
abandoned. The Smiths, Cunninghams, and 
Longwells were leasers and settlers of the early 
times. Hugh Lee, father of John C. Lee, Lieu- 
tenant Governor of the State for two terms, was an 
inhabitant of the southern part of Brown. Daniel 
Thurston was the first Justice of the Peace, etc." 

Oxford Township claims white settlements as early 
as 1810. The first to locate within its borders were 
Ezra and Comfort Olds, who moved in from Sunbury . 
John Poust was the next man. He came from Marl- 
borough, and Henry Foust moved in shortly after. 
Their cabin^ were of the rude architecture of the 
time. Poust's, we are told, was innocent of any 
floor, except mother earth, for several years. Old's 

5 ''V 



house was but twenty feet square, and contained 
but one room. It was larp;e enough, however, 
(in that day) for a family of six persons, and had 
plenty of room to spare, as the sequel will show. 
A family of the name of Clark moved into the 
settlement late in the fall, and Olds took them in 
for the winter. There were nine of them, thus 
making a total of fifteen persons in a room twenty 
feet square. But such was the feeling toward the 
.new-comer in the early days, that one was never 
turned empty away. George Claypool located in 
the northwest corner of the township, and opened 
a tan-yard near the river, and with it he connected 
the manufacture of shoes. The early settlers on 
Alum Creek were Andrew Murphy, James Mc- 
Williams, Hugh Waters and Henry Wolf Murphy 
was comfortably situated in his Pennsylvania home, 
but was induced to come West, was borne down 
by hardships, and died on his new lands. Walters 
built a mill on the creek, the first in the neigh- 
borhood. Ogden Windsor built the first frame 
barn, and Poust the first frame house in Oxford 

Next in order, we have account of settlements 
made in what is now Concord Township. George 
Hill, a native of Pennsylvania, came to this local- 
ity in 1811. Others of the Hill family accompa- 
nied him to the " Great West ; " also Christopher 
Freshwater. Hill is said to have built the first 
cabin in this division of the county. It was lo- 
cated just north of the old Mansion House, 
erected at the White Sulphur Springs, and stood 
on a lot once owned by Joel Marsh. Freshwater, 
who was a brother-in-law of Hill, built the second 
cabin in this section. Benjamin Hill, a son of 
George Hill, still lives in the township. At the 
time these settlements were made, there were no 
residents nearer than Whetstone, Radnor and Dub- 
lin ; nor were there any roads through the forest. 
A "pack-horse trail" wound along the west bank 
of the Scioto River, from Columbus to San- 
dusky. There is a tradition, erroneous though 
we believe it to be, that the old colored man, 
Depp, with his family settled here in 1790. That 
they came in early, there is no question, but, that 
they were here at that remote period, is ex- 
tremely doubtful. The Sulphur Springs, and the 
" Industrial Home," are matters of historical in- 
terest, that will be appropriately noticed in another 

Samuel Weaver is accredited as being the first in the present township of Thompson, 
and came in 1809. He came from the Old 

Dominion, and located on land owned by C. 
Hill, below Clark's survey. Weaver seems to 
have been the only squatter in this division of the 
county, previous to the war of 1812, as the next 
immigrant noticed is John Cochrane, who came in 
1816, and was from Pennsylvania. John Swartz 
and four sons, also from Pennsylvania, came to the 
settlement ifi 1818,* and during the same year, 
Simon Lindsley and John Hurd came from the 
Green Mountains of Vermont, and settled on the 
first lot below Swartz. Roswell Field came from 
New England in 1819, and isnoticed as the first 
Justice of the Peace. In 1820, Joseph Russell 
and Samuel Broderick settled on Clark's survey, 
three miles below the, " mills." These were all 
the residents of the township up to 1820, of whom 
we have any account. 

In 1812, Eleazer Main is noted as having 
settled in the division known as Troy Township. 
The following account is given of this pioneer of 
Troy : " Shortly after his settlement in 1812, he 
responded to the call for troops, and leaving his 
family in the wo ids, perhaps forever, went to. the 
relief of Fort Meigs, on Lake Erie, where the 
gallant Croghan had repelled the British and In- 
dians. Arrived near the fort, the men unslung 
knapsacks, and lay down, gun in hand. A dark 
and rainy night passed away, and before daylight 
word was given and the line of battle formed. 
Outlying parties of savages reported to the British 
that a powerful army was near by, and the 
hastily spiked guns were buried in the earth and 
the army hurried away." Lyman Main was 
also among the early settlers of the' town- 
ship, and had some notoriety as a hunter. 
From old Virginia the settlement received 
Joseph Cole and David Dix. John Duncan 
and William Norris settled on Norris Branch, 
and are recorded among the pioneers. An- 
other of the early settlers was David Carter. 
He met an untimely death at the raising of a barn 
for James Martin. Henry Cline came to the 
settlement in 1814, and Henry Worline shortly 
after, and settled near Cline. Cole erected a grist- 
mill at an early day, which was an acceptable in- 
stitution in the neighborhood. Col. Byxbe owned 
a large body of land here, which he leased to set- 
tlers as they came in. Some of them built cabins, 
and, after trying one crop, left in disgust. Not 
all who went West remained to " grow up with the 
country," but those who did, found that enterprise 
and energy were just as essential to success as it is 
at the present day. . 


•^ i 




Such is a brief notice of the early settlements made 
in the county in the order thiey occurred. We 
have thus glanced hastDy at this part of the work 
to avoid repetition in the township histories, where 

everything pertaining to the pioneers and their 
early settlement will be entered into. A chapter 
will be devoted to each township, in which all mat- 
ters of interest will be given in detail. 



" Angels weep when a babe is born , 
And sing when an old man dies." — Anon. 

THE pioneers whose names have been given in 
the preceding chapter, with few, if any, ex- 
ceptions, have emigrated to that land that is un- 
disturbed by the Indians' war-whoop — a land where 
toil and danger never come. They came to a wil- 
derness, infested with savages and wild beasts, and 
for years held their lives, as it were, in their own 
hands. Many of them were Revolutionary soldiers 
who had fought for the freedom of their country, 
and when victory perched upon its banners, and 
, the olive branch of peace waved over the nation, 
they were forced to accept remuneration from an 
impoverished G-overnment in Western lands. The 
privations endured in the patriot army were small 
in comparison to those which met them in these 
wild and unbroken regions, and the dangers en- 
countered in conflict with the hitherto victorious 
legions of King George, dwindled into insignifi- 
cance by those of bearding the treacherous red 
man in his own country. The rifle was their in- 
separable companion, whether on the hunt, tilling 
the small patch of corn, or on a friendly visit to a 
neighboring pioneer, and they were always ready 
for a tussle with either bear or savage. When 
they lay down to sleep at night, it was often with 
a feeling of uncertainty as to whether they would 
awake in this world or the next. 
■ But the depredations of the Indians were not 
the only dangers and troubles and vicissitudes to 
which the early settlers were exposed in the wilder- 
ness. We sometimes find ourselves wondering, as 
we chronicle the scenes and incidents of early 
times, what the present generations would do, if all 
at once they were to find themselves subjected to 
the " rough habit, coarse fare, and severe duty," 
which were so well known to the pioneers. The 
country has undergone a great change. Sixty or 
seventy years ago, the few scattering settlers were 

found in pole cabins, of perhaps sixteen by eight- 
een feet in dimensions ; the cracks daubed with 
mud ; a puncheon floor, so well ventilated that a 
child would almost fall through the cracks between 
the puncheons, and a chimney of wood and sticks 
and clay. If a man was so fortunate as to be able 
to have a glass window in his cabin, his neighbors 
would pronounce him " big feelin','' " stuck up," 
etc., and rather avoid him. The furniture of these 
primitive cabins was scarcely equal to the veneered 
walnut adorning our elegant homes of the present 
day. The chairs usually consisted of blocks sawed 
from a log, augur-holes bored in them, and legs 
put in. Bedsteads were improvised in quite as 
plain a manner, while the beds themselves were 
usually leaves and wild grass, which honest toO 
rendered " soft as downy pillows are." To more 
clearly illustrate the simple mode of life practiced 
by the early settlers, we quote two separate and 
distinct authorities on the subject. The one is 
" Howe's Historical Annals," published in 1848, 
and the other the " County Atlas," published in 
1866. The similarity between the two is some- 
what striking, but afibrds rather convincing proof 
of the truth of the matter under consideration. 
They are as follows : 


During the early period 
of the county, the people 
were in a condition of 
complete social equality ; 
no aristocratic distinctions 
were thought of in society, 
and the first line of de- 
markation drawn was to 
separate the very bad from 
the general mass. Their 
parties were for raisings 
and log-rollings, and, the 
labor being finished, their 
sports usually werfe shoot- 
ing and gymnastic exer- 

The pioneers lived in a 
state of perfect social 
equality — no aristocratic 
notions of caste, rank, or 
ofiBce were felt. TJie only 
demarkation was between 
the civil and actual ofTend- 
ers. Their meetings were 
for raisings, log-rollings, ■ 
huskings, weddings, sing- 
ing-schools, and religious 
devotions. Their amuse- 
ments were "frolics," gam- 
ing, gymnastic evolutions, 
and convivial meetings of 



the young. In these sports 
and meetings there was no 
punctilious formality or 
aping the styles of modern 
Paris. The rich and poor 
dressed alike. 'Ihe men 
wore buckskin pants and 
hunting-shirts, and the 
women were attired in 
coarse, home-made fabrics. 
Such was their common 
dress. If a damsel sought 
her bridal attire, she as- 
pired to calico. Silks, sat- 
ins, hoops, and flummery 
— which now burden the 
slender frame, and empty 
our pockets — were never 
dreamed of. Household 
furniture was equally sim- 
ple. Bedsteads were fre- 
quently original, consisting 
of forked sticks driven in 
the ground, and poles to 
support the cord or clap- 
boards. Etc., etc. 

cises with the men, and 
convivial amusements 
among the women ; no 
punctilious formality, nor 
ignoble aping the fashions 
of licentious Paris, marred 
their assemblies, but all 
were happy and enjoyed 
themselves in seeing oth- 
ers so. The rich and' the 
poor dressed alike ; the 
men generally wearing 
hunting-shirts and buck- 
skin pants, and the wo- 
men attired in coarse fab- 
rics, produced by their 
own hands ; such was their 
common and holiday dress; 
and if a fair damsel wished 
a superb dress for her 
bridal day, her highest 
aspiration was to obtain a 
common American cotton 
check. Silks, satins, and 
fancy goods, that now in- 
flate our vanity and de- 
plete our purses, were not 
then even dreamed of. The cabins were furnished ia 
the same style of simplicity ; the bedsteads were home- 
made, and often consisted of forked sticks driven into 
the ground, with cross-poles to support the clapboards 
or the cord. One pot, kettle, and frying-pan were the 
only articles considered indispensable, though some 
included the tea-kettle ; a few plates and dishes upon 
a shelf in one corner was as satisfactory as is now a 
cupboard full of china, and their food relished from 
a puncheon table. Some of the wealthiest families had 
a few split-bottomed chairs, but, as a general thing, 
stools and benches answered the places of lounges 
and sofas, and at first the greensward, or smoothly 
leveled earth, served the double purpose of floor and 
carpet. Whisky toddy was considered luxury enough 
for any party — the woods furnished abundance of veni- 
son, and corn pone supplied the place of every 
variety of pastry. Flour could not for some time 
be obtained nearer than Chillicothe or Zanesville ; 
goods were very high, and none but the most com- 
mon kinds were brought here, and had to be packed 
on horses or mules from Detroit, or wagoned from 
Philadelphia to Pittsburg, thence down the river in 
flatboats to the mouth of the Scioto, and then packed 
or hauled up. 

Not to man alone, however, is the credit due of 
transforming the wUdemess into an Eden of loveli- 
ness. Woman, the guardian angel of the sterner 
sex, did as much in her way as man himself. She 
was not only his companion, but his helpmate. 
Figuratively, she put her hand to the plow, and, 
when occasion demanded, did not hesitate to do 
so literally. They assisted in planting, cultivating 
and harvesting the crops, besides attending to their 

household duties, which were far more onerous than 
now. They were happy and contented, and yearned 
far less for costly gewgaws and fashionable toggery 
than do perhaps their fair descendants. As show- 
ing their vast contentment with the life they led 
in those early times, we make the following extract 
from sketches by Howe of frontier life : " A visit 
was gotten up by the ladies, in order to call on a 
neighboring family who lived a little out of the 
common way. The hostess was very much pleased 
to see them, and immediately commenced prepar- 
ing the usual treat on such occasions — a cup of tea 
and its accompaniments. As she had but one fire- 
proof vessel in the house, an old broken bake-ket^ 
tie, it, of course, must take some time. , In the first 
place, some pork was fried up in the kettle to get 
some lard ; secondly, some cakes were made and 
fried in it ; thirdly, some short-cakes were made in it ; 
fourthly, it was used as a bucket to draw water; 
fifthly, the water was heated in it, and sixthly and 
lastly, the tea was put in it and a very sociable 
dish of tea they had." In those good old times, 
we are told, that the young men asked nothing 
better to go courting in, than buck-skin pantaloons. 
This was an improvement, it is true, upon the 
costume of the Georgia Major, but was somewhat 
abridged as compared to that of the gay cavalier of 
the present day. We will give one other extract 
for the benefit of our lady readers: "A gentle- 
man settled with his family in a region without a 
neighbor near him. Soon afber, a man and his 
wife settled on the opposite side of the river from 
where the first had built his cabin, and some three 
miles distant ; the lady on the west side was very anx- 
ious to visit her stranger neighbor on the east, and ' 
sent her a message setting a day when she should make 
her visit, and at the time' appointed went down to 
cross the river with her husband, but found it so 
swollen with recent rains as to render it impossible 
to cross on foot. There was no canoe or horse in 
that part of the country. The obstacle was appar- 
ently insurmountable. Fortunately, the man on 
the other side was fertile in expedients ; he yoked 
up his oxen, anticipating the event, and arrived at 
the river just as the others were' about to leave. 
Springing upon the back of one of the oxen, he 
rode him across the river, and when he had reached 
the west bank, the lady, Eiiroparlike, as fearlessly 
sprang on the back of the other ox, and they were 
both borne across the raging waters, and safely 
landed upon the opposite bank; and when she 
had concluded her visit she returned in the same 




But, as we have said, the whole country has 
changed in these years, and grand improvements 
have been made in our manners and customs. We 
have grown older in many respects, if not wiser. 
We cannot think of living on what our parents 
and grandparents lived on. The "corn-dodgers" 
and fried bacon they were glad to get, would appear 
to us but a frugal repast. However, this is an age 
of progress, and our observations are made in no 
spirit of dissatisfaction, but by way of contrast- 
ing the past and present. Although pioneer 
life had its bright side, and the term neighbor 
possessed something of that broad and liberal con- 
struction given to it by the Man of Nazareth 
eighteen hundred years ago ; and though there are 
many still living whose " memories delight to 
linger over the past," and — 

" Fight their battles o'er again," 

and in imagination to recall the pictures of three- 
score years ago — yet we acknowledge that we are 
not of the number of those who say or feel that 
the " former times were better than these." The 
present times are good enough, if we but try to 
make them good. We have no sympathy with 
those who wail and groan over the sins and wicked- 
ness of the world, and the present generation in 

The first births, deaths and marriages are events 
of considerable interest in pioneer life. The first 
child born in a community is generally a noted 
character, and the first marriage an event of more 
than passing interest, while mournful memories 
cluster around the first death. 8ome of these inci- 
dents have several contestants in Delaware County. 
The first birth is claimed for two different individ- 
uals, viz., Jeremiah Grillies and J. C. Lewis. From 
the most reliable information on the subject, the 
honor doubtless belongs to Gillies, who was 
born in what is now Liberty Township, on the 7th 
of August, 1803, a little more than two years after 
the first white settlement was made in the county. 
Other authorities, however, are of the opinion that 
J. C.Lewiswas the firstborn. SaysEverts' " County 
Atlas," published in 1875 : " On the 29th of Sep- 
tember, 1806, the first white child was born in 
Delaware County. His name is Joseph C. Lewis, 
a native of the ' Yankee ' colony of Berlin. He 
became a minister of the Baptist persuasion at his 
maturity, and removed to Washington, District of 
Columbia." Just which of these was the first 
birth, or whether either was first, is a point that 
probably will never be satisfactorily settled. But, as 

we have said, and to repeat it in legal parlance, the 
" preponderance of evidence " is in favor of Grillies. 
The first marriage is lost in the "mists of anti- 
quity." That there has been a first marriage, and 
that it has been followed by a second and a third, 
and so on, ad infinitum, the 30,000 people of the 
county bear indisputable evidence. 

Death entered the county through Liberty 
Township — the pioneer settlement — and claimed 
Mrs. Nathan Carpenter. She died August 7, 1804, 
One of the Welches died soon after. There were 
three brothers, viz., Aaron, John and Ebenezer 
Welch, who settled there in 1804, and, in a short 
time, one of them succumbed to the change of cli- 
mate. He was the first white man buried in Dela- 
ware County. JMrs. Vining, who died in Berkshire 
Township in 1806, was another of the early deaths. 
Since their demise, many of their feUow-pioneers 
have joined them upon the other .shore. In fact, of 
those who united in paying the last tribute of respect 
to them — all, perhaps, have followed to "that bourne 
from whence no traveler returns." Upon them 
the rolling years marked their record, and, one by 
one, they have passed from the shores of time, and 
their mortal bodies have mouldered into dust in 
the old churchyards. This has been the immut- 
able fate of the band oi pioneers who subdued this 
region and laid the foundation for a happy and 
prosperous community. The Carpenters, Powerses, 
Welches, Byxbes, Cellers, Hoadleys, Batons, Rose- 
cranses. Lees, Williamses, Fousts, Perrys, Pughs, 
Mortons, Philipses, Bennetts, Hintons, Spragues, 
Hills, Letts ; they are gone, all gone ! 

" They died, aye ! they died : and we things that are 

now — 
We walk on the turf that lies over their brow." 

The beginning of the mercantile business in 
Delaware County is somewhat obscure, and the facts 
pertaining to its early history meager and almost 
unattainable. Just who was the first merchant, 
and upon what particular spot stood his palace 
storehouse, are points that arc a little indefinite. 
With all of our research, we have been unable to 
learn who opened the . first store in Delaware, or 
whether the first store in the county was in Delaware 
or in Berkshire. We are inclined to the opinion, 
however, that the honor belongs to Berkshire, as it 
was laid out as a town sometime before Delaware, 
probably three or four years before, and, doubtless, 
a store was established soon after. Major Brown 
is said to have been the first tradesman at the 
place, but did not remain very long in the business. 





Stores were not so much of a necessity then as 
they are now. After Brown closed out, a man 
named Fuller brought a stock of goods to the place, 
but neither did he remain long. Puller, it is said, 
came from Worthington to Berkshire, but whether 
he had a store at the former place, before removing 
to Berkshire, our authority on the subject is silent. 
The first merchant at Delaware of whom we have 
been able to learn anything was Hezekiah Kil- 
bourn, but at what date he commenced business 
we could not learn. Lamb and Little were also 
among the pioneer merchants of Delaware, as was 
Anthony Walker. The latter gentleman had a 
store — a kind of branch concern — in Thompson 
Township at quite an early date, which was carried 
on by one of the Welches, as agent of Walker. 
Williams & Cone were early merchants at Delhi, and 
a man named Dean kept a store on Groodrich's 
farm, in Liberty Township, for a number of years. 
In what is now Concord Township, was estab- 
lished one of the early stores of the county. It 
was owned and operated by a couple of men named 
Winslow (sons, perhaps, of Winslow's Soothing 
Syrup), and consisted of a box of cheap goods, 
exposed for sale in a small tent, at the mouth of 
Mill Creek. Shortly after this mercantile venture, 
Michael Crider opened a small store on the farm of 
Freshwater, and eventually moved to Bellepoint. 

The foregoing gives some idea of the commence- 
ment of a business three-quarters of a century or 
more ago, which, froin the feeble and sickly efforts 
described, has grown and expanded with the lapse 
of years, until, at the present day, the trade of the 
county annually amounts to hundreds of thousands 
of dollars. 

Mills — ^thos'e objects of interest to the pioneer and 
sources of so much anxiety in a new country — have 
much the same history here as in other early sef> 
tlements, and were rude in construction and of lit- 
tle force, as compared to i the splendid miDs of our 
day. They answered the purpose, however, of the 
settlers, and were vast improvements, rude though 
they were, upon the block and pestle and pounding 
process, of which we often hear the old people 
speak, and which was one of the modes of obtain- 
ing meal and hominy in pioneer days. Before 
there were any '' corncrackers " built in this county, 
the people u,sed to go to Chillicothe to mill, and to 
other places equally remote. An old gentleman 
informed us but a few days ago, that one of the 
first trips he made to mill after setthng in KingS: 
ton Township in 1813, was to a mill which stood 
ten miles beyond Mount Vernon, and that he was 

gone several days. Milling was indeed one of the 
dreaded burdens of the people, and a trip of the 
kind meant any space of time from two days to as 
many weeks. There seems to be no doubt but that 
the first effort at the building of a mill in Dela- 
ware County was made by Nathan Carpenter in 
1804. Sometime during the year he erected a saw- 
mill on the Olentangy, to which was added a pair 
of small buhrs, called in those days " nigger heads," 
and which were used for grinding corn. Notwith- 
standing its limited capacity, the people found it a 
great convenience. In Harlem Township, "a hand- 
mill " was established at a very early- day, and 
shortly after, a horse-mill. Some years later, a 
man named- Budd built a grist-mill on Duncan's 
Run. In what is now Oxford Township, Lewis 
Powers built a little mill, which is entitled to rank 
among the pioneer mills of the county, and Philip 
Horshaw erected one in the present township of 
Scioto ; also a similar edifice in Genoa Township 
was built by Eleazer Copely, at an early day. 
Crider's and Hinton's mills in Concord Township, 
should be mentioned among these early institutions," 
and Hall's on Alum Creek in the present township 
of Berlin. These primitive affairs have been super- 
seded by modern mills of the very best machinery 
and almost unlimited capacity, i 

As pertinent to the subject, we make the follow- 
ing extract from the " County Atlas '.' where it is re- 
corded upon the authority of Elam Brown, Esq. : 
" In 1805, there were few inhabitants on the Whet- 
stone. Carpenter built'a small mill in 1804. We 
Berkshire boys used to follow a trail through the 
woods on horseback (the boys were on horseback, 
not the trail), with a bag of corn for a saddle. The 
little wheel would occasionally be stopped, or sev- 
eral bags of corn ahead in turn would bring the 
shades of night upon us, and we had to camp out. 
Nathaniel Hall built the first mill for grinding on 
Alum Creek, and also a saw-mill. These proved 
great conveniences for the settlement. In times of 
drought, I have ridden on a bag of grain on horse- 
back to Frederick Carr's mill on Owl Creek. 
This horseback-milling was done by the boys as 
soon as they could balance a bag of corn on a 

Next to the pioneer miller, the pioneer black- ' 
smith is, perhaps, the most important man in a new 
country. It is true, the people cannot get along 
without bread, and probably could do without the 
blacksmith, but he is, nevertheless, a "bigger 
man " than ordinary mortals. Among the early dis- 
ciples of Vulcan in the county, we may notice 




James Harper, the pioneer blacksmith of the 
Berkshire settlement; Hezekiah Roberts, in what 
is now Genoa; Isaac Roseerans, in the Kingston 
settlement ; Thomas Brown, in the present town- 
ship of Marlborough, who had his shop, where 
Norton now stands ; Joseph Michaels, in what is 
Oxford Township ; Joseph Cubberly, in the pres- 
ent township of Thompson. 

Among the early Justices of the Peace, we have 
Joseph Eaton, Moses Byxbe, Ebenezer Goodrich, 
Daniel Roseerans, Ezra Olds, Charles Thompson 
and others. Their courts were the scenes of many 
a ludicrous incident, no doubt, from which a volume 
might be compiled that would rank high among 
the humorous works of the day. The administration 
of justice and the execution of the laws were done 
with the best intentions, but in a way that would 
be termed very "irregular" nowadays. The 
Squire usually made up his decisions ft'om his ideas 
of equity, and did not cumber his mind much 
with the statute law. 

Moses Byxbe represented Uncle Sam as the first 
Postmaster General ever in Delaware County.. His 
duties were not very onerous, and his lady clerks 
had ample time to read all the postal cards that 
passed through his office. Letters then cost 25 
cents apiece, and were considered cheap at that 
— when the pioneer had the 25 cents. But 
Uncle Sam has always been a little particular 
about such things, requiring prompt pay, and in 
coin too, and as a consequence, the letter was 
sometimes yellow with age before the requisite 
quarter could be obtained to redeem it. 

Who kept the first tavern within the present 
precin6ts of Delaware County, is not known of a 
certainty. The first house erected on the site of 
the city of Delaware was kept as a tavern by 
Joseph Barber, and was built early in the year 
1807. As there were settlements made in the 
county several years prior to this, it is likely there 
were taverns at an earlier date. As descriptive of 
this first tavern in Delaware, we make the 
following extract from an article in the Western 
Collegian, written, by the lamented Dr. Hills: 
" The Pioneer Tavern was a few rods south- 
east of the 'Medicine Water.' It was on the 
plateau just east of the ridge that lies south of the 
spring, and terminates near there, some three or 
four rods inward from the present street. The first 
house was a double-roomed one, with a loft, stand- 
ing north and south (the house), facing the east, 
and was built of round logs, 'chinked and daubed.' 
In course of time, a second house, two stories high, 

was added, built of hewed logs, and placed east 
and west, at right angles with the south end of the 
first building, with a little space between them. In 
this space was the well, with its curb and its 
tall, old-fashioned, but easy-working 'well-sweep.' 
Around at the southwest of this was the log barn 
and the blacksmith-shop, and a double granary or 
corn crib, with a space between for its many pur- 
poses, as necessary, indeed, as the kitchen is for 
household purposes. Here was the grindstone,the 
shaving-horse, the hewing-block. the tools of all 
kinds, and the pegs for hanging up traps of all 
sorts. Here the hog was scalded and dressed, the 
deer, raccoon and 'possum were skinned, and their 
skins stretched and dried, or tanned. Here also 
were the nuts dried and cracked. For many rea- 
sons, it has a bright place in the memories of boy- 
hood. How few know the importance of the pio- 
neer tavern of the early days. It was of course 
the place of rest for the weary traveler, whether 
on foot or on horse. It was many a day before a 
' dearborn ' or ' dandy wagon ' was known on the 
road. But it was much more than this, and seemed 
the emporium of everything. It was the market- 
place for all ; the hunter with his venison and 
turkeys ; the trapper with his fiirs and skins ; and 
the knapsack peddler — the pioneer merchant — 
here gladdened the hearts of all with his ' bought- 
en ' wares. At his tavern, too, were all public- 
gatherings called, to arrange for a general hunt, to 
deal out justice to some transgressor of the un- 
written but well-known pioneer laws. In fact, it 
was here, at a later period, that the first organ- 
ized County Court was held, with the grand jury- 
in the tavern loft, and the petit jury under a neigh- 
boring shade tree." But to return to the early 
hostelries of other sections of the county. Thomas 
Warren kept a tavern in Radnor at an early day, 
and James Stark kept one at Stark's Corners, in 
the present township of Kingston. 

There is no better standard of civilization than 
roads and highways. In fact, the road is one of 
the best signs or symbols by which to understand 
an age or people. The savage has no roads. His 
trails through the forest, where men on foot can 
move only in single file, are marked by the blazing of 
trees. Something can be learned of the status of 
society, of the culture of a people, of the enlight- 
enment of a government, by visiting universities 
and libraries, churches, palaces and the docks of 
trade; but. quite as much more by looking at the 
roads. For if there is any activity in society, or 
any vitality to a government, it will always be 



indicated by the highway, the type of civilized 
motion and prosperity. 

Delaware County is justly celebrated for its ex- 
cellent roads. Turnpikes, macadamized and grav- 
eled roads, traverse the county in all directions, 
and large sums of money have been expended in 
their construction. The people and the author- 
ities have always exhibited considerable interest 
in building good roads. Almost the first business 
transacted by the County Commissioners' Court 
was the passing of an order for making a road 
through the county. The old Sandusky military 
road is still known as the route over which sup-^ 
plies were conveyed to our army at Fort Meigs 
during the war of 1812. The history of this 
road would make almost a volume of itself. Some- 
time between 1825 and 1830, the Sandusky and 
Columbus turnpike road was chartered, which 
runs over the old route of this military road, and 
which, with some changes and improvements, is 
still one of the first-class and popular roads of the 
county. Its early history, however, was " stormy 
and tempestuous," to say the least. The ideas of 
internal improvement then were rather vague. 
The passing of the act chartering the Sandusky 
and Columbus turnpike road was considered of 
great importance, and when work actually com- 
menced, the event was celebrated at Sandusky 
vrith pomp and ceremony. The United States 
Government made a large grant of land to the 
company, and it was supposed that a magnificent 
road would be the result. But for a number of year^ 
after its completion, it is described as by far the 
worst road in the county. Although graded and 
leveled down, yet it was but a " mud road," and, 
in the winter season, became almost impassable. 
Notwithstanding its condition, toll-gates were kept 
up, and toll exacted of all who traveled over it. 
This frequently brought on a rebellion, and mobs 

gathered now and then and demolished the gates. 
In these mobs and riots several men were shot, 
though none, we believe, were killed. Finally, 
the obnoxious act was repealed; but here the Su- 
preme Court stepped in and decided that the act 
could not be repealed. But after years of wran- 
gling and fiissing, a new company was organized 
and the road improved, and eventually graveled. 
Later, it became a free road. 

The excellent system of roads is unsurpassed in 
any county, perhaps, in Central Ohio. At pres- 
ent, as reported by the Secretary of State, the 
roads are as follows : One incorporated turnpike, 
twelve miles of which is in Delaware County; and 
ten free turnpikes, with sixty miles of road, mak- 
ing a total of seventy-two miles of turnpike road 
in the county. Of the railroads, we shall speak in 
another chapter. 

The following are the towns and villages laid 
out within the county since its settlement by white 
people, together with the names of original pro- 
prietors and the date of their survey. Berkshire 
Village was the first laid out in the county. It 
was laid out in the fall of 1804, by Moses Byxbe, 
who owned a large body of land in what are now 
Berkshire, Berlin, and Delaware Townships. Nor- 
ton was perhaps the next on record, and was laid 
out by James Kilbourne and others, but we have 
been unable to get the exact date of its survey, 
and refer the reader to the township history. 
Delaware, the capital of the county, was also laid 
out by Moses Byxbe, who, with Judge Henry 
Baldwin, of Pittsburg, was the proprietor. The 
original town was laid out on the east bank of the 
Olentangy, but subsequently abandoned, and a new 
town laid out on the west side. The plat was 
recorded March 10, 1808, in the Recorder's ofilce 
of Franklin County. The villages since laid out 
are as follows : 




Galena* (Zoar) 




East Liberty 

Olive Greene 


Eden , 



Centerville ,..., 

^ Galena was originally called Zoar. 

April '20, 1816 

November 9, 1816... 

August 7, 1833 

September 16, 1835.. 

March 16, 1836 

May 10, 1836 

September 2, 1836... 
September 27, 1836.. 
December 8, 1886.... 

April 23, 1841 

March 2, 1848 

William Carpenter. 

William and Laurence Myers. 

Edward Evans. 

James Kooken. 

William Page and E. Lindenberger. 

C. Lindenberger and Festus Sprague. 

D. Price and Amos Sarles. 

D. G. Thurston and Isaac Leonard. 
Anson Williams. 
•Jesse Locke and J. G. Jones. 
Edward Hartwin and B. Roberts. 

See history of Berkshire Township. 






Ashley* (Oxford). 






Orange Station 

Lewis Center 

Yank town 




March 20, 1849., 
May 15, 1849... 
July 23, 1849... 
May 11, 1850... 


March 13, 1852.... 

May 20, 1852 

July 29, 1852 

July 30, 1852 

April 3, 1858 

February 1, 1876.. 
February 6, 1876.. 
March 9, 1876 


F. J. Adams. 

L. Walker and J. C. A^ery. 

A. Washburn and James Budd. 

Hon. l-Iosea Williams and H. G. Andrews. 

S. G. Caulkins. 
James Liggett. 
George and H. J. Jarvis. 
William S. Lewis. 
John B. Black. 
A. G. Hall. 
H. A. Hyatt. 
Thomas Edwards. 

The following post offices, according to a late 
official directory, are now in existence in the county, 
and are given without reference to date of estab- 
lishment : 

Alum Creek, Ashley, Bellepoint, Berkshire, 
Center Village, Condit, Constantia, Delaware ( C. 
H.), Galena, Harlem, Hyattsville, Kilbourn, 
Kingston Center, Leonardsburg, Lewis Center, 
Norton, Orange Station, Ostrander, Pickerell's 
Mills, Powell, Radnor, Sunbury, Yanktown, Vane's 
Valley, and White Sulphur. 

The manufactures of Delaware County are a 
subject of considerable importance, and will be 
ftdly noticed in an appropj;iate department. The 
manufacturing interests consist of foundries, facto- 
ries, machine-shops, mills, etc., and comprise one 
of the great sources of the wealth and prosperity of 
the county. Taking up the subject at its begin- 
ning, it will include the tanneries and carding 
machines, pioneer institutions that have long ago 
become obsolete, but in their day were of as much 
importance to the people as any of the modern 
manufacturing establishments are to the present 

About the year 1870, an effort was made to or- 
ganize a pioneer association in the county, but as 
a society, it has never amounted to much. One or 
two meetings were held, officers elected, and a 
Fourth of July dinner constituted the bulk of its 
proceedings. We have been unable to get a glimpse 
at the books of the association, if indeed it has any, 
and hence, extract the most of our information from 
the newspaper files, which, in general matters of an 
historical nature, are usually correct. From the 
Delaware Herald of June 23, 1870, we gather the 
proceedings of a meeting of citizens of Delaware, 
which are as follows: "At a meeting held at 

* Ashley was surveyed under the name of Oxford, which was 
subsequently changed to present name. 

Council Rooms, Monday evening, June 20, a com- 
mittee of fifteen, heretofore appointed for the pur- 
pose of making arrangements for a pioneer picnic, 
the same was duly organized by electing Rev. J. 
D. ^'an Deman, Chairman, and Eugene Powell, 
Secretary. It was resolved that all persons who 
were born or who came into Delaware County prior 
to 1821, are, in the opinion of this meeting, enti- 
tled to the honorary designation of being pioneers, 
and the same are entitled to participate in the 
meeting as such, to be held at Delaware, Ohio, 
4th of July next." 

This meeting made all the prehminary arrange- 
ments for a gathering of the pioneers on the great 
anniversary, by appointing committees, arranging 
a programme, etc. S. K. Donavin, A. E. Lee and 
Dr. H. Bessie, were appointed a Committee on 
Finance ; E. C. Vining, R. R. Henderson and J. 
Humphreys, a Committee on Invitation ; J. M. 
Crawford, J. A\', Lindsey, H. J. McCullough, 
Eugene Powell and B. Banker, a committee to act 
in connection with the ladies' committee, for pre- 
paring dinner ; R. R. Henderson, J. W. Lindsey 
and C. F. Bradley, a committee to arrange time 
and place ; Rev. J. D. ^^an Deman, Eugene Pow- 
ell and Dr. T. B. Williams, a committee to see 
that the programme of the day was carried out. It 
was resolved that Hon. T. W. Powell be invited to 
deliver an address of welcome to the pioneers. Rev. 
J. D. VanDeman to read the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and Rev. Mr. Chidlaw to deliver an ora- 
tion on the occasion. It was also resolved that the 
pioneers, and the citizens of Delaware generally, be 
requested to participate in the celebration of the 
day, and that the proceedings of the meeting be 
published in the city papers. 

The meeting of the pioneers on the 4th, and 
the appropriate celebration of the nation's birth- 
day, is also chronicled in the Delaware papers. The 




Herald of July 7 says that " great credit is due to 
S. K. Donavin, Maj. D. W. Rhodes and Dr. 
Bessie for their kind attention in distributing the 
invitations to the pioneers." The assembly was 
called to order by Rev. J. D. Van Deman. Hon. 
0. D. Hough was chosen permanent President of 
the Pioneer Association of Delaware County. A 
committee to draft a constitution and by-laws was 
appointed) consisting of Zachariah Stevens, Lucius 
C. Strong, B. C Waters, W. G. Norris and Col. 
Henry Lamb. A resolution was adopted requiring 
the Secretary to procure suitable blanks for the 
collection of the pioneer history of Delaware 
County. The following persons were appointed a 
committee to collect the pioneer items in their re- 
spective townships : Berkshire Township, 0. D. 
Hough ; Berlin, Elias Adams ; Brown, William 
Williams ; Concord, William Benton ; Delaware, 
E. C. Vining ; Genoa, George Williams ; Harlem, 
Daniel Rarick ; Kingston, O. Stark ; Liberty, 
Th^omas C. Gillis ; Marlborough, Hugh Cole ; Ox- 
ford, Jonathan Corwin ; Orange, Charles Patrick ; 
Radnor, David Pendry ; Scioto, Horatio Smith ; 
Thompson,' John W. Cone ; Trenton, W>lliam Per- 
fect, and Troy, Josep]^ C. Cole. The organization 
was more completely perfected by the election 
of a Secretary and Vice President, and of 
B:. Powers, Treasurer. Finally it was resolved 
to hold the next meeting on the last day of the 
county fair, in 1871 ; a rather long recess for a 
newly formed pioneer historical society. It is not 
strange that it became lukewarm before the time of 
meeting arrived. O^this distantly appointed meet- 
ing, the Gazette of October 6, 1871, makes this 
single allusion : " The pioneers were out in full 
force." We believe the society has never since 
held a meeting. The foregoing is about the sum 
and substance of its birth, life and death, and if it 
contained any. historical facts in its archives, they 
are doubtless buried in oblivion through the soci- 
ety's premature death. It is to be regretted that the 
association has not been kept up. In many other 
counties, where our duty as historian has called 
us, we -have found pioneer associations and' old 
settlers' societies of vast benefit in collecting 
and preserving the history of their respective 

The address referred to as being requested of 
Judge Powell was delivered to the pioneers' at 
their meeting on the 4th of July, 1870, and was an 
able and entertaining paper. It appears in the 
Gazette of July 8, 1870, and we make an extract 
or two from it as items of interest to the few re- 

maining pioneers. Its great length alone prevents 
its insertion in these pages entire : 

" Pioneers of our Country ; Venerable Fathers 
and Mothers of our County : We heartily hail 
you to our social gathering. We most cordially 
invite you to partake and unite with us in the 
joyous festivity of the occasion, in which you are 
the principal object of our attraction and care. 
On this happy and joyful day — the ninety- 
fourth anniversary of our national independ- 
ence — we invite you here, from motives of 
gratitude and a deep sense of obligatiSn that the 
people here assembled feel due to you, for the pri- 
vations and endurance you have encountered ; and 
the perseverance and patience you have manifested 
in pioneering this county from a howling and sav- 
age wilderness, to that high degree of civilization 
and refinement, we everywhere witness about us. 
You have made the solitary places to become glad, 
and the 'wilderness to rejoice and blossom as the 
rose.' We therefore say. Hail, venerable fathers 
and mothers ! Pioneers of our county, welcome to 
our social festivities, and unite with us in rejoicing 
and hallowing this day — the birthday of our na- 
tional existence, which has secured to our people, 
and over our whole land, so much prosperity and 
happiness, of which all of you have been living 
witnesses for the last fifty years, and some of you 
from the day of its birth. These ideas solemnly 
call upon us to review the past, and consider how 
many difficulties and perils we have passed through, 
and by the mercy of God and His kind providence 
are now left to enjoy and rejoice over this day. 
Some of you witnessed the establishment of our 
Union ; and our National Constitution and Gov- 
ernment ; then the turmoils and difficulties, , na- 
tional and political, that brought on the embargo of 
1807 ; then the war with Great Britain in 1812 ; 
then the war with Mexico in 1846-47 ; and, lastly, 
the terrible war of our late rebellion, for four years, 
from 1861-65. During those times how many 
friends and associates — how many companions and 
compatriots, have you survived, and are left by the 
blessings of heaven to enjoy with us the fruition 
of this day. But it is the recollections of your 
pioneer experience that is the most vivid and en- 
during upon your memories ; the memory of those 
persons who were your companions and neighbors 
m your pioneer life in the early settlement of this 
county, who have departed this world, after hav- 
ing shared with you its perils and conflicts, while 
you are left here to enjoy its blessings. It is a 
solemn thought to recall the remembrance of our 


^" — ^ 

departed friends ; and to be reminded how many 
we have thus survived — and to be admonished also 
that we, too, are mortal. But the kind Providence 
has so arranged it, that as old ago steals on, we are 
better prepared calmly to meet that change and 
with Christian resignation say : ' I would not live 

^ -r -]C ^ Jp ^ ^ 

" Now, without troubling ourselves about pre- 
cise dates, permit me to recur to your early pio- 
neer days — those days of your conflicts, perils and 
triumphs, in which many an incident, I know, 
occurred, highly interesting and instructive to this 
rising generation, that is about to succeed you and 
to take your places, who know nothing of these 
conflicts, perils and triumphs you have passed 
through — the battles of life you have encountered 
in order to transfer to their hands this country 
that you found as a savage wilderness, now filled 
with all that administers to the demands of civil- 
ized life and refinement, and satisfy our wants 
physical, moral and religious. The contrasts be- 
tween then and now are almost beyond the power 
of those who have not witnessed them, to compre- 
hend ; yet in a great measure, it is your work ; 
you laid the foundation upon which this super- 
structure has been built. To you belongs the great 
triumph that art, by the means of industry and per- 
severance, has accomplished over nature. I know 
that your task is often a thankless job, that often 
the succeeding generation receive the fruits of the 
toil and industry of those who precede them, with 
indifference and sometimes with ingratitude. The 
Great Ruler of the universe, however, has so or- 
dained it, that the honest and faithful laborer 
shall not go unrequited of the fruits of his toil ; 
for there is the consciousness of having done his 
duty in his day and generation ; that he has 
fought the good fight; that he leaves this world 
improved and beautified for those who come after 
him. These will remain a source of moral tri- 
umph and consolation, of which even the ingrati- 
tude of this world cannot rob him ; and I doubt 
not will be a passport to the next. There are 
those who go through this world without doing 
any good to themselves or others, perfect parasites 
upon the world, without conferring upon it any 
benefit in return for what they have received from 
it. Their history is, that they were born, lived 
and flourished, atid then rotted. To me, the 
thought would be a source of pain and agony, that 
I had never planted a tree, noi: dug a well, nor done 
anything to improve and make the world better. 

" The greatest progress made in the early settle- 
ment of Delaware County was that in the east, 
making Berkshire its center. Some of the lead- 
ing men of the eastern settlement had .passed off 
before I came to the county, forty years ago this 
fall ; but from all information of them, they were 
men well worthy of those who followed them. Soon 
after I came here, I became acquainted with most 
of the people of that part of the county; and I 
must say for them, that probably 'no new settle- 
ment could count in their ranks so large a propor- 
tion of men so distinguished for high order of 
intellect and general information, for business 
capacity and enterprise. The great body of these 
people were from New England and New York ; 
a good many from the Wyoming Valley in Penn- 
sylvania, who were the same race of people ; and 
quite a number were immigrantsfrom New Jersey. 
With these were mixed a few people from other 
portions of the country, with but few foreigners. 
Among the first settlers was a considerable colony 
from Berkshire County, Mass., who gave the name 
of Berkshire to the township, which for some time 
included the eastern portion of the county. 

^ ^ ^t' ^ ^ :): :f: 

" And now, let me say to the rising generation — 
to the young men who are about to take the places 
of these men who have departed from uS, that 
those young men thus coming up, must rise early, 
labor hard and diligently, and with perseverance, 
in order to make good the places of these old 

After following the county through the long 
period of its growth and prosperity, Judge Powell 
closes his address as follows : " That which has 
changed and improved those times for Delaware, 
may be stated, first, the general improvement of 
the county dependent on its own resources ; the 
next came, to our greatest relief, the railroad ; 
then next these colleges — these institutions of 
learning; then, lastly, not least, our manufactur- 
ing establishments. Take away from Delaware 
any of these sources of our prosperity, and Dela- 
ware would immediately cease to be what she is. If 
it be asked, if such were the situation of things 
in olden times, how did the old pioneer live ? We 
answer, he lived well ; had plenty to eat and to 
drink, and of the best of its kind : and the women, 
by their economy, industry and perseverance in 
spinning and weaving, produced by domestic manu- 
facture whatever we wore, and thai with which 
we were clothed ; and we thus lived independent 
and happy. 



"Then a question recurs to us — Are the present 
generation, with all their improvements and ad- 
vantages, a better people ? Ttiat is a question of 
a very doubtful solution. They now have more 
advantages and privileges, greater ease in procur- 
ing the wants and luxuries of life ; but whether 
they make better use of what is given to them ; 
whether in coming to accountability of the use 

they make of what is given to them, they will 
square up the account as well as the old pioneer 
does, is very questionable ; but I have a strong 
conviction that when that great trial and reckon- 
ing comes up, when our accounts will all have to 
be balanced, debit and credit, before Heaven — I 
must say that I would sooner risk the chances of 
the old pioneers." 



" But the sunshine shall light the sky, ■ 
As round and round we run ; 
And the Truth shall ever come uppermost, 
And Justice shall be done." — Mackay. 

IT has been said that the native American mind 
tends to self-government as naturally as the 
babe turns to the maternal fount -for nourishment, 
and the organization of Delaware County (so named 
from the Delaware Indians, who once possessed the 
country), into a body corporate, with a legal exist- 
ence, oVer seventy years ago, and only seven years 
after the first settlement in it, is proof of that 
proposition. The limited settlements scattered 
throughout the immense area of country, rendered 
the original counties somewhat extensive in domain. 
As for instance, the county of Washington, the 
first formed within the present territory of Ohio, 
comprised about half of what is now the entire 
State, and was established in 1788, by the procla- 
mation of G-en. St. Clair, then Governor of the 
Northwestern Territory. The next county formed 
after that of Washington was Hamilton, erected 
in 1Y90. Its bounds included the country between 
the Miamis, extending northward from the Ohio 
River, to a line drawn due east from the " standing 
stone forks of the Great Miami." As white people 
poured into the Territory, the old counties were 
divided and subdivided, thus forming new ones to 
accommodate the growing population. Ross County 
was the sixth organized in the Northwestern Ter- 
ritory, and at the time of its formation, embraced 
a large portion of the State. It was created under 
a proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, on the 20th of 
August, 1878.' On the 30th of April, 1803, 
Franklin was formed from Ross, and organized 
into a separate division. February 10, 1808, Del- 

aware County was set off from Franklin, under an 
act of the Legislature, which is as follows, and enti- 
tled " An Act Establishing the County of Dela^ 

Section ]. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of 
the State of Ohio, That all that part of Franklin County 
included in the following bounds, be, and the same is 
herebj^ laid off and erected into a separate and distinct 
county, by the name of DelawarCj viz.: Beginning at 
the southeast corner of township number three, in the 
sixteenth range of the United States Military District ; 
thence west with the line between the second and third 
tier of townships, to the Scioto River, and continued 
west to the east boundary of Champaign County ; thence 
with the said boundary north, to the Indian boundary 
line; thence eastwardly with said line, to the point 
where the north and south line between the fifteenth 
and sixteenth ranges of the said United States Military 
District intersects the same ; thence south with the said 
last-mentioned line to the place of beginning. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted. That from and after 
the first day of April next, the said county of Delaware 
shall be vested with all the privileges, powers and im- 
munities of a separate and distinct county ; Provided, 
That all suits and actions of what nature soever, that 
shall have been commenced before the said first day of 
April, shall be prosecuted to final judgmefit and execu- 
tion, and all taxes, fines and penalties which shall be 
due previously to said day, shall be collected in the 
same manner as if this act had not passed. 

Sec. 3. Beit farther enacted. That all Justices of the 
Peace and other ofBcers, residing within the liipits of 
said county shall continue to exercise the duties of their 
respective offices until successors are chosen and quali- 
fied according to law. 

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted. That it shall be the 
duty of the Associate Judges of said county, to divide 
the same into townships, and publish the same in at 
least three of the most public places in each township, 
in which publication they shall request the electors in 
each township to meet in their respective townships on 
the first Monday of May next, and elect one Sheriff, 





one Coroner, and three Commissiijners, who shall hold 
their offices until the next annual election, and until 
others are chosen and qualified, together with the neces- 
sary township officers ; Provided, That the notices shall be 
set up at least ten days before the said first day of May. 
Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the town of 
Delaware shall be the temporary seat of justice for the 
said county of Delaware until the permanent seat of 
justice shall be established according to law. 

John Sloane, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, pro tempore ; 

Thomas Kikker, 

February 10, 1808. 

Speaker of the Senate. 

In 1820, Union County was created, the larger 
portion of its territory being taken from Delaware, 
and in the formation of Marion and Morrow 
Counties in 1824 and 1848 respectively. Dela- 
ware was again called on to contribute to the 
manufacture of new counties. These last drafts 
upon the territory of Delaware brought it 
down to its present dimensions — a little less than 
500 square miles. It embraces eighteen civil 
townships, and while it is somewhat irregular in 
boundaries, it is of much better shape than many 
other counties of the State, and is quite large 
enough, too, for convenience. 

In pursuance of the act authorizing its forma- 
tion, Delaware County held an election upon the 
day specified in the act, at which the following 
county officials were elected, to serve until the 
regular October elections, viz. : John Welch, Avery 
Powers, and Ezekiel Brown, Commissioners ; Rev. 
Jacob Drake, Treasurer ; -Dr. Reuben Lamb, Re- 
corder ; Solbmon Smith, Sheriff, and Azariah 
Root, Surveyor. The following transcript of the 
records shows some 6f the first business of the 
honorable court : 

.June 15, 1808. A petition for county road on west side 
of Whetstone Riyer, beginning at the Indian line ; 
thence to Delaware ; thence to south lines of the county, 
as near the river as ground and river angles will admit. 
Petition granted, and Messrs. Byxbe, Nathaniel Wyatt 
and Josiah McKinney appointed Viewers, and Azariah 
Root, Surveyor. 

Jdne 17. Resolved, that a jail twelve by forty feet 
be built of oak logs, that will pass a foot, and hewed on 
both sides, the sides hewed to be laid together, the 
corners half dovetailed, the floors of logs fourteen 
inches through and hewed on three sides. Eight feet 
between floors. A cabin roof ; a grated window of 
three sufficient bars of iron in each room. One outside 
and one inside door of white-oak plank, two inches 
thick, and two thicknesses well riveted together. The 
outside to be hewed down after it is laid up. The 
building to be finished January 1, 1809.* 

* Addison Carver took the contract to erect this jail, at $128.76. 

Resolved, by the Board of Commissioners, that for 
every wolf scalp over six months old, there shall be al- 
lowed two dollars, and for all under, one dollar. 

Resolved by the Board, that prices of tavern licenses 
shall be in town, six dollars, and in the country, four 

Sept. 7, 1809. The settlement with Solomon Smith, 
Collector of Taxes for the year, shows a balance for the 
county of forty-two dollars and sixty and a half cents. 

June 5, 1810. The State and County Taxes for 
1809, in Delaware County, were increased to six hun- 
dred and fifteen dollars and thirteen and seven-tenths 

The foregoing is a sample of the proceedings of 
the County Court for the first year or two of the 
county's existence, and will also serve to show 
what it was for years to come. The early records 
are rather meager and incomplete, and some wholly 
destroyed (by fire), so that extracts only can be 
given. From these records, we learn that a 
second jail was built of stone, and, according to 
contract, was to be completed and ready for occu- 
pancy January, 1814. Solomon Agard was the 
jailer, and the jail was erected adjoining his resi- 
dence. Prior to 1850, another jail was built, 
which served the county as a prison, until the 
erection of the present elegant jail, in 1878. The 
contract for this building was let at $22,000, but 
extras were added, until the total cost reached the 
sum (to be exact) of 125,845.35. It has all the 
modern inventions and improvements of iron-clad 
cells and burglar-proof doors. With all the pre- 
cautions, however, that have been taken to make 
it a safe repository for criminals, desperate char- 
acters sometimes effect their escape. The first 
court house of Delaware County was ordered 
built in 1815. It was, as stated in the records, to 
be of " good, well-burnt brick, forty feet by 
thirty-eight square ;" we leave the reader to con- 
jecture whether the bricks were to be of that size, 
or the building. On the 10th of January, 1815, 
the County Commissioners made a contract with 
Jacob Drake for the erection of the building, at a 
cost of $8,000, to be paid as follows : " $1,000 to 
be paid next April; $1,000 at the end of 1816, 
and the balance in $500 payments yearly till the 
whole is paid off." Upon searching the records, 
no account of the completion of this edifice is 
found up to 1822, when there is a break of 
several years in the records. That it was actually 
built, there is no doubt, but to fix the date of its 
completion is not an easy matter, nor shall we 
attempt it. It did duty as a temple of justice 

' In 1814, raised to $13 and $7 respectively. 




until 1870, when the present court house' was 
built at a cost of about $80,000. It is a modern 
brick, and, while it is not " magnificently extrava- 
gant," it is a neat and tasty structure. 

The organization of the Circuit or Common 
Pleas Court, is more particularly given in the 
history of the bench and bar, in another chapter, 
and will be but incidentally alluded to here. Its 
first session was held by Judge Belt, of Chilli- 
cothe, in the tavern of Joseph Barber. This was 
a small cabin, about fifteen feet square, built of 
poles, and was the first house erected in the town 
of Delaware, and stood near the Sulphur Springs. 
Its circumscribed limits necessitated sen'ding the 
grand jury out to deliberate under the shade of 
a tree, while the petit jury occupied similar quar- 
ters at no great distance. The first jury trial was 
the " State of Ohio against Valentine Martin," for 
''assault and battery" upon Reuben Wait. The 
case came up for trial before Judge Belt, June 3, 
1808. Martin plead guilty, and was fined 14 and 
costs. The namesof the juryareas follows : Thomas 
Brown, Daniel Strong, Valentine Poos, Ezekiel 
Van Horn, Aaron Welch, Nathen Carpenter, 
David Dix, George Cowgill, David Butler, John 
Patterson, Azariah Root and Josiah McKinney. 
The first civil case was an action brought by 
Jacob Drake against Elias Palmer, for boarding 
and money loaned, and other claims. The attorney 
for the plaintiff was Jeremiah Osborne, and, for 
the defendant, John S. Wells. - 

We deem it unnecessary, however, to encumber 
our pages with the old records of the court. The 
few extracts that have been given are merely for 
the purpose of showing the ' growth and develop- 
ment, from a very small beginning, of one of the 
important civil divisions of the State. But we 
will note one or two other points before passing. 
The first deed on record is a conveyance by Solo- 
mon Broderick, of Sussex, N. J., to Jacob Awl, 
of Paxton, Penn., for $500. It was transcribed 
from Vol. I., page 193, of the records of Ross 
County, and was for 250 acres of land, lying in 
the southeast part of the county, in what is now 
Harlem Township, and is dated May 14, 1800. 
Broderick, it seems, had acquired a title to 4,000 
acres of the military lands of the United States, 
and the second record shows a sale by him to the 
same party of 500 acres of these lands for the 
sum of $1,000. 

We have stated elsewhere that many of the 
early settlers of the county were Revolutionary 
soldiers, who held warrants upon the military lands 

in the Northwestern Territory. This was a means 
of adding many settlers to the number then (as 
now) flocking to the Great West. The first patent 
granted by Congress to soldiers of the Revolu- 
tionary war, as a land warrant upon the military 
land embraced in Delaware County, was given by 
John Adams, President, to Francis Carbery. The 
deed bears date May 2, 1800, and describes a body 
of one hundred acres of land, in " Lot six, of first 
quarter, fourth township and twentieth range." 
Ezra Tryon, another soldier of the Revolution, 
records the second patent, and took the second 
place in time of locating. These were followed by 
many other veterans of the Revolution, who laid 
their patents or warrants upon lands, and. thus ob- 
tained pay for military service — not in greenbacks, 
as the soldiers in the late war, but in Western 
lands, an investment that proved much more valu- 
able than at the time was believed to be possible. 

The next move, after the formation of the county, 
was the location of the seat of justice. This was 
done by Commissioners appointed for the purpose 
by the General Assembly. They met in March, 
only a few weeks after the passage of the act or- 
ganizing the county, and, upon considering the 
respective merits of contesting points, made their 
decision in favor of Delaware. A short time pre- 
vious to the location of the county seat, the town 
of Delaware had been laid out by Hon. Henry 
Baldwin and Col. Moses Byxbe, and the plat re- 
corded in Franklin County. Baldwin lived in 
Pittsburgh, but, together with Byxbe, owned a 
large tract of military land in this section. The 
location of the county seat at Delaware was a 
great disappointment to the* people of Berkshire, 
who had aspired to the dignity of having their 
own town become the seat of justice. The rivalry 
for that honor was kept up for a number of years, 
before the Berkshireites gave up the contest. Pre- 
vious to the building of the first court house, the 
little court business necessary to be transacted was 
done in taverns and private houses. People were 
better then than they are now, perhaps, and did not 
require so much " lawing " to keep them straight. 

Delaware County, at the time of its organization, 
comprised a population of only a few hundreds, 
and hence did not need many divisions of its terri- 
tory. The same act that formed the county 
authorized the Associate Justices, viz., Moses 
Bysbe, Thomas Brown and Josiah McKinney, to 
divide it into townships. Accordingly they met, in 
obedience to this act, and divided the county into 
three townships, as' follows : " All east of the 

»? 5 






center of eighteenth range was made the township 
of Berkshire ; all west and north of the north line 
of the fourth tier of townships, and a continued 
line west, was made the township of Radnor ; all 
south of Radnor, and west of Berkshire, was 
made the township of Liberty." Among the first 
business, however, transacted by the Commission- 
ers' Court, was the creation of additional town- 

Marlborough was the first, and its formation 
bears date June 15, 1808. It comprised the area 
within the following boundary : Beginning at 
southeast corner of the sixth township, in the eight- 
eenth range of the United States Military Survey ; 
thence north on the east line of the eighteenth 
range to the Indian boundary line to the west 
line of the nineteenth range ; thence south with 
said west line of the nineteenth range to the 
south line of the sixth township ; thence with 
the south line of the sixth township, until it inter- 
sects the east line of the eighteenth range, at the 
place of beginning. June 16, Delaware Township 
was created, as the records have it, by a " concur- 
rent resolution of the Board of Commissioners." 
Its original area was as follows : Beginning at 
the northwest corner of Township 5, Range 
19 of the United States Military Survey ; thence 
south with the range line to the center of 
Township 4 ; thence east on center line of said 
township to the center of Township 4, in 
Range 18, to the north line of Township 5 
in the same range; thence west on said line to the 
place of beginning. The formation of Sunbury 
bears the same date, and is bounded as follows : 
Beginning at the northeast corner of Section 2 

of Township 5 and Range 17 of United States 
Military Survey ; thence south with said line 
of the county ; thence east with said county 
line to the ea,st line of said county ; thence north 
with said county line to the Indian boundary line; 
thence westerly with said boundary line to the east 
boundary of Marlboro Township ; thence south 
with said boundary to the southeast corner of said 
township ; thence east to the place of beginning. 
JIany of the townships, at the time of their or- 
ganization, were much larger than they are at 
present ; their boundaries have been materially 
changed in some cases — changes resulting in the 
total annihilation of one (Sunbury) at least. As 
a sample of the'ehanges that have taken place in 
the area of certain of the townships, Delaware, at 
the time of its formation, included, in addition to 
its present extent. Sections 1 and 2 of Troy, 
2 and 3 of Brown, and 2 of Berlin. As 
the population increased, new townships were 
created, until we find the number increased to 
twenty -four, viz., Berkshire, Berlin, Bennington, 
Brown, Concord, Delaware, Grenoa, Harlem, Har- 
mony, Kiiitrston, Liberty, Lincoln. ^Marlborough, 
Orange, Oxford, Peru, Porter, Radnor, Seioto, 
Sunbury, Thompson, Trenton, Troy and Westfield. 
In the formation of new counties, portions of sev- 
eral of these townships have been taken, while 
Bennington, Harmony, Lincoln, Peru and Wost- 
field have been transferred bodily. In 1840, Mr. 
Howe gives twenty- one townships, with an annre 
gate population of 22,060. The County Atlas, 
published in 186(j, gives the following tabulated 
statement of the townships and their populations 
for six decades : 








. 1,057 










Bennington* » 









Harlem.. . . . 

1 289 













1 133 

.. . 

♦Transferred to new county organizations. 




•^1 ® 






Thompson .. 




Totals in county. 

1810. 1820. 1830. 1840. 1850. 1860. 




+7,639 11,523 
















By the census of 1870, the population had in- 
creased to 25,175, and at the present writing is per- 
haps not far short of 30,000. Nftmerous changes 
have taken place, as we have already stated, 
until at present the county is composed of the fol- 
lowing divisions, viz., Berkshire, Berlin, Brown, 
Concord, Delaware, Genoa, Harlem, Kingston, 
Liberty, Marlborough, Orange, Oxford, Porter, 
Radnor, Scioto, Thompson, Trenton and Troy. 

The following pages on the political history of 
the county are written by the Hon. James R. 
Hubbell : In the early history of Delaware County 
there was but little party strife. The act of the 
General Assembly creating the county was passed 
the last year of the Administration of Thomas 
Jefferson, and the exciting events of the war 
of 1812, which soon followed, wiped out the 
old Federal party that had so bitterly assailed 
Mr. Jefferson. The war measures of Mr. Madi- 
son and the Republican party in Congress were 
earnestly supported by the citizens generally 
throughout the county. The scramble for the 
" loaves and fishes " of office, compared with a later 
date, was almost nothing. But few offices were 
sought for their emoluments. The most lucrative 
offices were filled by appointment, and not by 
popular election. The most important office, then 
as now, was that of County Auditor, which was 
filled by the appointment of the County Commis- 
sioners. It was not until the year 1821 that 
this office was made elective by the popular vote. 
The County Treasurer, Surveyor and Recorder of 
Deeds were also appointed by the Commissioners. 
The Prosecuting Attorney and Clerks of- the 
Court were appointed by the court. These officers 
were made elective by the law of 1833. In most 
cases the offices were filled by faithfttl and com- 
petent men. The appointing power conferred by 

* TraDsferred to new county organizations, 
j- Divided among other townships, 
t Aggregate population of county. 

the Legislature upon the Commissioners and the 
court, although anti-republican in principle, 
seems to be, judging from the experience of the 
past, the best calculated to secure efficiency and 
competency in office. Experience has shown that 
the less frequently changes are made, the better it 
is for the public service. The early records of the 
county show, under the appointing power, but few 
changes. From 1820 until 1830, the duties of 
County Auditor were faithfully discharged by 
Solomon Smith, an honest and competent officer, 
and he was succeeded by Gen. Sidney Moore, who 
efficiently and satisfactorily performed the duties of 
the office during the period of another decade. ■ 

In 1822, Thomas Reynolds succeeded his 
brother-in-law, the Rev. Joseph Hughes, in the 
office of Clerk of the Court, which he retained 
until 1838, when he voluntarily resigned. Mr. 
Reynolds was a man remarkable for his personal 
attractions, and possessed qualifications for public 
and official duties, of a high order, and his resigna- 
tion of the office was a matter of universal regret 
with both bench and bar, as well as with thepubhe. 
The office of County Surveyor, for about twenty 
years (from 1822 to 1842), was filled by James 
Eaton, a skULful and accurate officer ; he was sub- 
sequently promoted to the office of County Auditor 
and State Senator. Of those who figured most 
conspicuously in the early politics and in official 
stations were Joseph Eaton, Azariah Root, 
Solomon Smith, Elias Murray, Pardon Sprague 
and Sidney Moore and his brother, Emery Moore. 
During the eight years of the Administration of 
James Monroe (the fifth President), between the 
years 1817 and 1825, there was no party politics. 
This period in our national history has been called 
the " era of good feeling," and during this time 
J)e]scwa,j;6 County seemed peculiarly favored and 
exempt from political animosity and strife. 

The Presidential election of 1824 was attended 
with unusual excitement — probably the most ex- 






citing of any election that had ever taken place in 
the country, with the exception of the Presidential" 
election of 1800, .which resulted in the success of 
Mr. Jefferson over the elder Adams. At this 
election the Presidential candidates were Gren. * 
Jackson, of Tennessee ; Henry Clay, of Kentucky ; 
John Q. Adams, of jMassachusetts, and William 
H. Crawford, of G-eorgia. Each of these distin- 
guished gentlemen had his friends, who supported 
their favorite candidate from personal preference 
and not from considerations of parj;y. At that 
election Mr. Clay was the choice of the majority of 
the voters of Delaware County, as he was of a 
majority of the votere of the State of Ohio, but 
he was not elected. In the Electoral College, Gren. 
Jackson led Mr. Adams by a small plurality, and 
3Ir. Crawford was in number the third on the list 
of candidates, and Mr. Clay was dropped from the 
canvass. Neither candidate having a majority of the 
electoral vote under the Constitutional rule, upon 
the House of Representatives devolved the duty of 
making choice of President, each State, by its 
delegation in Congress, casting one vote. Mr. 
Adams was chosen by the casting vote of the State 
of Kentucky. Mr. Clay was a member of the 
House of Eepresentatives, and its Speaker, and it 
was doubtless owing to Ohio's great influence and 
p6pularity that the delegation from Kentucky was 
induced to cast the vote of that State for Mr. 
Adams, an Eastern man, in preference to Gen. 
Jackson, a Western and Southern man. By that 
act, Mr. Clay was instrumental in organizing polit- 
ical parties that survived the generation of people 
to which he belonged, and ruled in turn the des- 
tinies of the Republic for more than a quarter of 
a century. In the new Cabinet, Mr. Clay was 
placed by Mr. Adams at the head of the State De- 
partment, which gave rise to the charge of " bar- 
gain and sale" between the President and his 
chief Secretary, that threw the country into a 
blaze of excitement from center to circumference. 
At this time, no one doubts the patriotism and 
honesty of Henry Clay, but the charge was so 
persistently made by the partisans of Gen. Jack- 
son, it greatly injured Mr. Clay in the public esti- 
, mation, and contributed largely to the General's 
Success in the Presidential race of 1828. At the 
Presidential election following, party lines were 
closely drawn between Gen. Jackson and Mr. 
Adams, but the result of a hot and bitter contest 
was a small majority for the Adams electoral ticket 
in the county, as there was in the State. Gen. 
Jackson, the hero of New Orleans, was most 

triumphantly elected both by the electoral and 
popular vote, and on the following 4th of March, 
the political power and official patronage of the 
country passed into his hands. At this time 
parties were known here, as elsewhere throughout 
the country, as the Jackson and anti-Jackson 
party. Delaware was almost uniformly classed, by 
her vote, as anti- Jackson. In 1824, Gov. Jere- 
miah Morrow, anti-Jackson, was re-elected Gov- 
ernor of Ohio, receiving a small majority over 
Allen Trimble, of the same political faith, and his 
principal competitor. Capt. Elias Murray, anti 
Jackson, was, at the same election, returned to the 
House of Representatives, in the State Legislature, 
and re-elected in 1825. Allen Trimble was elected 
at the October election in 1826, to succeed Gov. 
Morrow, receiving quite a large majority in the 
county and State ; Pardon Sprague, anti-Jackson, 
was chosen successor to Capt. Murray in the State 
Legislature, and re-elected in 1827. In 1828, 
Gov. Trimble was re-elected over the Hon. John 
W. Campbell, the Jackson candidate, long a 
distinguished member of Congress from Ohio. 
Gov. Trimble's majority was little less than three 
thousand in the popular vote, and a little over two 
thousand in the county. Milo D. Pettibone, anti- 
Jackson, at the same election, was elected Mr. 
Sprag-ue's successor in the Legislature. Mr. Camp- 
bell was a member of Congress when ]Mr. Adams 
was chosen President by the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and was known to be opposed to Mr. 
Adams and for Gen. JacksOn. Immediately upon 
the accession of Gen. Jackson to the Presidency, 
Mr. Campbell was rewarded for his friendship and 
fidelity to the General's fortunes with the appoint- 
ment of United States District Judge for the Dis- 
trict of Ohio. While holding a term of his court 
in Columbus, in the summer of 1833, he was 
taken suddenly ill, came to Delaware for the benefit 
of the sulphur-spring water, and in a few days 
died^ — we believe, of cholera. At the election in 
1829, Col. B. F. Allen, who was known as a friend 
of the Administration, was returned to the Legis- 
lature. He was succeeded by Amos Utley, of 
Berkshire, in 1830. The Senatorial District of 
which Delaware County was a part, was composed 
of Crawford, Marion and Delaware Counties dur- 
ing this period, and from about the year 1828 to 
the year 1832, Charles Carpenter, anti- Jackson — a 
merchant living in Sunbury — then quite a young 
man, represented the district. He was from 
Luzerne County, in the Wyoming Valley, and the 
family connection in the eastern part of the county 




was quite numerous and influential in its early 
history. Senator Carpenter subsequently moved 
West, we think to Missouri, where he held several 
official positions, and died soon after the close of 
the late civil war. 

In 1831, Gen. John Storm, who was anti-Jack- 
son, was elected to the Legislature by a small 
majority, over B. F. Allen, the .Jackson candidate. 
Gen. Storm obtained his military title by being 
elected by the Legislature to the office of Major 
General in the " Peace Establishment." He died 
before the close of his legislative term, greatly la- 
mented by his constituents and a numerous family 
connection. He was quite young, and his friends 
had ,predicted for him a successful political career. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1832, such was, 
or had become, the popularity of Gen. Jackson, he 
swept everything before him. Col. James W. 
Crawford, who was a lieutenant in the company 
commanded by Capt. Elias Murray in the war of 
1812, was elected as the Administration candidate, 
the successor of Senator Carpenter, and Capt. John 
Curtis, Administration candidate, was returned to 
the House of Representatives and re-elected in 

1833. Gen. Sidney Moore was re-elected Auditor, 
and his brother Emery, re-elected Sheriff. The 
entire anti-Administration county ticket was 
elected, except the Whig candidate for the Legisla- 
ture. At the election in 1832, Robert Lucas, the 
Jackson candidate, was elected Governor over 
Darius Lyman, the candidate on the Clay ticket, 
by several thousand majority, although Delaware 
County cast a majority of her votes for Mr. Clay 
for President, and Lyman for Governor. It was 
about this time that the two great parties assumed 
distinctive names. The Administration party took 
the name of Democrat, and the opposition that of 
Whig. Delaware County was a Whig county. In 

1834, Emery Moore was elected to the State Leg- 
islature, and Gen. Andrew H. Patterson, then Post- 
master at Delaware and a Democrat, was elected 
Sherifi' as the successor of Mr. Moore. Gen. Pat- 
terson was a most remarkable man in many par- 
ticulars. He was a saddler by occupation, and his 
education in early life had been neglected, but he 
had great tact and shrewdness in the management 
of men, and was the most successful eleotioneerer 
Delaware County ever had. He was re-elected 
Sheriff in 1836, and in 1838 was elected to the 
Legislature over Judge Hosea WilUams, Whig, by 
a majority of twelve votes, and in 1839 was elected 
by a majority of several hundred votes over Hon. 
T. W. Powell, the Whig candidate. Gen. Patterson 

met with pecuniary losses in late life, moved West, 
and it is believed he never retrieved his fortune. 
The Whigs carried the county in 1836 for. Gen. 
William H. Harrison for President, and Joseph 
Vance, Whig, for Governor, over their opponents, 
by large majorities, and the entire Whig ticket was 
elected, except Dr. Carney, the Whig candidate 
for the Legislature, who was defeated by Col. B. 
F. Allen, Democrat, by a majority of nine votes. 
The importance of one vote is to be seen in the re- 
sult of this election. Upon the Legislature chosen at 
this election, devolved the duty of electing a Senator 
in Congress, to succeed the Hon. Thomas Ewing, 
whose term would expire the 4th of March follow- 
ing. Mr. Ewing was a candidate for re-election, 
and was the favorite of his party in Ohio, and the 
West. Col. Allen had known Mr. Ewing in early 
life, and his friends claimed, or represented in all 
parts of the county, that he would support Mr. 
Ewing, if he were the choice of the county. On 
election day, printed petitions were presented at 
every election precinct for names, asking the Rep- 
resentative to support Mr. Ewing for a re-election. 
The ruse accomplished its object. Col. Allen was 
elected by a majority of nine votes, and his vote 
elected the late Gov. William AUen over Mr. 
Ewing. To what extent, if at all. Col. Allen was 
a party to the fraud, it is not known. He was a 
man of great firmness, but he was a zealous parti- 
san, and possibly he may have yielded, to the in- 
fluence and demands of his party, his conviction of 
duty, against his will, although ordinarily an honest 
man. At the following election, in October, 1837, 
Dr. Carney, on the "Ewing Fraud," as it was 
called, was elected over Col. Allen by over a hun- 
dred majority ; and, in 1838, AUen was elected to 
the State Senate. It was at this election, the late 
Wilson Shannon, Democrat, of Lawrence, Kan., 
was elected Governor of Ohio over Gov. Joseph 
Vance, Whig, but the Whig ticket for the county 
offices was elected, except Judge Williams, who 
was defeated by Gen. Patterson for Representative. 
In 1839, the entire Democratic ticket, for the first 
time afber its organization, was elected, viz. : Will- 
iam W. Warner, Commissioner; Albert Picket, Jr., 
Recorder ; George W. Stark, Treasurer ; and Mor- 
gan Williams, Assessor. The average majority for 
these candidates was 300. The "hard-cider" 
campaign of 1840, greatly increased the forces of 
the Whig party, and the Whig ticket was elected 
by an average majority of over 600, viz. : Emery 
Moore was again chosen to the State Legislature; 
Col. John T. Dunlap, County Auditor ; Peleg 




Banker, re-elected Sheriff, Horatio P. Havens, 
Conunissioner, and D. T. Fuller, Prosecuting At- 
torney. It was during the memorable campaign 
of 1840, the " Liberty Party " was organized, and 
a ticket for President and Vice President ' nom- 
inated. For several years previous, the anti- 
slavery agitation had been making, slowly but un- 
mistakingly, its deep impressions upon the public 
mind, and niore especially the minds of the relig- 
ious portion of the people, but it was not until 
about this period that the friends of the cause of 
emancipation proposed political action. James Gr. 
Bu-ney, a former slaveholder of Kentucky, but then a 
resident of Michigan, was at the head of the ticket, 
and Thomas Morris, of Ohio, placed second. The 
electoral ticket for the candidates received about 
100 votes in the county. This vote was taken 
principally from the Whig party. Four years later, 
the vote of this party was largely increased. This 
organization was possibly premature and misguided, 
but no party was ever actuated by lofcier or purer 
motives. The Antislavery movement, at that time, 
was not larger than the cloud the Hebrew prophet 
saw, that so rapidly spread over the whole heavens 
and filled the earth with refreshing showers. At 
this time, no one expected to live to see the insti- 
tution of negro slavery in America abolished, but 
in less than the period allotted by Providence to a 

generation of men, by an amendment to the Fed- 
eral Constitution, slavery and involuntary servi- 
tude of every species, in all the States and Terri- 
tories belonging to the American Union, was 
forever abolished. 

But notwithstanding the drafts the Antislavery 
party, the Temperance party, and other parties 
from time to time, made upon the Whigs, they 
continued to be the dominant party until the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise in 1854, which led ' 
to the organization of the Republican party, 
which then was and still is in the ascendency in 
Delaware County. '. 

As pertinent to the organization of the county 
and its political history, we append an abstract of 
the vote cast at the first regular election ever held 
in Delaware County, following it with a statement 
of the elections since the beginning of the war in 
1861, as taken from the official vote. This state- 
ment shows merely the ticket elected in the county, 
and the majorities received by the State and 
National tickets. The vote cannot be given from 
the organization of the county, owing to the in- 
completeness of the records, and hence we begin 
with 1861, the most important epoch, perhaps, in 
the history of the county or the State. The 
first vote of the county, which was taken October 
11, 1808, is as follows: 


































































.. . 24 
















' 21 



19: 12 






















15; 24 


























48 7fi 



















The result of other elections were as follows : 

troller of Treasury, 1,215; B. R. Cowen, Secreta- 

1861— David Tod, Governor, majority 1,224; 

ry of State, 1,209; John Torrence, Member of 

Benjamin Stanton 

Lieutenant Governor, 1,224; S. 

Board of Public Works, 1,210 ; T. C. Jones, Judge 

V. Dorsey, State 

Treasurer, 1,215; Isaiah Scott, 

Common Pleas Court. 1,215; J. A. Sinnett. State 

Judge Supreme Courl 




. R 










r. ] 




1, 1 





' «^ n 




1,161; C. B. Paul, County Treasurer, 1,055; C. 
t". Bradley, County Commissioner, 4,027 (no oppo- 
sition) ; Burton Moore, County Infirmary Director, 

1862 — W. 8. Kennon, Secretary of State, major- 
ity 417; V. T. Backus, Judge Supreme Court, 
408; C. N. Olds, Attorney General, 436; W. D. 
Henkle, School Commissioner, 440 ; J. B. Gregory, 
Member of Board Public Works, 514; J. H. 
Godman, Congress, 470 ; R. W. Reynolds, County 
Auditor, 41 ; B. C. Waters, Sheriff, 507; H. M. 
Carper, Prosecuting Attorney, 486 ; R. T. McAllis- 
ter, County Commissioner, 427 ; Albert Worline, In- 
firmary Director, 320; B. F. Willey, Coroner, 
463; G. C. Eaton, Surveyor (no opposition), 

1863 — John Brough, Governor, majority 908; 
Charles Anderson, Lieutenant Governor, 904; J. 
H. Godman, Auditor of State, 905; G. V. Dorsey, 
Treasurer of State, 899; H. H. Hunter, Judge' 
Supreme Court, 903; J. M. Barrere, Member of 
Board Public Works, 899 ; J. R. Stanberry, State 
Senate, 898; J. R. Hubbell, Representative, 899,; 
B. F. Loofbourrow, County Clerk, 918 ; Thomas 
W. Powell, Probate Judge, 877; G. P. Paul, 
County Treasurer, 907 ; A. R. Gould, Recorder, 
915; W. T. Watson, County Court, 912; George 
Atkinson, Infirmary Director, 909. 

1864 — Abraham Lincoln, President, majority 
630; Andrew Johnson, Vice President, 630; 
Horace Wilder, William White, Luther C. Day, 
Judges Supreme Court, average majority 923 ; W. 
H. Smith, Secretary of State, 937; W. P. Rich- 
ardson, Attorney General, 926; P. V. Hertzing, 
James Moore, Members of Board of Public Works, 
average majority 934; M. R. Brailey, Comptroller 
of Treasury, 924;' J. R. Hubbell, Congress (no 
opposition), 2,604; 0. D. Hough, Representative, 
771; Charles NeU, County Auditor, 950; J. W. 
Ladd, Sherifi", 947; H. M. Carper, Prosecuting 
Attorney, 933; 0. H. Williams, County Commis- 
sioner, 960 ; Ezra RUey, Infirmary Director, 928 ; 
E. C. Vining, Coroner, 891. 

1865 — J. D. Cox, Governor, majority 822 ; A. 
G. McBurney, Lieutenant Governor, 826; S. S. 
Warner, State Treasurer, 833 ; W. H. West, At- 
torney General, 831 ; James Moore, Member Board 
of Public Works, 832 ; J. A. Norris, School Com- 
missioner, 828 ; Rodney Poos, Clerk of the Su- 
preme Court, 832 ; Willard Warner, State Senator, 
833 ; 0. D. Hough, Representative, 805 ; W. T. 
Watson, County Treasurer, 846 ; C. F. Bradley, 
County Commissioner, 819 ; James Cox, Infirmary 

Director, 806 ; W. M. Overturf, Infirmary Director, 

1866 — W. H. Smith, Secretary of State, major- 
ity 876; Isaiah Scott, Judge of the Supreme 
Court, 874 ; J. M. Barrere, Member Board of Pub- 
lic Works, 873; C. S. Hamilton, Congress, 810; 
T. C. Jones, Judge of Common Pleas Court, 
854 ; T. W. Powell, Probate Judge (no opposi- 
tion), 4,288 ; Charles Neil, County Auditor, 881 ; 

B. F. Loofbourrow, County Clerk, 888 ; A. R. 
Gould, Recorder, 892 ; John S. Jones, Prosecuting 
Attorney, 869 ; J. W. Ladd, Sherifi', 845 ; S. P; 
Lott, County Commissioner, 885; Jacob Sheets, 
Infirmary Director, 865 ; S. Davidson, Surveyor, 
(no opposition), 2,833. 

1867— R. B. Hayes, Governor, majority 416; 
John C. Lee, Lieutenant Governor, 411 ; J. H. 
Godman, Auditor State, 416; S. S. Warner, 
Treasurer State, 416; M. A. Brailey, Comptroller 
of Treasury, 418 ; W. H. West, Attorney General 
414; John Welch, Judge Supreme Court, 417 
P. V. Hertzing, Board of Public Works, 416.: 
Jay Dyer, State Senator, 379 ; A. E. Lee, Repre- 
sentative, 366 ; W. T. Watson, County Treasurer, 
433 ; 0. H. Williams, County Commissioner, 430 ; 
J. A. Armstrong, County Commissioner, 466; 
Ezra Riley, Infirmary Director, 429. 

1868 — U. S. Grant, President, majority 812; 
Schuyler Colfax, Vice President, 812; Isaac R. 
Sherwood, Secretary of State, 699 ; Wiljiam White, 
Judge Supreme Court, 696 ; James Moore, Mem- 
ber Board of Public Works, 698 ; J. A. Norris, 
Commissioner of Schools, 694 ; Rodney Foos, Clerk 
of Supreme Court, 698; John Beatty, Congress, 
690; J. F. Doty, County Auditor, 532; William 
Brown, Sheriff, 609 ; John S. Jones, Prosecuting 
Attorney (no opposition), 2,886; A. M. Fuller, 
County Commissioner, 594 ; James Cox, Infirm- 
ary Director, 618; B. A. Banker, Coroner, 634. 

1869 — R. B. Hayes, Governor, majority, 642 ; 
John C. Lee, Lieutenant Governor, 649 ; Luther 

C. Day, Judge Supreme Court, 648 ; S. S. Warner, 
Treasurer State, 650 ; F. B. Pond, Attorney Gen- 
eral, 650 ; R. R. Porter, Member Board of Public 
Works, 646 ; M. M. Munson, State Senator, 640 ; 
T. F. Joy, Representative, 478 ; B. C. Waters, 
Probate Judge, 15 ; James Cox, County Treasurer, 
398 ; B. F. Loofbourrow, Clerk of Court, 63 ; E. 
B. Adams, Recorder, 601 ; Charles Arthur, County 
Commissioner, 599 ; S. Davidson, Surveyor (no 
opposition), 4,286 ; Jacob Sheets, Infirmary Di- 
rector, 634 ; George Nelson, Infirmary Director, 
395 ; Hosea Main, Infirmary Director, 560. 





1870 — Isaac !R. Sherwood, Secretary of State, 
majority 634: ; Gr. W. Mcllvaine, Judge Supreme 
Court, 587 ; W. T. WUson, Comptroller of Treas- 
uay, 611 ; P. V. Hertzing, Member Board of Pub- 
lic Works, 601 ; John Beatty, Congress, 479; W. 
a. Williams, State Senator, 636 ; C. H. Kibler, 
Judge Common Pleas Court, 567 ; W. S. Wright, 
Board of Equalization, 521 ; J. F. Doty, County 
Auditor, 480; William Brown, Sheriff, 266 ; John 
S. Jones, Prosecuting Attorney, 517 ; A. A. Welch, 
Coroner, 519 ; Roswell Cook, County Commis- 
sioner, 491 ; M. L. Griffin, Infirmary Director, 

1871 — Edward F. Noyes, Governor, majority 
538 ; Jacob Mueller, Lieutenant Governor, 483 ; 
W. H. West, Judge Supreme Court, 507 ; James 
WUhams, Auditor of State, 520 ; Isaac Welch, 
Treasurer, 543; F. B. Pond, Attorney General, 
406 ; Thomas H. Harvey, Commissioner of Schools, 
583 ; Rodney Foos, Clerk Supreme Court, 539 ; 
S. R. Hosmer, Member of Public Works, 519 ; 
Thomas C. Jones ; Judge of Common Pleas Court, 
726 ; William McClelland, Judge Common Pleas 
Court, 540 ; T. B. WilKams, State Senator, 958 ; 
Eugene Powell, Representative, 24 ; J. F. Doty, 
County Auditor, 164 ; James Cox, County Treas- 
urer, 325 ; Hugh Cole, County Commissioner, 313 ; 
George Nelson, Infirmary Director, 61. 

1872 — U. S. Grant, President, majority 703 ; 
Henry Wilson, Vice President, 703 ; A. T. W^i- 
koff. Secretary of State, 397 ; John Welch, Judge 
Supreme Court, 406 ; R. R. Porter, Board Pub- 
lic Works, 398 ; J. W. Robinson, Congress, 369 ; 
B. C. Waters, Probate Judge, 263 ; John Chap- 
man, Clerk of Court, 153 ; J. W. Crawford, Sher- 
iff, 127 ; E. B. Adams, Recorder, 467 ; Jackson 
Hippie, Prosecuting Attorney, 362 ; Charles Ar- 
thur, County Commissioner, 405 ; John B. Jones, 
Infirmary Director, 224 ; A. A. Welch, Coroner, 
362 ; Samuel Davidson, Surveyor, 380. 

1874 — A. T. Wikoff, Secretary of State, major- 
ity, 75 ; Luther C. Day, Judge Supreme Court, 
79; Rodney Foos, Clerk, 80; T. W. Harvey, 
Commissioner of Schools, 70 ; S. R. Hosmer, 
Board Public Works, 77 ; J. W. Robinson, Con- 
gress, 18 ; G. L. Sackett, Sheriff, 25 ; F. M. Mar- 
riott, Prosecuting Attorney, 239 ; Wells Andrews, 
County Commissioner, 7 ; Charles T. Grant,- In- 
firmary Director, 85 ; M. L. Griffin, Coroner, 45. 

1875 — R. B. Hayes, Governor, majority 127 ; 
T. L. Young, Lieutenant Governor, 49 ; James 
Williams, Auditor of State, 81 ; J. M. Milliken, 
Treasurer, 113; T. E. Powell, Attorney General, 

183 ; G. W. Mcllvaine, Judge Supreme Court, 
124; Peter Thatcher, Membe'r Board Public 
Works, 122 ; Edwin Nichols, State Senator, 172 ; 
J. A. Carothers, Representative, 160 ; J. T. Evans, 
Clerk of Court, 153; F. B. Sprague, Probate 
Judge, 176 ; S. C. Conrey, County Auditor, 235 ; 
J. H. Warren, County Treasurer, 80 ; E. B. 
Adams, Recorder, 154 ; W. Seigfried, County Com^ 
missioner, 79 ; L. B. Dennison, Surveyer, 130 ; C. 
T. Grant, Infirmary Director, 30. 

1876 — R. B. Hayes, President, majority 464; 
W. A. Wheeler, Vice President, 464 ; Milton 
Barnes, Secretary of State, 347 ; AV. W. Boynton, 
Judge Supreme Court, 407 ; James C. Evans, 
Member Board Public Works, 312; John S. 
Jones, Congress, 479 ; J. D. Van- Deman, Judge 
Common Pleas Court, 666'; Jerome Buckingham, 
479 ; John J. Glover, Prosecuting Attorney, 267 ; 
George L. Sackett, Sheriff, 457 ; Zenas Harrison, 
County Commissioner, 439 ; Henry C. Olds, In- 
firmary Director, 198 ; E. C. Vining, Coroner, 

1877 — R. M. Bishop, Governor, majority 118 ; 
J. W. Fitch, Lieutenant Governor, 299; J. W. 
Oakey, Judge Supreme Court, 79 ; R. J. Panning, 
Clerk Supreme Court, 397 ; Isaiah Pillars, Attor- 
ney General, 78 ; A. Howells, Treasurer of State, 
100 ; J. J. Burns, School Commissioner, 71 ; M. 
Schilder, Member Board Public Works, 81 ; J. 
W. Owens, State Senator, 107 ; D. H. Elliott, 
Representative, 205 ; S. C. Conrey, County Audi- 
tor, 107 ; J. H. Warren, County Treasurer, 729 ; 
N. R. Talley, County Commissioner, 216 ; G. W. 
Stover, Infirmary Director, 281. 

1878 — Milton Barnes, Secretary of State, major- 
ity 247 ; William White, Judge Supreme Court, 
240 ; George Paul, Member Board Public Works, 
241 ; Lorenzo English, Congress, 291 ; John 
Chapman, Clerk of Court, 576; P. B. Sprague, 
Probate Judge, 641 ; H. S. Culver, Prosecuting 
Attorney, 408 ; W, H. Cutler, Sheriff, 528 ; A. 
M. Rawn, Recorder, 699 ; A. H. Packard, County 
Commissioner, 618 ; L. B. Dennison, Surveyor (no 
opposition,) 2,582 ; Jonas Waldron, Infirmary Di- 
rector, 55 ; J. W. N. Vogt, Coroner, 196. 

1879 — Charles Foster, Governor, majority 242 ; 
A. Hickenlooper, Lieutenant Governor, 225 ; W. 
W. Johnson, Judge Supreme Court, 285 ; J. T. 
Oglevee, Auditor of State, 265 ; G. K. Nash, At- 
torney General, 268 ; Joseph Turney, Treasurer of 
State, 307 ; James FuUington, Board of Public 
Works, 305 ; Thomas F. Joy, State Senator, 912 ; 
J. S. Jones, Representative, 255 ; Cicero Coomer, 

itl g 




County Treasurer, 241 ; Zenas Harrison, County 
Commissioner, 189 ; John Shea, Infirmary Direc- 
tor, 8. 

It was at least half a century after the first set> 
tlement made in Delaware County, before it was 
found necessary to erect an almshouse or infirmary. 
Up to 1851 the pioneers of the county managed 
to provide for themselves, and would have scorned 
the idea of subsisting at public expense. How- 
ever, as the population increased in numbers, an 
individual was occasionally met with whose indo- 
lence and lack of energy finally grew into absolute 
indigence and want. Many families, who had 
hard work to make both ends meet in the older 
settled States, dazzled by the stories told of the 
Western country, and how fortunes in this new El 
Dorado were but waiting to be gathered in, had 
sold their few possessions, and come hither. They 
arrived in a wilderness, penniless, instead of a land 
flowing with milk and honey, as they had expected, 
and their extravagant dreams were rudely swept 
ajray, when they found that here, as well as else- 
where, labor and toil were required to provide the 
necessaries of life. As their children increased 
around them, and they found themselves growing 
old, they were at last reduced to the necessity of 
asking aid of others. Their neighbors soon grew 
weary of lending assistance, and presented the 
matter to the County Commissioners. In 1853, 
this august body, composed, at the time, of Ezra 
Olds, 0. D. Hough, and Joseph Cellars, appointed 
three Directors to investigate and provide for this 
unfortunate class of humanity. They appointed 
Horatio P. Havens, Amos Utley, and William M. 
Warren, who thoroughly canvassed the subject, 
and consulted with the leading men of the county 
as to the propriety of purchasing a farm, and erect- 
ing upon it suitable buildings for the poor. The 
_ Directors met the Commissioners, and, together, 
they agreed upon a future course with reference to 
an infirmary and county farm. 

Some time during the year 1854, they purchased 
of Joseph Blair 113 J acres of land in Brown 
Township, about half a mile west of the village of 
Eden, and five and a half miles east of Delaware. 
The farm, at the time of its purchase, presented 
anything but a desirable aspect ; being more or less 
covered with water, swamps, and forests. There 
were no buildings on it to amount to anything ; 
the roads leading to it were impassable most of the 
year, and just what induced the county officials to 
select, for this important institution, a locality seem- 
ingly so unfavorable, appeared, at the time, a prob- 

lem not easily solved. But the wisdom of the 
purchase is more plainly visible now than at the 
time it was made. Since being cleared up and 
properly drained, the land proves of an excellent 
quality, and adapted to raising all kinds of grain, 
fruits and vegetables. During the year a substan- 
tial brick building was erected, forty by one hun- 
dred and forty feet in dimensions. Th6 front 
part of it was used by the Superintendent, while 
the rear portion was devoted to the inmates. On 
the east and west sides were two large wings, two 
stories high and forty feet long, also used by in- 
mates. The first floor of main building contained 
dining-rooms, kitchen, storeroom, washroom, etc., 
while the upper stories were used as sleeping-rooms. 
The entire building had a large, roomy basement 
and cellar. The y^rd in front of the institution 
is large, and presents a fine and picturesque appear- 
ance, with a beautiftil little rivulet meandering 
through it. As yet there are very few trees or 
shrubs, owing to the fact that it has been used as 
a flower and vegetable garden. A thrifty young 
orchard of choice fruits has been- planted on the 
farm, and nothing left undone to contribute to the 
comfort and welfare of the unfortunates who are 
forced to pass their declining days on the charity 
of the county. 

It was found necessary, in 1856, to provide a 
prison for the insane, as the infirmary was not de- 
signed for this species of county charge. Accord- 
ingly, a building was erected just in the rear of 
the infirmary buildings, and was of stone and 
brick ; .the windows were set in the walls high up 
from the ground, latticed with heavy iron bars, and 
the cell-doors, opening into small hallways, were 
thoroughly protected with iron gratings, and firmly 
secured by another door outside, which was of 
wood. This building was a small, pen-like place, 
and extremely uncomfortable. It was, therefore, 
determined to build another and a more commodi- 
ous one. The Legislature passed an act in 1874-75, 
authorizing the Commissioners to levy a tax, and 
the Directors to build " a prison for the insane." 
This new building is fifty feet long, thirty feet 
wide and two stories high, besides the basement, 
which is used as a fttrnace room. It is built large 
and commodious ; is provided with every modern 
improvement and convenience that can contribute 
to the comfort of its unfortunate inmates, and is 
fire-proof The first and second stories are divided . 
by large hallways, running through the center from 
one end to the other, with cells on either side eight 
by ten feet, built of stone and brick, and secured 






with iron doors and heavily barred windows. This 
building met the hearty approval of all, but was 
scarcely completed (at a cost of over 110,000) 
when the Legislature passed another act, author- 
izing the erection of a State Asylum for the In- 
sane. When the State institution was completed, 
the inmates were removed from the County to the 
State Asylum,'leaving the County Asylum a rather 
useless institution. 

The infirmary is in the charge of a Board of 
Directors who are elected by the people. They 
employ a Superintendent to manage the farm, the 
buildings, and the inmates. The salary of the 
Superintendent, is, at present, $450, and the county 
keeps him and his family, furnishing everything 
needed in the house and on the farm, except the cloth- 
ing of the family. In 18Y0, a new purchase of 105 
acres of land was made of John L. Thurston, which, 
added to the original farm, makes quite a large 
tract. It is conceded by all, that the institution 
under the present administration, is in a most pros- 
perous and flourishing condition. The first Super- 
intendent was Eli Jackson, and the present one is 
M. M. Grlass. The inmates in 1855, the first year 
after opening the institution, were twenty, and the 
expenses of the year $1,400. The administration 

has, so far, been marked by strict honesty and 
economy, and not the least fraud has ever been 
perpetrated. Those who have been chosen year 
after year by the people, to watch over and care for 
the poor and unfortunate, have been men of whom 
nothing but good could be spoken. The physician 
is Dr. J. H. Smith, of Eden, who attends to all 
the professional business for the sum of $200. 
The medicine is furnished by the county. The 
following is the report of 1878: 

, Superintendent' 8 salary $450 00 

Supplies for the poor inside 5,814 57 

Hired labor for the institution 696 00 

Medicine and physician's salary 300 00 

Total $7,260 57 

For the poor outside of the institution 4,700 03 

Grand total $11,960 60 

Average number of inmates for the year 84 

Adults, males 31 

Children, " 22 

Adults, females 25 

Children, " 6 

Corn raised on farm (bushels) 3,000 

Wheat " " " " 500 

Oats " " " " ....• 1,000 

Potatoes" " " " 800 

Fat hogs sold from the farm amounting to. . . .$400 




"When lawyers take what they would give. 
When doctors give what they would take — 
' ' Till then let Cumming blaze away. 

And Miller's saints blow up the globe ; 
But when you see that blessed day, 

Then order your ascension robe." — Holmes. 

THE court and the bar of Delaware County 
have increased in power and magnitude since 
that day, when Judge Belt organized the first ses- 
sion of court in the little log tavern of Joseph 
Barber, and sent out his juries to perform their 
allotted duties in the shade of a wild cherry and 
black-jack, that stood conveniently near this hast- 
ily improvised temple of justice. Without going 
into a detailed history, however, of the changes 

made since that time, we will give place to the fol- 
lowing able sketch of the legal profession and of the 
courts, by the Hon. Thomas W. Powell, which' 
although the Judge writes now with great diffi- 
culty, owing to his failing sight, will be found 
highly interesting to the present members of the 
Delaware bar : 

The county having been organized early in the 
spring of 1808, the first court — the Common 
Pleas — was held on the 3d day of June of that 
year, in a temporary log building near the sulphur 
spring. The court-room and all its accommoda- 
tions were hastily extemporized from the rude 
material at hand, for the use of the court and bar ; 
all of whom were from abroad — from the neigh- 
boring counties south and east — the country to the 





north and west of the place feeing still in the con- 
dition of an untouched wilderness. 

It being the first session of the court, there 
were no cases, of course, prepared for trial. The 
court was .organized with Hon. Levin Belt, of Ross 
County, as President Judge. His Associate 
Judges, as stated in the preceding chapter, were 
Thomas Brown, Moses Byxbe, and Josiah McKin- 
ney, who were well-known residents of the county. 
Moses Byxbe, Jr., was appointed plerk of the 
Court. The journal of the court for some few 
years after its organization, has been, at a more 
recent period, burned by an incendiary, who bur- 
glariously entered the Clerk's office and destroyed 
inany of the court papers. The record of the 
decision of the cases still remaining with tradition- 
ary information, enables us to Collect considerable 
facts in relation to the court in those early times. 
I'he next session of the court was not held until 
1809, and a number of law cases were disposed of. 
The bar was attended by several able lawyers from 
the adjoining counties. 

For the first two years there was no resident law- 
yer in the county. The first to settle in Delaware 
was Leonard H. Cowles, who came from Connecti- 
cut about 1810. He was a good scholar, a grad- 
uate of Yale College, and a college-mate of John 
C. Calhoun, of South Carolina. He is said to 
have been one of the most thorough-read lawyers 
of his age. Soon after he came here, he married the 
daughter of Col. Byxbe, which introduced him 
into a family whose wealth ■ then was very large, 
and so engaged the attention and business capacities 
of the young lawyer, that for the residue of his 
life his law profession became to him- a secondary 
object. The war of 1812, with Great Britain', 
came on soon after, and so damaged all the business 
of the county, . and that of the court, in a great 
measure,, with it, that Mr. Cowles remained the 
only resident lawyer of the county until 1818, 
when Milo D. Pettibone became also a resident 
lawyer. From this time, the bar of Delaware 
County began to assume an attitude of interest to 
the county, and the general business of the sur- 
rounding country, entirely unlike the first ten 

That period was principally occupied with the 
first settlement of the county, its pioneerc, and the 
war, and no very great interest or attention was 
given to the court, beyond the ordinary business of 
the new county. The Supreme Court for the 
County was then held by two of the four Judges of 
the Supreme Court for the State, once a year, and 

the Court of Common Pleas, after the first year 
or two, three terms annually. 

In considering the Delaware County bar, no 
distinction between two periods can be so strik- 
ingly made as that previous to 1830, and that 
which transpired from that date to the present 
time; the first period being a lapse of twenty 
years'; that of the latter, fifty years; the first wit- 
nessed its infancy and growth ; the latter its ma- 
turity. During the first period, the majority of the 
lawyers who were engaged in transacting the busi- 
ness of the court were largely non-residents ; 
those after that time were almost exclusively resi- 
dent lawyers. Their numbers during the first 
period did not exceed five, at any one time ; but in 
the second, their numbers increased before the 
close of the first decade to eighteen, and continued 
about that number until 1870. During the war 
of the rebellion, the Union received the patriotic 
service of a number, and among all of them there 
was not a rebel. That war, between 1861-65, 
caused so severe a demand upon our people in the 
support of the Union, and so many of the business 
men and lawyers engaged themselves as officers and 
soldiers in the army, the business of the court was 
so reduced or continued that, in the mean time, 
very little was accomplished or done. It was a 
kind of hibernation of the court. 

Three of the marked lawyers of the first period 
continued to add their number to that of the 
second, viz., L. H. Cowles, M. D. Pettibone and 
Henry Brush. These included the whole of the 
bar in its earlier period, except Justin Cook and 
Richard Murray, and two or three others who 
resided here for a limited time, but who, from their 
temporary connection with the bar, added nothing 
of interest to its history. But to this, young Cook 
was an exception. Toward the close of the period 
he excited great hopes in the minds of his friends 
and connections of a brilliant professional career. 
In this, however, by a dispensation of Providence, 
they were disappointed by his lamented death, 
which took place about 1828. 

Richard Murray had also commenced the prac- 
tice of the law here, in the midst of numerous 
friends, a few' years previous to 1830, with flatter- 
ing hopes of a successful professional life. But 
in that year he was stricken with consumption, and 
felt himself compelled to seek a warmer climate in 
the hope of thereby prolonging his life. He went 
with his family to the neighborhood of New Or- 
le,ans, on the east side of Lake Pontchartrain, 
where he thought he had found a healthftil locality, 







but he soon died, and was buried there ; leaving 
a young family to return to their friends in Dela- 

Of those who constituted the bar afler 1830, 
we must begin in chronological order with those 
who had previously become members. Leonard H. 
Cowles, whose advent has already been noticed, was 
a member of the bar from 1810 to the time of his 
death. He commenced his career with the reputa- 
tion of a good classical scholar, and being remark- 
ably woU informed in his profession for one of his 
age. As a lawyer, he did not acquire a greater 
reputation in his subsequent life, for he had the mis- 
fortune to marry an heiress, and her fortune sub- 
sequently attracted more of his attention than the 
dry principles of the law, or writs for his clients. 
The large estate of Mr. Byxbe, his father-in-law, 
occupied more of his time and his attention than 
was devoted to his professiona^business. He was 
a person of a good, commanding presence, a well- 
proportioned figure, always well dressed, and gentle- 
manly in his appearance and behavior. He was 
social, fond of jovial company and his friends. 
Thus he Kved, taking the world easy, devoting him- 
self to no very arduous occupation, though always a 
member of the bar the whole of his life, and for a 
time was a member of the Legislature. Toward the 
close of his life, however, Mr. Cowles' fortunes be- 
came unpaired. The wealth of his father-in-law 
rapidly disappeared in the hands of his children, 
as it ceased to be managed by the old man who 
made it. At the close of his life Mr. Cowles had 
but little left of the fortune he had received from 
Col. Byxbe, and of worldly goods he hardly pos- 
sessed what was adequate to a person who had 
enjoyed his rank in life. Thus he lived for many 
years in the county, and raised a large family, 
none of whom, it is believed, are now living. 

Milo D. Pettibone, like Mr. Cowles, was a native 
of Connecticut, and it is believed that he was also 
a graduate of Yale. He came to Delaware in 
1818, was a good scholar, and soon became a sound 
and trustworthy lawyer, occupying a highly respon- 
sible position at the bar to the time of his death, 
in 1849. He devoted considerable time to specu- 
lation in land, which, in the early period of the 
county, was frequently changing hands, and, during 
his Ufe, underwent great changes in its market 
value, which he judiciously turned to his favor 
and advantage. 

Mr. Pettibone was every way a most estimable 
man. He was social, honest, and most exemplarily 
moral. He • readily engaged in all the proposed 

improvements of his day, social, moral and religious. 
His most decided conviction and action on any of 
these questions was on the abolition of slavery, 
which he looked upon as the most wicked and 
nefarious institutidn of the world ; he prided him- 
self upon being considered one of the Emancipa- 
tors. But he did not live to see slavery in its 
worst aspect — that of the rebellion. He was 
enterprising and liberal toward public imjprove- 
ments and the interest of his town, at the same 
time taking good care of his individual interest. 
At the time of his death he had a large family of 
sons and daughters, to whom he left considerable 
real estate — property that has since greatly in- 
creased in value. 

[The following sketch of Hon. Thomas W. Pow- 
ell was written by Hon. James R. Hubbell, who 
was a student of Mr. Powell's and who still 
entertains for his old friend and preceptor the 
warmest feelings of friendship. Jlr. Hubbell says ;] 

In a sketch of the bench and bar of Delaware 
County, foremost, as well as first in chronological 
order, is the Hon. Thomas W. Powell. An octo- 
genarian, and already past the period allotted by 
the Psalmist for man's active life, to those who 
have known him longest, and who know him best, 
his mind and memory seem to have lost but little 
of their maximum strength. The weight of years 
and bodily infirmities have greatly impaired his 
once robust and vigorous constitution. Some 
thirty years ago, by a severe accident, a limb was 
broken, inflicting an injury, still felt to some 
extent. Several years later, another accident put 
out an eye, and at the date of the present writing 
(1880) he is entirely, for the want of sight, unable 
to read printed matter, and writes with great labor. 
A lawyer, legislator and author, he is widely 
known to the brethren of the bar and in literary cir- 
cles. It is now sixty years since he was admitted 
to the bar as an attorney and counselor of law, 
and is probably in commission the oldest lawyer 
living in Ohio, and has but few seniors in years in ■ 

Thomas Watkius Powell, the subject of this 
sketch, was born in the latter part of the year 
1797, in South Wales. In the early part of the 
year 1801, his father, with his young family, im- 
migrated to America, and settled in Utica, in the 
State of New York, situated in the upper part of 
'the Mohawk Valley. At that time, Utica was a 
small village compared with its present magnifi- 
cence and gTandeur, and the country around it 

<^ s 




was new, and population sparse ; and, as a matter 
of course, the means for the education of the 
youth and young men of that day were limited. 
Young Thomas sought and obtained such an edu- 
cation as the opportunities afforded. During the 
last war with Great Britain, then a mere youth, he 
drove his father's team, with the baggage of a regi- 
ment, to Sacket's Harbor, in the spring of 1813, 
and entered the place at the close of that battle. 
In September, 1814, he was appointed by the mil- 
itary authorities to a post of great trust and respon- 
sibility — ^the bearer of dispatches to Plattsburg, and 
at the close of that battle entered the town with 
dispatches to Gen. McCombs. 

Thirst for knowledge was the ruling ambition of 
his life, and after the war, for about two years, he was 
favored with the privilege of attending an academy 
where he studied and mastered such branches as are 
taught at such institutions, including the higher 
branches of mathematics, for which he ihad a taste 
and a genius to excel. It was ever with him a subj ect 
of regret, that his opportunities in early life to ob- 
tain a more thorough education were so limited, 
but Providence ordered it otherwise. Had he 
been indulged in the natural bent of his mind, he 
would have excelled in literature as an author. 
After he left the academy he went into the law 
office of Charles M. Lee, Esq., in Utica, when 
about the age of twenty, and in the year 1819 he 
came to Ohio, and passed his quarantine as a law 
student in the office of Hon. James W. Lathrop, 
at Canton. In the year 1820, he was duly licensed, 
by the Supreme Court on the Circuit at Wooster, 
to practice in the several courts of record of the 
State, and immediately located in Perrysburg, on 
the Maumee, in the practice of the, law ; but, the 
co^intry being new, and business in his profession 
insufficient to occupy his time, he accepted succes- 
sively the offices of Prosecuting Attorney and 
County Auditor of "Wood County. In the dis- 
charge of his official duties, he was noted for his 
probity and industry, as well as his abilities. In 
the year 1830, the Maumee Valley not growing 
in population, and not meeting with that commer- 
cial and business success that was anticipated- by the 
first settlers, in order to obtain a wider field for the 
practice of his profession, he removed to Delaware, 
where for a period of fifty years, he has resided. He 
immediately comm enced practice, and his business in 
importaiice proved commensurate with his abilities 
and integrity, and, for a period of more than thirty 
years, he was regarded by the profession in Delaware, 
and throughout the counties in Central Ohio, as a 

strong and successful lawyer. In special pleading 
and equity, to which he devoted particular atten- 
tion, he excelled. His industry seemed untiring, 
both in his profession and as a student. Law, his- 
tory and literature received constant attention, 
when not occupied with the cares and duties of his 
business and professional engagements. He was 
ever noted for his zeal for his clients' interests and 
welfare, in both civil and commercial cases. Polite 
and intelligent, his society was courted by his 
brethren of the bar, and, in whatever circle he en- 
tered, his presence was always welcome. Probably 
no lawyer did more in assisting young men to 
the bar, or had more law students, than Mr. Pow- 
ell. Among the lawyers who acquired notoriety 
in professional or political life, or both, we can 
name among his students, the Hon. C. Sweetser, 
who was a suocessftil lawyer, and a member of 
Congress from 1849 until 1853 ; subsequently 
Edward Jones, Esq., who died young, and who, 
at the time of his death, was Prosecuting Attor- 
ney. He had acquired so much reputation as a 
lawyer and public " speaker, that it was thought 
that if he had lived, he would have reached the 
very highest round in the ladder of fame. His 
brother, the Hon. Thomas C. Jones ; Hon. Royal 
T. Wheeler, Chief Justice of Texas ; Gen. J. S. 
Jones, a member of the Forty-fifth Congress, and 
others, making in all a long roll, were among the 
number of his law students. < 

To his industry in his profession and in letters, 
!Mr. Powell added great enterprise in all matters 
of interest to the public. He projected and pros- 
ecuted to completion the improvements at the sul- 
phur springs known as the "Mansion House," 
which in its early history was famous as a fashion- 
able resort ; and which subsequently secured to 
Delaware the Ohio Wesleyan University. He 
built the flax-mills at' Delaware. He had an ex- 
quisite taste for the arts, for horticulture and 
architecture especially, and his knowledge of these 
arts, by study and cultivation, is of a high order. 

Mr. Powell, although he took a lively interest in 
public affairs, was never a partisan. A Democrat 
in his sympathy for suffering humanity, he is a 
believer in the brotherhood of man, and ever sym- 
pathized with the afflicted, either in mind, body, or 
estate ; whether it is. the white man or the black 
man, the virtuous or degraded. His whole life 
has been signalized by acts of charity, and he was 
never known "to turn the poor away unalmsed." 

He never was a seeker of place, nor an office- 
seeker. The offices he filled so well were forced 

^ a 




upon him, and were accepted, seemingly, against 
his will. He filled many oflSces of trust — Pros- 
ecuting Attorney — after, as well as before, he moved 
to Delaware. He was elected Representative and 
Senator in the State Legislature, and, for many 
years, was County Judge. 

He has given to the profession of his choice, and 
in which he was an ornament, two works which 
were much needed, and are highly prized by the 
courts and bar, viz.: " Powell's Analysis of Amer- 
/ ican Law," and a work on "Appellate Jurisdic- 
tion." He has written, and has ready for the 
press, the manuscript " History of the Ancient Brit- 
ons," and is at present engaged upon a work en- 
titled "What is Knowledge?" which bids fair to 
be one of his best productions. 

[We resume now Mr. Powell's sketch of the 
court and bar :] 

Charles Sweetser, immediately upon the writer's 
settling in Delaware, became his student in the 
study of the law, to which he had previously 
devoted considerable attention. He was then about 
twenty-five years of age, was a native of Vermont, 
and came with his father's family to Delaware, about 
1817. His father was a highly respectable man — 
a farmer — who purchased and settled on a valuable 
farm immediately north of the town, where he 
lived, and died about ten years after his arrival 
here. The son, a few years before he commenced 
his studies, had been engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness, in which he had developed a capacity for 
business, and was a fascinating and successful sales- 
man. He was admitted to the bar in 18.32, and 
immediately commenced an active practice, distin- 
guished more by his activity and sprightliness, and 
tact in the use of his own conceptions and common 
understanding, than by any sound knowledge of 
the law, or study of its more abstruse principles. 
His education was limited to that of common 
schools, and his activity never permitted him, by 
industry and perseverance, to overcome its defects. 
He disliked discipline, study and technicality, and 
boasted that genius and original common sense were 
the vantage ground for him ; and the crudities of 
the code often found an advocate in him. He 
was captious and capricious, and was often the 
cause of violent squabbles, if nothing more, at the 
bar. These he often made up with great facility 
by his fascinating and conciliatory ways, when he 
chose to exercise them. With all these irregular- 
ities, he was remarkably successful, both in the law 
and in politics. He was twice elected to Congress 

under the ■ most adverse circumstances ; principally 
by his tact and activity. He continued his pro- 
fessional practice until within a year of his death, 
when be was compelled to abandon it in conse- 
quence of a severe sickness; he died in 1864. 
He was twice married; first to an amiable and well- 
educated lady from Connecticut, and secondly, to 
Mrs. Pettibone, a lady of great distinction and of 
fine personal appearance. By both of these he had a 
family of children, all of whom died before pass- 
ing the years of maturity, except one daughter by 
his last wife, the only one left to honor his mem- 
ory. He left to his family a considerable estate, 
and always manifested in his dealings an acute and 
shrewd regard for his personal interest. He was 
often very liberal in matters that told and showed 
well for himself, but in matters that merely con- 
cerned the public, his liberality was sure to be con- 
fined to those interests which were certain to be 
largely connected with his own. This tact and 
ingenuity told in politics as well as in the prac- 
tice of his profession. He always distinguished 
himself by the taste and elegance of his equip- 
ment. For a long time he kept an elegant carriage 
and a span of cream-colored horses, while canvass- 
ing for his election to Congress. Upon one occa- 
sion, in addressing- a large Democratic audience, he 
said that some of his friends advised that he should, 
while a Democratic candidate, dispose of his car- 
riage and his cream-colored horses; "But," said 
he, "I will do no such thing, for I think that a 
good Democrat has as good a right to a fine caniage 
and horses as anybody else." And this sentiment 
was most vociferously applauded. 

Sherman Finch settled in Delaware as a lawyer 
in 1832. He had recently been admitted to the 
bar, was a native of Connecticut, and a gTaduate of 
Yale. He was a good scholar, and had been en- 
gaged a few years as Professor of Latin in Kenyon 
College. He was a man of strong intellectual 
powers, and a good logician. He soon became a 
distinguished lawyer ; more distinguished for his 
knowledge of the j)rinciples of law and equity than 
as a jury lawyer. After being engaged in the prac- 
tice here for twenty years, Mr. Finch was elected 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. In the 
midst of his official term, he moved to Mount Ver- 
non ; and at the end of the term moved to St. 
Paul, Minn., where he lived about ten years, and 
died in 1873. 

David T. Fuller settled in Delaware as a lawyer 
soon after Mr. Finch. They were brothers-in-law, 
having married sisters, the only daughters of Mrs. 





Shepherd, who, it was said, was an English lady, 
but who had spent most of het life as a planter's 
wife in the island of Jamaica. Mr. Fuller was a 
native of Vermont, the son of a clergyman, and, it 
is believed, was a graduate of Williams College. 
He was a good scholar ; well versed in literature, 
history and theology. - He had also been a Pro- 
fessor in Kenyon College. He was for a few years 
a partner of the writer in the practice of the law. 
After that he was elected Auditor of the County, 
and subsequently Probate Judge. He died in 

Edward Jones, the elder brother of T. C. Jones, 
came to the bar at an early period — about 183Y. 
Tliese brothers were natives of Wales, their father 
and family having immigrated to the county some 
ten or fifteen years previous. The family consisted 
of the parents, four brothers and two sisters, who 
were eminently distinguished for their talents ; 
but Edward was the most eminent and promis- 
ing. He lived but a few years after his ad- 
mission, to enjoy the high expectation of his 
friends ; for he rapidly ascended in his profession, 
and was gaining gTeat distinction at the bar. He 
died in 1838 at the early age of twenty-four years. 

Edward Jones was a thorough Democrat in his' 
partisan predilections, contrary to the usual char- 
acters of those of' his nationality in this country. 
Before his death he had raised the highest ex- 
pectations of his party, who were forward in the 
expression of their admiration of his talents, hold- 
ing up to him the hopes of the highest position in' 
the State. In 1836, at a large political conven- 
tion held at Franklinton, Franklin County, which 
had been addressed in an able and distinguished 
manner by Alfred Kelley, young Jones was.brought 
forward by his party to naake a reply, which he did 
in a manner highly gratifying to his partisans and 
greatly admired and commended by all who heard 
him. His decease was greatly lamented by the 
whole community as a premature departure of one 
who promised to be a great man. 

T. C. Jones was admitted to the bar in 1841. 
He spent a few years in the practice at Delaware, 
and then removed to Circleville, where he contin- 
ued his practice with success. After a few years, 
circumstances again induced hinl to return to Del- 
aware, and again to establish himself in the practice 
of his profession, but at the same time he zealously 
engaged in farming and in raising fine cattle. He 
kept up his interest in the law, however, and in 
1859 was elected Judge of the- Court of Common 
Pleas, which position he held for two terms. He 

still lives — retired from the bar, and in the posses- 
sion of good property, which he enjoys in a highly 
creditable manner to himself and family. 

Cooper K. Watson came to Delaware as a mem- 
ber of the bar in 1834, having studied the law, 
and been admitted to the profession very recently, 
at Newark, Ohio. He continued the practice at 
this place but a few years, when he removed to the 
counties north of this; to Marion, then to Seneca, 
and finally settled , at Norwalk, in Huron County, 
where he now resides, and is the Judge of the 
Common Pleas of that circuit. He has been also 
a member of Congress from those counties. He 
becaine very eminent in his profession as an advo- 
cate and jury lawyer. While at Delaware, Watson 
gave full assurance of his future eminence by his 
capacity for public speaking, the strength of his 
ability as a lawyer, and as a good writer, when 
occasion called for it ; but he particularly distin- 
guished himself as an amateur actor in the Thespian 
Society, which then flourished here. This' so 
tempteji him that he thought strongly of abandon- 
ing his law profession for that of the stage. 

James M. Barnes came to Delaware as a member 
of the bar, recently admitted, from Newark, about 
1839. He soon became a partner of Mr. Sweet- 
ser, and continued the practice until 1850, when 
he went overland to California with a company of 
gold-seekers. He returned in about two years, 
with some success, and again commenced the prac- 
tice of law, and, though capable of making a good 
lawyer, he did not fancy the profession as well as 
he did the making of money by business and 
financiering, in which he has succeeded. For a 
number of years, he has been engaged in manufact- 
uring linseed oil, and now has a very fine oil-mill 
in Delaware. 

Isaac Ranney was admitted to the bar in 1842, 
having studied law under the tuition of Messrs. 
Sweetser & Barney. He possessed the necessary 
talents to constitute a respectably lawyer, and many 
qualities which rendered him an excellent man. 
He was elected as Prosecuting Attorney for the 
county, and, in 185Y, went overland to California. 
In about two years he returned, and again entered 
upon the practice of his profession. At the com- 
mencement of the great rebellion, he was appointed 
Collector of the District ; filled the office with credit 
for a time, and then resigned. He had in various 
vocations acquired a respectable fortune, which was 
to some extent reduced by his frequent change of 
residence to Washington City, Delaware, and other 
places. He finally settled upon a farm he had 

a y 


* ^ 




purchased in the valley of the Potomac, a few 
miles west of Georgetown, and died there. His 
death was a great bereavement to his family and 

William P. Raid was admitted to the bar in 
1849. He came to his profession with very slen- 
der opportunities of acquiring a fine education ; 
but, by a good share of common sense, persever- 
ance, and industry, he gradually rose to distinction 
in the law. He never assumed to be any great 
master of the law, but that in practice he was able 
more than to make up, by his tact, industry, and 
management of the jury, the witnesses, and the 
facts. It was his good fortune to be employed in 
a number of cases for injuries against the railroads 
at an early day after their construction, in which 
he received most ample damages. This, at the 
time of his death, gave him the reputation as a 
jury lawyer unequaled in the State. During the 
rebellion he went into the army of the Union, as 
Colonel of the One Hundred and Twenty-first 
Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and served with 
credit to himself, and was gTeatly commended by 
his men for his kindness to them, and attention to 
every demand of humanity. After the termina- 
tion of this service, which was by his resignation, 
he again returned to his professional vocation with 
his usual success ; and so continued until his death, 
in March, 1879, which was greatly lamented by 
the whole community, but especially by his famUy, 
to whom it was an irretrievable calamity, and to 
whom he had ever been remarkably kind and 
attentive. In politics, he was always distinguished 
as a Democrat and as a partisan. 

Leander J. Critchfield, the late Reporter of the 
Supreme Court of Ohio, was for a number of years 
a member of the Delaware bar. He was a native 
of Ohio, it is believed, and a gTaduate of the Ohio 
Wesleyan University at this place, in the year 
1849. He became a law student of Judge Finch, 
and was admitted to the bar soon after, and then 
became the partner of Mr. Finch in the business 
of the profession. He was a successful practitioner 
at the Delaware bar until after his appointment, by 
the Judges of the Supreme Court of the State, to 
be their Reporter. His first volume of the reports, 
entitled "The Ohio State Reports," being the fifth 
volume of a new series, was published in 1858, 
commencing with the decisions of the court in the 
term of December, 1855. He continued to be 
Reporter of the Court until 1872, when he pub- 
lished the last volume of his reports, being the 
twenty-first volume of the new series. His duties 

as Reporter were ably and faithfully performed, 
and these reports j-emain as an honorable monu- 
ment to his professional abilities and industry. In 
the mean time, he continued his practice in the 
courts at Delaware, as well as in all the courts at 
Columbus, where he established his residence soon 
after his appointment as Reporter, of the Supreme 
Court, and where he still continues the practice of 
his profession. He, therefore, at the present time, 
is more a representative of the Columbus bar than 
that of Delaware. 

Henry J. Eaton is a member of the Delaware 
bar, and came of one of the oldest and most re- 
spectable families. He soon acquired the confidence 
of thft citizens as an honest and faithful lawyer, 
and in his profession gaining reputation ; when he 
became a partner of Mr. Reid, with whom he con- 
tinued several years, and then retired from practice 
for a time, but has returned to it, and holds his 
position in the entire confidence of his fellow- 

Israel E. Buck was admitted to the bar in 1842. 
He had lived in the county from his infancy, if he 
was not a native of it. His opportunities for edu- 
cation were limited, such as the country then 
afforded, but were pursued by him with un- 
usual vigor and diligence. He was distinguished 
for a strong, robust intellect, which he had culti- 
vated with great assiduity and effect, so that he 
was ranked among the best informed and intelli- 
gent men. As a lawyer, he was more distinguished 
for his knowledge of the law, and for his common 
sense and good j udgment, than for eloquence or other 
captivating display in trials at the bar. He was 
Mayor of the city at the time that Kossuth visited 
Delaware, and at a public reception of that dis- 
tinguished Hungarian, he delivered an address to 
him, which was much admired and complimented. 
He was for many years a partner of the writer ; 
was fast rising at the bar, and on account of 
diligence, learning, and sound judgment, gave 
hopes to his friends that when an occasion occurred 
he would be promoted to the judiciary. But 
Providence otherwise ordained ; for at an early age 
he died of a disease of the lungs, much lamented 
by friends and those who knew him. 

Having sketched the lives and characters of the 
prominent members of the bar who are' deceased, or 
have ' retired from the profession, those who still 
remain in the practice and active pursuit of their 
profession, and have not yet finished their course, 
and have yet their fame and character to attain or 
complete, we leave to some future writer to record. 

>0 1 

The present bar of the county to which Judge 
Powell refers, is composed, at present, of about 
twenty members, and as to seniority they may be 
named and numbered as follows: 

H. M. Carper is a native of Licking County, 
Ohio ; studied law at Lancaster, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1851. 

C. H. McElroy, born in Knox County, Ohio ; 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 

John D. Van Deman is a native of Delaware ; 
studied law in the oflGlce of Powell & Buck, and 
was admitted in 1854. 

H. C. Godman, son of J. W. Grodman, of the 
Fourth Ohio Infantry; born in Marion County, 
and was admitted to the bar about 1856. 

Gen. J. S. Jones, born in Champaign County, 
Ohio, and was adinitted to the bar in 1856. 

E. P. Poppleton, studied law in Lorain County, 
Ohio; was admitted to the bar about 1856, and 
has served in Congress. 

J. J. Glover studied law in Belmont County 
and was admitted to the bar in 1860. 

Jackson Hippie, born in Washington County, 
Penn.; and was admitted to the bar in 1861. 

Thomas B. Powell is a native of Delaware, 
studied law in his father's office, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1865. 

H. G. Sheldon, born in Huron County, Ohio, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1865. 

F. M. Joy, born in Delaware County, Ohio, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1870. 

A. Lybrand, born in Piqua County, Ohio, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1871. 

J. R. Lytle, born in Fairfield County, Ohio, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1872. 

William Hall, born in Delaware County, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1873. 

F. M. Marriott, born in Licking County, Ohio, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1874. 

G. G. Banker, born in Cardington, Ohio, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1875. 

0. C. Cowgill, born in Logan County, Ohio, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1875. 

H. S. Culver, born in Delaware County, Ohio, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1875. 

J. S. Gill, born in Union County, Ohio, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1876. 

Eugene D. Hamilton, born in Delaware County, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1879. 

The following excellent sketch of the medical 
profession is by Dr. S. W. Fowler, and is compiled 

from the most reUable sources, expressly for the 
present history of Delaware County : 

It has been stated, and very truly too, that, in the 
settlement of new countries, there is no one who 
holds a more important place than the doctor. The 
pioneer settlements of fifty or a hundred years ago 
were usually made by a single family, or sometimes 
by two or three families, but rarely by large colo- 
nies, as is often the case now in the settlement of the 
distant Territories of the West.- And, in those 
pioneer settlements, it was not very common to 
find miaisters and teachers, while lawyers were 
still " rarer productions," and scarcely ever met 
with, unless it was for other reasons than the prac- 
tice of their profession. Their several vocations 
are not considered so essential, and they become a 
necessity only at a later period, when growth 
and development are greater (and people more 
civilized and, therefore, worse). One of the 
first queries of the emigrant is. Biblically speak- 
ing, " Is there balm in Gilead ? is there a phy- 
sician there?" or, in other words. Is there a 
doctor within reach ? And a sense of security is ' 
only felt when the question can be affirmatively 

It was thus with the pioneers in this section of 
the country. " Within reach " sometimes meant a 
long distance ; and a one, two or even three days' 
ride was not uncommon for one of these early 
practitioners of the healing art. Inquiries for 
allopathic, homeopathic, hydropathic, or for "men 
doctors" or "women doctors" were never heard in 
those early days, but the people, in the simplicity 
of their hearts, if not of their wisdom, had the 
fullest faith in the orthodoxy of medicine. Few, 
if any, of the modern isms or , pathies existed. 
They were long in creeping into the frontier set- 
tlements, even after their advent in the older por- 
tions of the country. All had faith in the doctor. 
He was considered an oracle in all matters per- 
taining to his profession, as well as in many that 
did not belong to it. And then, too, he combined 
all the branches of the profession ; he did the 
work of the dentist and the druggist, as well as 
that of the surgeon and physician. He was, also, 
the oracle in all scientific matters. Being a doctor, 
he must be the embodiident of learning generally, 
and, therefore, all questions of chemistry, botany, 
geology, etc., must be referred to his wisdom. But 
the monopoly held by the doctor, of complete con- 
fidence and consideration, did not last always. 
With the increase of population, these important 
gentlemen were compelled to share their honors 




with new-comers in the other branches of the 
learned professions. 

The most marked chanjie, however, was in the 
advent of new lights in the medical prdfessiun. 
These new lights gradually made their appearance, 
with innovations in practice that won over to their 
views a portion of the community. In slow suc- 
cession came first the root dootDrs, then Indian 
doctors, and, after them, water doctors, steam doc- 
tore and electric doctors. In the regular order 
came the advocates o